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Moulton Library 

Bansot* Theological Seminars ^ 



Presented by 
The Rev. Robert 
Howard 




sifts' 





School 

0/-OOl>l9Uf of 

Theology 
Library 



THE CHINESE EMPIKE 




hjt J. Cki nnery, Ktfi/. 



Robert Morrison, D.D. 



Robert Moiiisun, D.D., born in Northumberland 1782 ; reached China rid America ISO" ; settled at Canton : 
lirst and only furlough 1824 ; died in Canton 1S.34. Compileil first English and Chinese Dictionary, English and 
Chinese Grammar, and with his colleague Milne, translated the whole Bible. Practically alone all his 
missionary career. Engaged as Interpreter for East India Company, was thereby self-supporting. Connected 
with L.M.S. The founder of Protestant Missions in China. Front is-piece. 



"pHE CHINESE 
-»■ EMPIRE 

A GENERAL & 

MISSIONARY SURVEY 



WITH PORTRAITS 
AND ILLUSTRATIONS 



Edited by 

MARSHALL BROOMHALL, B.A. 

Editorial Secretary, China Inland Mission 

With Preface by 

The Right Hon. Sir ERNEST SATOW, G.C.M.G. 
H.M. Minister at Peking i 900-1 906 



LONDON : MORGAN & SCOTT 

12 PATERNOSTER BUILDINGS, E.G. 

CHINA INLAND MISSION, 

NEWINGTON GREEN, LONDON, N. 
PHILADELPHIA, TORONTO, MEL- 
BOURNE 



TO 

ALL WHO 

BY PERSONAL SERVICE OR SELF-DENYING GIFTS 

HAVE SOUGHT THE NATIONAL, MORAL, AND SPIRITUAL WELFARE 

OF THE PEOPLES OF 

Ube Cbtnese Empire 

AND IN PARTICULAR 

TO MY HONOURED FATHER AND MOTHER 

WHO HAVE DEVOTED 

THEIR LIVES, HOME, TALENTS, AND THEIR SONS AND DAUGHTERS 

TO THE SAME GREAT CAUSE 

THIS BOOK IS DEDICATED 



" LO, THESE SHALL COME FROM FAR: AND, LO, THESE FROM 
THE NORTH AND FROM THE WEST ; AND THESE FROM 

THE LAND OF SiNiM." — Isaiah xHx. 12. 

" Arias Montanus was among the first to suggest that 
the Sinim are the Sinese (Chinese) ; and since the question 
has been so thoroughly discussed by Gesenius (in his 
Commentary and Thesaurus), most of the Commentators, 
and also such Orientalists as Langles (in his Recherches 
Asiatiques), Movers (in his Phoenicians), Lassen (in his 
Indische Alterthumskunde, i. 856-7), have decided in favour 
of this opinion." 

" The name Qlvat (Strabo), 2tvat (Ptol.), T^tvtr^a 
(Kosmas), says the Sinologist Neumann, did not obtain 
currency for the first time from the founder of the great 
dynasty of Tsin ; but long before this, Tsin was the name 
of a feudal kingdom of some importance in Shensi, one 
of the western provinces of the Sinese land, and Fei-tse, 
the first feudal King of Tsin, began to reign as early as 
897 B.C." — Franz Delitzsch, D.D., in his Commentary 
on the Prophecies of Isaiah. 



PREFACE 

The enormous territory of the Chinese Empire, and the vast 
multitudes who inhabit it, would well-nigh entitle it to be 
regarded as a sixth quarter of the globe. For many ages 
it remained apart from the general current of "Western 
civilisation, but in recent times the improvement in the 
means of intercommunication has so diminished distance 
that the Chinese nation has found it no longer possible to 
maintain its former attitude of isolation and aloofness. One 
by one the barriers of separation have been broken down, 
and the Chinese people have themselves come to recognise 
that they have much to gain by familiarising themselves 
with the discoveries in every branch of knowledge that have 
been made by the nations of the West. 

For just a hundred years past continuous efforts have 
been made to impart to the Chinese the knowledge of 
Christianity and the benefit it confers on mankind. In 
1807 the pioneer Protestant missionary Eobert Morrison of 
the London Missionary Society landed at Canton. At the 
present moment his successors, belonging to seventy different 
Societies, number more than 3700 of both sexes, and are 
to be found preaching, tending the sick, and teaching in 
nearly every important city throughout the Empire. 

To the exertions of missionaries we owe the greater 
portion of the knowledge we possess of the language and 
literature, the history, the manners and customs of the 

vii 



viii THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

Chinese. It is only necessary to mention the dictionaries 
and other works of Morrison, Medhurst, Doolittle, and 
Wells -Williams, the translation of the Chinese classical 
books by James Legge, the writings of Eitel, Faber, Edkins, 
Chalmers, and Arthur Smith, to perceive the magnitude of 
our own indebtedness to them, while by their versions of 
the Bible, works in theology, church history, devotional 
books and treatises in almost every department of secular 
history and science, they have striven unceasingly to become 
the interpreters of the West to the Far East. 

The events of the last few years have awakened a new 
spirit in the Chinese nation. They no longer desire to 
shroud themselves in a proud feeling of superiority to other 
nations, but show that they are willing to learn and desirous 
of appropriating whatever may serve to help them as a 
people in attaining to the level of the leaders of civilisation. 
Perhaps they do so thinking in the first place of securing the 
means for maintaining their independence and territorial 
unity. To such an aim it is impossible to refuse our warmest 
sympathy. Without security within their own borders they 
cannot turn their attention to the most precious elements in 
the life of a nation — to the religion which brings us into 
conscious relation with the God and Father of all mankind, 
to well-ordered civil and political liberty, to the pure 
administration of justice between man and man, and the 
elevation and improvement of human life under every 
aspect. It is to the missionaries that we must look for 
help in diffusing these blessings among the people of China, 
to whose welfare, spiritual, moral, and intellectual, they have 
devoted themselves so earnestly in the past, hoping even 
against hope for that fruit of their labours which the present 
time seems to promise. 

It has been my privilege, during a residence of nearly 



PEEFACE ix 

six years in China, to have been brought into close personal 
relations with many Protestant missionaries, and to have 
seen a good deal of the work carried on by them in evan- 
gelistic, hospital and medical work, and education. I can 
testify to the sincerity and ardour with which they pursue 
their noble and self-sacrificing task, often under great diffi- 
culties from fanatical opposition, sometimes in almost 
absolute solitude, and frequently even at the risk of their 
lives — undaunted witnesses for the faith. 

ERNEST SATOW. 

SiDMOUTH, 

FebrvMry 1907. 



EDITOR'S PREFACE 

During the years 1902-1903 the writer edited a series of 
articles on the Provinces of China, accompanied with maps, 
in Chinas Millions, the monthly organ of the China Inland 
Mission. Subsequently repeated requests were received, 
both from friends in China and at home, asking for the 
republication in book form of these articles. Instead of 
this, an entirely new work has been undertaken, which, it 
is hoped, will be of much more permanent value. 

In view, also, of the fact that the year 1907 would 
be the Centenary of Protestant missionary effort in China, 
it appeared desirable and fitting to publish a comprehensive 
survey of the Chinese Empire. It was therefore decided 
to publish a large and new Atlas of the Chinese Empire, 
the Atlas to be accompanied by a book giving a geographical, 
historical, and missionary survey of each Province and 
Dependency of that Empire. The preparation of the 
various articles was entrusted to those who, by long 
residence in the field, were specially qualified to write as 
experts upon their own particular Provinces. The present 
volume contains the articles thus written, and is intended, 
though published separately, to be a supplementary volume 
to the Atlas of the Chinese Empire. 

It needs but a glance at the Contents Table to see that 
each author writes from personal experience, the date of 
each writer's arrival in China being given in that table. If 



xii THE CHINESE EMPIRE 

it be mentioned that the aggregate number of years spent 
in China by the writers of this book amounts to five hundred 
and fifty, it will readily be perceived that the book is the 
work of those who may be regarded as qualified to speak 
with authority. 

While the general basis of the work as laid before each 
author was, the preparation of an article giving a geo- 
graphical, historical, and missionary survey of his Province or 
Dependency, it was but natural that among so many writers 
there should be some slight variety of treatment and some 
variation as to length. Although the majority of the con- 
tributors exceeded the Limits suggested, in only two or three 
cases has it been necessary to seriously condense or abbre- 
viate. The lenient treatment of those who exceeded the 
limits originally suggested is recognised as possibly some- 
what unfair to those who conformed to the original 
programme, and to these the Editor would offer his apology. 
Many of the longer articles were so valuable that they have 
only been curtailed where abbreviation appeared absolutely 
necessary. Unfortunately, all were not able to supply the 
provincial statistics as suggested. 

The order in which the provinces have been arranged 
has been determined approximately by the date missionary 
work was commenced in them. Thus Kwangtung comes 
first, the coast provinces next, and the inland provinces last. 
It should be explained that although Formosa is not now 
part of the Chinese Empire, an article upon that Island has 
been included as the history of Missions there is so closely 
connected with the mainland. 

It was intended to publish this book and the new Atlas 
of the Chinese Empire together, as companion volumes. 
An unexpected delay, which will be shortly explained, has, 
however, made it impossible, without serious loss to the 



EDITOE'S PEEFACE xiii 

ultimate value of the Atlas, to publish the maps immediately. 
As this book is now ready for the press, it is thought 
advisable to issue it at once. It is complete in itself, and 
will, it is hoped, prepare the way for the Atlas, which 
will be published as soon as possible. 

The Atlas will consist of twenty -three maps of the 
Provinces and Dependencies of China ; China Proper being 
all on the scale of 1 : 3,000,000, or about 47 miles to the 
inch ; and the Dependencies of the Empire on the scale 
of 1:7,500,000, or nearly 120 miles to the inch. The 
drawing of the maps, which are based upon the most 
recent surveys, has been entrusted to Mr. Edward Stanford, 
the well-known King's Geographer. The engraving is 
already far advanced. 

It is a great pleasure to acknowledge the personal care 
and interest taken in the preparation of the Atlas by Mr. 
John Bolton, r.E.G.S., of Mr. Edward Stanford's firm, from 
whom has been obtained the following list of some of the 
surveys utilised in the preparation of the maps : — 

For the Kokonor district, a compilation by the Eoyal 
Geographical Society; for South -West Mongolia, the 
Eussian Frontier Survey, For regions in the north-east of 
Tibet, Carl Futterer's route ; for Southern Chihli, a map by 
the Topographical Section of the British War Office, also the 
China Field-Force Survey. For Inner Mongolia, Lieut- 
Colonel Wingate's Survey; and for Manchuria, map com- 
piled by the Topographical Section of the British War Office. 
For Shantung, Honan, Chekiang, and Szechwan, maps by 
the Topographical Section of the British War Office. For 
parts of Eastern China, the German War Office map; and 
for Kiangsu, the map by the Intelligence Branch of the 
Quartermaster -General's Department, Dehra Dun. For 
Anhwei, we are indebted to the Surveys of Lieut.-Colonel 



xiv THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

Wingate and to the Topographical Section of the General 
Staff of the War Office, and especially to Major Eraser. 
Eor the region of the Poyaug Lake, charts by the 
Admiralty and by Consul W. J. Clennell. Eor the region 
of the Tungting Lake, the Admiralty Chart ; and for the 
same region and Hunan generally, tracings and maps lent 
by Mr. A. H, Harris of the Chinese Imperial Maritime 
Customs and by the Eev. G. G. Warren of the Wesleyan 
Missionary Society. For Yunnan, a map by Major Davies ; 
and for parts of Kweichow, the maps of Consul Bourne's 
Blackburn Commercial Mission. For parts of Kwangsi, 
maps by the Eev. Louis Byrde of the C.M.S. ; and for Hong- 
kong and Kowlun, the Topographical Section of the British 
War Office. For Western Kwangtung, maps by the Chambre 
de Commerce de Lyon ; and for Hainan and Indo-China, the 
Carte de la Mission Pavie. For India and the adjacent 
countries, the maps compiled in the Burma Surveys Draw- 
ing Office. 

The unexpected delay in the publication of the Atlas 
has been occasioned through the difficult question of 
Chinese orthography. Almost as soon as the work was 
determined upon, the question of what orthography to 
employ had to be decided. It was soon recognised that 
the orthography adopted by the Chinese Imperial Post 
Office would ultimately carry the day, since conformity to 
that is necessary in all postal communications, which as 
a determining factor is of no small importance. The 
Editor therefore immediately put himself into communica- 
tion with China upon this matter, and was thankful to 
ascertain that Sir Eobert Hart had already undertaken 
the careful consideration of this subject, a thorough revision 
of the former postal spelling being well advanced. 

Although the authorities of the Chinese Imperial Post 



EDITOR'S PREFACE xv 

Office at once evinced the greatest interest in the prepara- 
tion of this new Atlas, and most kindly responded by 
offering every facility for giving the present writer the 
results of their revision at the earliest possible moment, 
considerable delay has been experienced. But for this the 
Atlas and book would have been published together in time 
for the Centenary Conference in Shanghai. The orthography 
finally adopted is employed in this book, so far as that is 
possible at the time of going to press. The Atlas is 
being delayed that the full results of this orthographical 
revision may be used. If the Sinologue is tried by some 
inconsistencies in the orthography of Chinese places and 
persons, the Editor pleads for patience during the difficult 
days of a transitional period. 

At a time when China is demanding an ever-increasing 
attention from the countries of the world, it is hoped that 
this work will prove useful, both in enabling the reader to 
more fully understand the country itself and to more fully 
appreciate the work that the Christian Church is seeking to 
do for her good. The Editor's endeavour has been to 
present to the public a serious and comprehensive review of 
the field as well as of the work being done there. 

Most grateful acknowledgment must be made of the 
kind help which has been received from many sources, 
without which it would have been impossible to have 
prepared the present volume. While it is not possible to 
mention by name all who have in one way or another 
contributed to its completion, special reference is made 
to the following : — 

To the Right Hon. Sir Ernest Satow, G.C.M.G., for his 
sympathetic Preface, the value of which will be readily 
recognised by those who know of his intimate acquaintance 
with and valuable services in the Far East, with which he 



xvi THE CHINESE EMPIRE 

has been so closely connected for the greater part of his life 
since 1861. To M. de Galembert, Imperial Postal Com- 
missioner in Shanghai, and to Mr. Morse, Statistical Com- 
missioner and Postal Secretary of the Chinese Imperial 
Maritime Customs, for their courtesy in placing at the 
writer's disposal early proofs of the revised orthography 
adopted by the Postal and Telegraph authorities in China ; 
and also to Mr. James Stark, Secretary to the China 
Inland Mission Council in Shanghai, for kindly undertaking 
the negotiations in this and other matters. 

Warm acknowledgment is also made of the great 
generosity shown by the British and Foreign Bible Society 
in unreservedly placing at the Editor's disposal the docu- 
ments on the Bible in China so carefully prepared by Mr. 
Crayden Edmunds, M.A., of their Translating and Editorial 
Department, for a subsequent publication of their own. 
Without these the article on the Bible in the Chinese Empire 
could not have been written with anything of its present 
completeness or accuracy. Sincere thanks are also offered 
to Mr. Crayden Edmunds for the further kindness of 
reading through the proof of that section relating to the 
Bible in China ; and to Mr. Eugene Stock of the Church 
Missionary Society, the well-known authority on Missions, 
for a similar kindness in connection with the introductory 
chapter. 

Of the able and willing co-operation of all those who 
have contributed articles to the book the fullest and 
heartiest acknowledgment is made, and any success which 
the book may attain will be no less theirs than the Editor's. 

In addition to the above-mentioned persons, the Editor 
is under much obligation to the Secretaries of many 
Missionary Societies, who, at no little trouble to themselves, 
have searched for and lent photographs and engravings of 



EDITOE'S PREFACE xvii 

some of their leading pioneer workers in China, thus 
making it possible to enrich the book with what is prob- 
ably quite a unique collection of notable China missionaries. 
On this point it should be said that, with few exceptions, 
the collection of portraits has been limited to those who, 
having served their day and generation, have " fallen on 
sleep." The exceptions have been in the few cases where 
the missionary, though still living, has given fifty years or 
more to China, or where he has been the pioneer in some 
new field. Among so many notable men it has of course 
only been possible to select a few representative men from 
most of the older Societies. No one regrets more than the 
Editor that the limitations of space have not allowed him 
to include many other equally eminent missionaries, and 
especially some of the noble women, who, as wives or lady 
workers, have given equally valuable and self-sacrificing 
service to the cause of Christ in China. Of some of the 
early workers unfortunately portraits are not to be obtained. 

In conclusion, acknowledgment is made of the assistance 
kindly given by Mr. E. Gillies, when on furlough, in the com- 
pilation of the statistics found on pp. 36-39, as well as other 
help. The statistics have been compiled from the published 
Eeports of the various Societies, from which it has not, 
however, been always possible to obtain the desired informa- 
tion. Hearty thanks are also given to Mr. T. W. Goodall, 
my esteemed editorial colleague, for the full indices which 
he has prepared. 

A considerable amount of material originally intended 
for the book has been omitted, especially statistical work 
and tables of Mission Stations, as the work is already much 
larger than was contemplated. 

And now, to Him who hath " made of one blood every 

b 



xviii THE CHINESE EMPIKE 

nation of men for to dwell on all the face of the earth, having 
determined their appointed seasons, and the bounds of their 
habitation ; that they should seek God, if haply they might 
feel after Him, and find Him," — this record of a century's 
efforts to make known to the most ancient of those nations 
the revelation of God in Christ Jesus is committed, with 
the earnest prayer that all the glory of past successes may be 
given to Him, that all the failures aud shortcomings of His 
servants may be forgiven, and that all wisdom and grace for 
the right and full use of the wonderful opportunities now 
presenting themselves may be vouchsafed to those responsible 
for future action. 

MARSHALL BROOMHALL. 

China Inland Mission, London, 
March 25, 1907. 



CONTENTS 

'PAOK 

PREFACE ....... vii 

By the Rt. Hon. Sir Ernest Satow, G.C.M.G. 

EDITOR'S PREFACE . . . . . xi 

INTRODUCTION ...... 1 

By the Editor. Geography ; Early Nestorian Missions ; First 
Roman Catholic effort ; second Roman Catholic effort. 
Protestant Missions: Period of Preparation, 1807-1842; 
Period of the Ports, 1842-1860 ; Period of Penetration, 1860- 
1877 ; Period of Progress, Persecution, and Prosperity, 1878- 
1907. 

THE PROVINCE OF KWANGTUNG . . .43 

By the Rev. J. Campbell Gibson, M.A., D.D. English Pres- 
byterian Mission. Arrived in China 1874. 

THE PROVINCE OF FUKIEN . . . .54 

By the Rev. Llewellyn Lloyd, Church Missionary Society. 
Arrived in China 1876. 

THE ISLAND OF FORMOSA . . . .63 

By the Rev. Thomas Barclay, M.A., English Presbyterian 
Mission. Arrived in China 1874. 

THE PROVINCE OF CHEKIANG . .73 

By the Ven. Archdeacon A. E. Moule, B.D., Church Missionary 
Society. Arrived in China 1861. 

THE PROVINCE OF KIANGSU . . . .80 

By Rev. John Dareoch, Translator for Shansi Imperial University. 
Arrived in China 1887. 

xix 



XX THE CHINESE EMPIKE 

PAGE 

THE PROVINCE OF SHANTUNG . . .93 

By Mr. C, F. Hogg. Arrived in China 1884. 



THE PROVINCE OF CHIHLI . . . .101 

By the Rev. Thomas Bryson, London Missionary Society. 
Arrived in China 1866. 



THE PROVINCE OF HUPEH . .114 

By the Rev. Arnold Foster, B.A., London Missionary Society. 
Arrived in China 1871. 



THE PROVINCE OF KIANGSI . . . .126 

By Mr. Archibald Orr-Ewing, China Inland Mission. Arrived 
in China 1886. 



THE PROVINCE OF ANHWEI . .139 

By the Rev. J. J. Coulthard, China Inland Mission. Arrived 
in China 1879. 



THE PROVINCE OF HON AN . . . .149 

By G. Whitfield Guinness, B.A., M.B., China Inland Mission. 
Arrived in China 1897. 

THE PROVINCE OF HUNAN . . . .164 

By Mr. A. H. Harris, late Acting Commissioner of Customs, 
Changsha. Arrived in China 1883. 

THE PROVINCE OF KANSU . . . .189 

By the Editor. In China 1890-1899. 

THE PROVINCE OF SHENSI . . . .198 

By the Editor. In China 1890-1899. 

THE PROVINCE OF SHANSI . . . .209 

By Mr. Albert Lutley, China Inland Mission. Arrived in 
China 1887. 

THE PROVINCE OF SZECHWAN . . .224 

By Mr. Joshua Yale, China Inland Mission. Arrived in China 

1887. 



CONTENTS xxi 

PAGE 

THE PROVINCE OF YUNNAN . . . .238 

By the Rev. John M'Cauthy, China Inland Mission. Arrived 
in China 1867. 



THE PROVINCE OF KWEICHOW . .251 

By the Rev. Samukl Clarke, China Inland Mission. Arrived 
in China 1878. 



THE PROVINCE OF KWANGSI . . .271 

By the Rev. Louis Byrbe, B.A., Church Missionary Society. 
Arrived in China 1898. 



THE PROVINCE OF SINKIANG . . .292 

By Mr. George Hunter, China Inland Mission. Arrived in 
China 1889. 



MANCHURIA . . . . . .301 

By the Rev. J. W. Inglis, M.A., United Free Church of Scot- 
land. Arrived in Manchuria in 1890. 



TIBET . . . . . . .318 

By Mr. Cecil Polhill, China Inland Mission. Arrived in 
China 1885. 



MONGOLIA . . . . .338 

By the Editor. And supplementary section on work for the 
Mongols at Kalgan, by Rev. J. H. Roberts, American 
Board of C.F.M. Arrived in China 1877. 



THE BIBLE IN THE CHINESE EMPIRE . .371 

By the Editor ; based on material supplied by the British and 
Foreign Bible Society. 

APPENDICES— 

I. Philology . . . . .421 

II. The Jews in China .... 428 

III. Introduction op Christianity into China . 433 

IV. Biographical Outlines .... 436 



XXll 



THE CHINESE EMPIRE 



INDICES— 

I. Chronological 
II. General 

III. Missionary Societies 

IV. Bioc4raphical or Personal 
V. Topographical . 



447 
457 
461 
463 
469 



PORTRAITS 



Robert Morrison, D.D. 



Frontispiece 



Group I. 

1. Bishop Burdon. 
4. Dr. Peter Parker. 
7. Rev. Dr. Legge. 



2. Rev. W. K. Medhnrst. 
.5. Bishop George Smith. 
S. Bishop Boone, Sen. 



To face page 1 2 



3. Dr. Lockhart. 

6. Rev. F. Genahr. 

0. Rev. Wells Williams. 



Group II. 

1. Rev. M. T. Yates. 
4. Rev. H. Z. Kloekers. 
7. Rev. Ed. Pagell. 



2. Rev. A. Williamson. 
5. Rev. Dr. Faber. 
8. Rev. M. Schaub. 



To face page 1 6 



3. Rev. C. P. Piton. 
6. Rev. R. Lechler. 
9. Rev. A. W. Heyde. 



Group III. 

1. Rev. Josiah Cox. 
4. Rev. Wni. Burns. 
7. Rev. Geo. Piercy. 



2. Rev. Wm. Muirhead. 

5. Rev. J. Qilmour. 

8. Rev. R. Macdonald, M.D. 



To face page 2 1 

3. Mr. A. Wylie. 

6. Rev. David Hill. 

9. Rev. Joseph Edkins, D.D. 



Group IV. 

1. Rev. J. Macintyre. 
4. Rev. W. N. Hall. 
7. Rev. J. Ross. 



2. Dr. J. M. Hunter. 
5. Rev. J. Innocent. 
8. Rev. H. Blodget. 



To face page 23 



3. Rev. Carstairs Douglas. 
6. Rev. J. L. Nevius. 
9. Rev. H. Waddell. 



Group V. . . . . 

1. Rev. Dr. Griffith John. 2. Rev. R. H. Graves. 

4. Bishop G. E. Moule. 5. Bishop Schereschewsky. 

7. Rev. J. L.Maxwell, M.D. 8. Dr. J. G. Kerr. 



To face page 25 



3. Bishop Russell. 

6. Rev. Dr. W. A, P. Martin. 

9. Bishop Hoare. 



Group VI. 



1. Rev. H. L. Mackenzie. 
4. Rev. R. F. Laughton. 
7. Rev. J. M'Carthy. 



2. Dr. J. Cameron. 

5. Rev. J. W. Stevenson. 

8. Mr. James Meadows. 



To face page 27 



3. Dr. R. H. A. Schofield. 
6. Rev. W. M'Gregor. 
9. Mr. Adam Dorward. 



J. Hudson Taylor 



To face page 41 



XXlll 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



A Mission Station, Fukirx . . To face imge bb 

The Hanqchow Bore ....,, 73 

The Burtal-Place of Yij the Great . . „ 74 

The Heaven-appointed Pagoda, Ningpo . „ 76 

The Shanghai Bund and Tea-Gardens . „ 82 

Near the Mouth of the Han, Hankow . „ 116 

Memorial Tablet to Fu-Hsi . . . „ 149 

A Modern School . . . . ,,156 

The Tomb op Fu-Hsi . . . . „ 159 

Grave of Emperor Shdn's Two Consorts . „ 164 

The Nestorian Tablet . . . . „ 202 

Two Water Scenes . . . . ,,224 

An Aboriginese Festival . . . „ 243 

Group of Hwa Miao Women . , . „ 253 

Tomb op Nurhachu . . . . „ 303 

N.E. Corner Tower op Moukden Brick City . ,, 309 

Map of C.I.M. Stations .... End of Volume. 



XXIV 



INTRODUCTION 

By the Editor 

The Chinese Empire, whether viewed from the stand- 
point of its extent of territory, the wealth of its resources, 
the antiquity and vitality of its teeming population, or in 
view of its past history and future prospects, cannot but 
command the most serious and thoughtful consideration of 
all who are interested in the welfare of the human race. 

Year by year China has attracted increasing attention, 
and has commanded a larger place in the minds of men, 
no matter whether it be the missionary, commercial, or 
international questions which interest the observer. Few, 
if any, of the problems of human life to-day are of greater 
importance and of a more fascinating nature than those 
presented by the Chinese Empire. With the threatened 
dismemberment of the Empire but recently averted, with 
her integrity practically assured by the renewal of the 
Alliance between England and Japan, with a spirit of reform 
moving the country from east to west and north to south, 
the future of Chiua portends great weal or woe to the rest 
of mankind. 

For exactly one hundred years, from 1807 to 1907, 
Protestant Missions have been endeavouring to bring to 
bear upon the Chinese people the regenerating and 
ennobling influences of the Gospel, and it has been ac- 
knowledged by the Chinese themselves, as well as by the 
European and American residents, that the beneficent 
influence of the truth made known through the various 

1 B 



2 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

evangelical, educational, and philanthropic channels has 
played no small part in producing those aspirations for better 
things which are so evident in China to-day. Without 
attempting, in detail, to summarise the geographical, 
historical, and missionary information of the following 
pages, as given by each writer under his own section, a 
short introduction to those articles is necessary. 

The area of the Chinese Empire is to-day given as 
4,277,170 square miles, which is considerably smaller than 
the Empire was in the prosperous days of Kienlung 
(a.d. 1737-1796); more than half a million square miles 
of territory having been taken from China by Russia alone 
since that date. 

From the figures given in the footnote ^ it will be seen 
that the Chinese Empire comprises about one-twelfth of 
the total territory of the world, while it occupies nearly 
one-quarter of the whole continent of Asia, the largest of 
continents. It is considerably larger than Europe, and is 
nearly equal to half of the vast continent of North America, 
being much larger than either the United States or the 
Dominion of Canada taken separately. Twenty countries 
equal in size to France, or thirty-five countries equal in 
area to the British Isles, could be placed within the 
Chinese Empire, while more than one-third of these would 
be located within that portion known as China Proper. 

For a traveller to encircle China he would need to 
journey a distance considerably greater than half the 
circumference of the world. Of this distance some 4000 
miles would be coast -line, some 6000 miles would 
be bordering on Russian territory, another 4800 miles 
would touch British possessions, while of the remainder, 



1 China Proper 
Dependencies — 
Manchuria 
Mongolia . 
Tibet 
Chinese Turkestan . 


Area. 
Eng. sq. miles. 

. 1,532,420 

363,610 

. 1,367,600 

463,200 

550,340 


Population. 
407,337,305 

8,500,000 
2,580,000 
6,430,000 
1,200,000 


Total , 


. 4,277,170 


426,047,305 



INTEODUCTION 3 

some 400 miles would be contiguous to country under 
French rule and about 800 miles might be described as 
doubtful. 

Vast as is the area of the Chinese Empire, there is 
naturally a greater interest attaching to its people than to 
the land itself. In the millions of this Empire the 
merchant sees one of the largest and most promising 
markets of the world ; the financier recognises an almost 
limitless field for mining enterprise ; the statesman and 
the soldier perceive political and military problems of the 
most stupendous magnitude ; while the Christian, though 
not unmindful of other aspects, thinks more of the count- 
less millions of men and women who are living and dying 
without that knowledge which is alone able to make them 
wise unto salvation. 

The most recently accepted census of the population 
published by the Chinese Government gives the total 
population of the Empire as 426,000,000.^ That so large 
a proportion of the human race should be located in one 
empire is an astonishing fact, and it is not to be wondered 
at that some persons have questioned the trustworthiness 
of these figures. It is certainly remarkable that about one- 
quarter of the world's population should be settled in a 
territory which is only one-twelfth of the whole ; or, if 
reference be made to China Proper only, that one-quarter 
of the world's population should be crowded into a country 
which possesses not more than one-thirtieth of the inhabit- 
able land of the globe. 

Much as these facts may provoke a doubt in the mind 
of the student, the only possible data at present is that 
supplied by the Chinese Government, though other 
evidences can be adduced to show that these figures are not 
altogether incredible. The Eev. Arthur H. Smith has — by 
careful calculations in limited areas to be accepted as a unit 
of measurement for other districts which to all appearances 
are equally populated — proved that in some areas there is a 
population of 531 to the square mile, while in another area 
^ See footnote on p. 2 from The Statesman's Year-Book. 



4 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

the population worked out at 2129 per square mile. Com- 
menting on his own experiments, he has said : " For the 
plain of North China as a whole it is probable that it would 
be found more reasonable to estimate 300 persons to the 
square mile for the more sparsely settled regions, and from 
1000 to 1500 for the more thickly settled regions." 

Colonel Manifold, in a lecture before the Royal 
Geographical Society in 1903, expressed his belief that the 
population of the Chengtu plain was no less than 1700 
to the square mile ; and Consul W. J. Clennell, in China, No. 
1, 1903, gives the population of Shanghai as " something 
like 160,000 to a square mile." When it is remembered 
that the population in London ranges up to 60,000 to the 
square mile, and that in the poorest parts of Liverpool it 
is nowhere above 100,000 per square mile, the density of 
population in some of the Chinese cities will be more easily 
appreciated. 

It is more easy to speak of millions than to appreciate 
the significance of the word. It is less than one million 
days since Isaiah penned his prophecies, and less than one 
million hours since Morrison landed in Canton. The death- 
rate of China alone would in six months blot out London, 
or in a fortnight the British army, while one day would 
remove the entire population of Canterbury. This is not 
mere sentiment, but actual fact. Could we but realise the 
misery, the hopelessness, the fear and dread which encircle 
one death in the land where Christ is not known, we should 
surely be moved to greater efforts and to a more supreme 
consecration and willing self-denial that the true Light 
might shine upon those now sitting in darkness and in the 
shadow of death. 



EARLY MISSIONS 

Although the breviary of the Malabar Church and the 
Syrian Canon both record that St. Thomas preached the 
Gospel to the Chinese, and although Arnobius, the Christian 
apologist (a.d. 300) writes of the Christian deeds done in 
India and among the Seres (Chinese), the first certain date 
concerning early missions in China is connected with the 
work of the Nestorian Church. It is now generally 
accepted that the Nestoriaus made their entry into China 
as early as a.d. 505, and records exist stating that Nestorian 
monks brought the eggs of the silkworm from China to Con- 
stantinople in A.D. 551. The discovery, at Sian Fu in 
A.D. 1625, of the Nestorian tablet, places the question of 
Nestorian Missions in China beyond all doubt. This tablet, 
which was erected in a.d. 781, tells of the arrival of 
Nestorian missionaries at Sian Fu, the then capital of 
China, as early as a.d. 635, and gives some brief account 
of their work and teaching. 

Although these early missionaries preached the Gospel 
and translated the Scriptures, of which translation, however, 
there is now no trace, their work was not of an abiding 
character. Partly through subsequent persecution on the 
part of the Chinese Government, partly through the rise of 
Mohammedanism and the power of the Arabs, who cut off 
their connection with the west, and probably because their 
Gospel was not a full Gospel, their work did not abide the 
test of time and the strain of adverse conditions. Never- 
theless, traces of their work are to be found through many 
centuries. 

In A.D. 845 the Emperor Wu Tsung, when condemning 

5 



6 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

4600 Buddhist monasteries to be destroyed, also ordered 
300 foreign priests, whether of Tath-sin (the Eoman 
Empire) or Muhura, " to return to secular life, to the end 
that the customs of the empire may be uniform." ^ The 
accounts of two Arab travellers of the ninth century (a.d. 
851 and 878) also give eloquent evidence of the knowledge 
of the truth in China, Ebn Wahab and the Emperor hold- 
ing an interesting dialogue about the facts and history of the 
Old and New Testaments. Again, Marco Polo in the thir- 
teenth century, and the early Franciscan missionaries also, 
referred to the Nestorians and their work. In a.d. 1725 a 
Syrian manuscript, containing a large portion of the Old 
Testament and a collection of hymns, was discovered in the 
possession of a Chinese. This is thought to be one of the few 
relics of this early Church. Being, however, cut off from 
all intercourse with their mother Church by the rise of 
Mohammedanism, and lacking the vigour of a pure faith, 
their work has passed away leaving little trace behind. 

First Eoman Catholic Effort 

The first and second efforts of the Eoman Catholic 
Church to evangelise the Far East took place during periods 
of world-wide activity. While the fervour which was 
stirring Europe to engage in the Crusades was still burning, 
while Venice was manifesting her keen commercial activity, 
— and Marco Polo was a Venetian — and while the zeal of 
the great orders of St. Dominic and St. Francis of Assisi 
was at its height, the Church of Eome commenced what we 
may now call her first effort to evangelise the Far East by 
sending her messengers to the court of the great Mongol 
power. The peace of Europe had just been threatened by 
the terrible invasion of the hordes of Jenghis Khan, and in 
return the Church of Eome sent back to Jenghis Khan's 
successors their messengers of peace. 

In A.D. 1246 John de Piano Carpini started upon his 
journey for the Far East, and in a.d. 1288 Pope Nicholas IV. 
^ Du Halde, China, vol. i. p. 518. 



INTEODUCTION 7 

despatched John de Monte Corvino upon what became the 
first settled Eoman Catholic Mission in the court of Kublai 
Khan, the founder of the Ylien or Mongol dynasty in China. 
The missionary activity which existed in Europe at this time 
is revealed by Kaymond Lull's advocation of the founding of 
a chair in the University of Paris for the study of the 
Tartar tongue, that " thus we may learn the language of the 
adversaries of God ; and that our learned men, by preach- 
ing to them and teaching them, may by the sword of the 
Truth overcome their falsehood and restore to God a people 
as an acceptable offering, and may convert our foes and 
His to friends." 

However much one may feel that John de Monte 
Corvino's teaching as a messenger of Eome may differ 
from the Protestant faith of to-day, there can be no 
question that he was in spirit a true missionary. Opposed 
by the Nestorians, cut off for twelve long years from any 
communication with Europe, he did what the Eoman 
Catholic Church are not accustomed to do to-day, he 
translated the whole of the New Testament and the Psalter 
into the language of the Tartars among whom he dwelt, 
and publicly taught the law of Christ. His two extant 
letters are pathetic records of his labours. Grey-headed 
through his toils and tribulations long before his time, he 
yet cheerfully endured the hardships of his mission, and 
survived until the ripe age of seventy-eight, having been 
appointed Archbishop of China in 1307. It was at the 
time of this appointment that Clement V. sent seven 
assistants to help him, and after his death various 
successors were appointed ; but the sway of the Mongol 
dynasty was not for long, and with its fall, and with the 
rise of the Ming dynasty which followed, Christianity was 
for a time swept out of China. 

One of the grandest opportunities that the Church of 
Christ has ever had presented to it, and it must be 
remembered this was before the rise of Protestantism, 
is connected with the lifetime of Kublai Khan mentioned 
above. There are letters still extant, preserved in the 



8 THE CHINESE EMPIRE 

Erench archives, relating the remarkable fact that Kublai 
Khan actually requested the Pope to send one hundred 
missionaries to his country " to prove by force of argument, 
to idolaters and other kinds of folk, that the law of Christ 
was best, and that all other religions were false and naught ; 
and that if they would prove this, he and all under him 
would become Christians and the Church's liegemen." "What 
might have been " is a question that cannot but rise in 
the hearts of those who read this extract. The death of the 
Pope, however, and faction among the cardinals, with the 
subsequent failure of the two missionaries sent — they turned 
back because of the hardships of the way — lost to Asia an 
opportunity such as the Church has seldom had. 

Second Eoman Catholic Effort 
Period of Growth, 1579-1722 ; Period of Decline, 1722-1809 

This second period of Roman Catholic effort synchronises 
with the Renaissance of the sixteenth century, with the rise 
of Protestantism, and is connected with Vasco da Gama's 
enterprise in doubling the Cape and taking possession of 
Malacca, for' from this base Xavier carried on his labours in 
the Ear East. 

While in Europe the Reformation was becoming an 
increasing power, the Church of Rome commenced its 
counter -reformation in a strong missionary propaganda. 
The navigation of the East being under the control of 
Portugal and Spain, the Protestant Church was excluded 
from missionary activity even had it so desired. In the 
same year as England threw off the papal yoke, the order 
of the Jesuits, of which Xavier was one of the original 
members, was formed. The story of his labours in India, 
of his mission to Japan, and his death off the coast of China, 
are too well known to need repetition here. His inspiring 
zeal and his burning love to Christ, together with his failings 
and errors as a missionary, have been revealed through his 
translated letters, edited by the late Henry Venn, Honorary 
Secretary of the Church Missionary Society. 



INTRODUCTION 9 

In 1560 the Portuguese took Macao, and Valignani, 
Superintendent of the Jesuits' Missions to the East, settled 
there. His are the words so frequently but wrongly ascribed 
to Xavier : " Oh rock, rock, rock, when wilt thou open to 
my Lord ! " The Fathers Eogers and Eicci were selected 
by Valignani as pioneers to China, but Eogers shortly 
returned to Eome. In 1582 Eicci succeeded in gaining 
a foothold on the mainland at Shaoking, the residence of 
the Governor, and by a system which subordinated the Gospel 
to expediency, he slowly worked his way to Peking, which 
city he reached in 1601, just twenty-one years after landing 
in Macao. During the intervening period he had settled 
Missions at Nanchang Fu, Suchow Fu, and Nanking Fu. 
At his death in 1610 an imperial edict ordered the erec- 
tion of a monument to his memory. 

Of his ability and that of his colleagues there can be no 
question, but of his methods it must be said they merit the 
criticism and censure they have received. By 1637 he with 
his colleagues had published no fewer than three hundred 
and forty treatises upon religion, philosophy, and mathe- 
matics, and among his most noted converts must be men- 
tioned Paul Sli and his widowed daughter Candida. But 
for Paul Sii's defence, the Eoman Catholic Missions in sub- 
sequent years would have suffered even more severely than 
they did. 

In 1631 the Dominicans and Franciscans began to 
arrive in China, but were not welcomed by the Jesuits, 
with whom a bitter controversy arose. With the break-up 
of the Ming dynasty and the rise of the present Manchu 
power, all parties more or less suffered, though Schaal, the 
able and distinguished successor of Eicci, was, through Paul 
Sii's recommendation, placed in a position of honour. 
Schaal, however, eventually died of grief, Yerbiest and 
others were imprisoned, while twenty -one Jesuits were 
banished from the country. This was during the minority 
of the famous Emperor Kang-hsi, under whom subsequently 
the Eoman Catholics enjoyed great favour. It was under 
his enlightened rule that the Jesuits prepared their careful 



10 THE CHINESE EMPIKE 

survey of the Empire and reformed the calendar, Verbiest 
causing no small chagrin to the native astronomers by his 
remark, " It is not within my power to make the heavens 
agree with your diagrams ! " 

Although during the earlier portion of Kang-hsi's reign 
of sixty years he had heaped favours upon the Jesuits, 
had built a magnificent church for them in Pekin, and 
written with his own hand an honorific tablet in their 
favour, the strife between the followers of Loyola, Dominic, 
and Francis as to the word wherewith to translate " God," 
and concerning the true significance of ancestral worship, 
etc., led eventually to an imjyasse between the Emperor and 
the Pope. On the one hand, the Pope required all 
missionaries proceeding to China to sign a formula 
promising obedience to the orders of the Vatican on these 
points, while the Emperor on his part forbade any missionary 
to remain in the country unless willing to accept his 
interpretation. 

Bulls almost contradictory in their instructions were 
issued by various popes, and special legates were despatched 
to China — one of whom died there in prison, without the 
attainment of a satisfactory settlement. In some respects 
the controversy may be said to have largely arisen through 
the unworthy compromises and ambition for imperial favour 
which characterised the Jesuits' policy. 

With the death of Kang-hsi in 1722 the period of 
favour passed away and one of decline set in. An edict 
was almost immediately issued (1724) by Yong-ching, 
Kang-hsi's successor, closing all provincial churches and 
limiting the residence of missionaries to Peking and Canton ; 
while in 1744 the next Emperor, Kien-lung, whose reign 
lasted nearly sixty years, and under whom the Empire 
attained its zenith both in power and extent, encouraged a 
general persecution throughout the country, hundreds of 
Chinese Christians and some ten Europeans being put to 
death. 

The suppression of the Jesuits by Clement XIV. in 
1773, the overbearing attitude of the Portuguese traders at 



INTEODUCTION 11 

Maccio, and the haughty conduct of the East India Company 
at Canton, and finally the overthrow of the papacy by 
Napoleon Bonaparte in 1809, are important events which 
affected and mark the rapid decline of Koman Catholic 
Missions in China, during the latter portion of the 
eighteenth and the opening years of the nineteenth century. 
While many of the methods employed by the Eoman 
Catholic missionaries, and especially by the Jesuits, cannot 
but be severely criticised, there is no question as to their 
devotion, their ability and influence, and their willingness 
to suffer hardship. To Eoman Catholic missionaries 
Europe was indebted for almost all that was known about 
China, and Dr. Morrison received no small assistance 
through ^ their early translations and literary work. Their 
methods may be a warning, but their zeal should certainly 
be an inspiration and reproof. 

The order of the Jesuits was re-established in 1822, 
from which time the Eoman Catholics have continued to 
push forward their work in China. 



PEOTESTANT MISSIONS 

Period of Preparation, 1807-1842 

Just one hundred years ago, in 1807, when the guns 
of Napoleon Bonaparte and the tramp of his guards were 
shaking the thrones of Europe to their very foundations, 
just eight years before the Battle of Waterloo gave to the 
troubled peoples any sense of security. Dr. Morrison sailed 
for the distant and then little known Empire of China. 
The vigour and enterprise both of Church and State in 
those days are a cause of ceaseless encouragement ; and how 
far the faith and loyalty^ of God's people, who in the 
darkest hours of national life dared and attempted great 

^ In the same year that Morrison sailed for China the Slave trade was 
abolished by Act of Parliament. 



12 THE CHINESE EMPIRE 

things for God, moved the heart and arm of Him who is 
the great Disposer of kings and peoples to give the victory 
to British arms, only eternity will fully show. 

Dr. Morrison landed in Canton in the autumn of 1807, 
having previously prepared himself for his future work, so 
far as that was possible, by some preliminary study of the 
Chinese language, by the transcribing of a Chinese manu- 
script of part of the New Testament found in the British 
Museum (see p. 379), and by making a copy of a Chinese 
and Latin dictionary. Confronted by a closed land and 
mountains of difficulty, he, to quote the words of his 
subsequent colleague. Dr. Milne, with " the patience that 
refuses to be conquered, the diligence that never tires, the 
caution that always trembles, and the studious habit that 
spontaneously seeks retirement," laid the foundations of all 
subsequent missionary work. 

From 1807 to 1834 — the same year that the East 
India Company's charter ceased — he laboured on practically 
alone, for Milne, who reached China in 1813 and died in 
1822, was not allowed to live at Canton. Shortly before 
his death, however, he was cheered by the arrival of three 
workers from America, Bridgman ^ and Abeel, who reached 
Canton in 1830 — though Abeel shortly afterwards left for 
Siam — and Wells- Williams,^ who reached Macao the year 
before Morrison died. Thus for twenty-seven years, with 
the exception of his furlough in 1824, he laboured on at 
his great task, in loneliness, often in sickness, and amid 
almost overwhelming discouragements. The love and 
courage of the two women — for he was twice married — 
who shared his toils and sorrows must not be forgotten. 
Among his trials must be mentioned the long times of 
painful separation from wife and children, once for six 
unbroken years. 

It is true that the London Missionary Society had sent 
out more than ten men whose aim was the evangelisation 

1 Dr. Bridgman started the Chinese Repository in 1832, and Dr. Wells- 
Williams became the author of The Middle Kingdom, and was afterwards 
the Secretary of the U.S.A. Legation in China. 




1. Bishop Burdon. 
4. Db. Peter Parker. 
7. Rev. Dr. Lec;ge. 



GROUP I. 

2. Rev. W. H. MEDHtRsx. 
5. Bishop George Smith. 
8. Bishop Boone, Sen. 



3. Dr. Lockh.\rt. 

6. Rev. F. Genahh. 

9. Rev. Wells Williams. 



For short Biogrcqihical outlines, see jHi.ges 436-7. 



To face page 12. 



INTKODUCTION 13 

of China, but these were obliged to remain in what was 
called the Ultra-Ganges Mission ; so that, " in the face of 
almost every discouragement short of violent expulsion 
from the country, he had accomplished, almost single- 
handed, three great tasks — the Chinese Dictionary, the 
establishment of the Anglo-Chinese College at Malacca, and 
the translation of the Holy Scriptures into the book-language 
of China." Twice his font of type was destroyed and his 
press had to be removed to Malacca, and in addition to this 
he had to face the adverse edicts of the Chinese Govern- 
ment, forbidding the circulation of foreign books and 
preaching of the foreign doctrine. The friendly attitude 
of some of the American merchants, however, was a silver 
lining to the dark cloud. Through one of these, Mr. 
Olyphant, some of the American Societies became deeply 
interested in China, Mr. Olyphant subsequently placing 
his ships at the disposal of these Societies for the free 
transport of their missionaries to the field. 

The L.M.S., while seeking to enter China from the 
south, also commenced an effort to reach the tribes of 
Mongolia on the north, Messrs. Stallybrass and Swan 
commencing their work on the borders of Lake Baikal in 
1818. This Mission was closed by the Holy Synod of the 
Eussian Government in 1840, but not before the greater 
part of the Bible had been translated into Mongolian. 

The remarkable journeys of Gutzlaff also fall within the 
period of Morrison's life. During the five years 1831-35, 
Karl Gutzlaff, connected with the Netherlands Missionary 
Society, made seven journeys along the coasts of Siam and 
China, reaching Tientsin in 1831. The greatest interest 
was aroused both in England and America, among mission- 
ary, commercial, and political circles, and in 1835 the 
L.M.S. requested Dr. Medhurst to attempt similar journeys. 
Dr. Medhurst did so, and reached Shantung in company 
with the Kev. E. Stevens. Although events proved that 
China was not yet as accessible as had been anticipated, 
Gutzlaff was nevertheless used of God to kindle a flame of 
enthusiasm in the hearts of not a few. Indirectly his zeal 



14 THE CHINESE EMPIRE 

led to the formation of the Chinese Evangelisation Society, 
which sent out Mr. Hudson Taylor, while his visit to 
Herrnhut resulted in the Moravian Mission to Tibet 
commenced in 1853, although Mongolia had been the 
goal intended. His industry was enormous, and, though 
not always reliable, his publications, according to Wells- 
Williams, numbered no fewer than eighty -five in the 
Chinese, Japanese, Dutch, German, English, Siamese, 
Cochin-Chinese, and Latin languages. 

In 1834 the East India Company's charter ceased and 
the trade in the Far East was thrown open to all. Open 
competition immediately led to an increase in the amount 
of opium carried to China, to the not unnatural conster- 
nation of the Chinese Government. At the same time the 
change in arrangements was not understood. Having 
previously only had to negotiate with merchants, they 
refused to treat with Lord Napier, the newly -appointed 
Superintendent, as an official of equal rank with the Viceroy 
of Canton. Determined, on the one hand, to stop the trade, 
and equally, though foolishly, determined, on the other hand, 
not to deal with the " foreign barbarian " on the basis of 
equality, an impasse soon arose which needed only time to 
develop into war. Trade was stopped, smuggling increased, 
and finally Commissioner Lin was specially appointed by 
the Chinese Government to crush the opium trade. 

Lin's determined attitude, his blockade of the factories 
and the burning of 20,283 chests of opium valued at 
twenty millions of dollars, cannot be criticised by any one 
who admires patriotism and zeal for national purity. In 
the matter of the opium, China was in the right and 
England in the wrong, but in many other matters China's 
attitude cannot be excused nor England's annoyance 
altogether condemned. England was not unjustly out of 
patience with Chinese diplomacy, though she was unjustly 
determined to force her trade, and more especially her 
opium traffic. 

The war that followed was brought to a close by the 
cession of Hongkong to the British in 1841, and by the 



INTRODUCTION 15 

signing of the Treaty of Nanking in 1842. By this treaty 
the live ports of Canton, Amoy, Shanghai, Ningpo, and 
Fuchovv were thrown open to trade, Hongkong was assured 
to the British, and $21,000,000 was determined as the 
sum to be paid the victors for indemnity. Through the 
subsequent treaties of 1844 with the United States of 
America and that of 1845 with Trance, the toleration of 
Christianity was obtained, and the persecuting edicts of 
1724 and later, rescinded. 

Before proceeding to review the new period of missionary 
enterprise ushered in by the Treaty of Nanking, it is 
necessary to record that medical missions to the Chinese 
had already made a good beginning. In 1834, the year 
that Morrison died. Dr. Peter Parker of the American 
Board landed in Canton, and during the following year 
opened the first missionary hospital in China. Previous to 
this Morrison himself, with two doctors connected with the 
East India Company, had done something in the way of 
dispensary work, but these efforts had ceased in 1832. 
Dr. Cumming, an independent and self-supporting worker, 
had commenced work at Amoy almost as soon as that port 
was opened in 1842 ; while Dr. Lockhart, who had opened 
a hospital at Tinghai in Chusan in 1841 — when that 
island was occupied by the British troops — moved to 
Shanghai in 1844. Another hospital was opened at 
Canton by Dr. Hobson in 1846. Thus was begun that 
branch of Mission work which was to be so much used of 
God in after years to break down the opposition and dis- 
trust of the Chinese. 

In 1834 a Society for the Diffusion of Useful Know- 
ledge in China was inaugurated, and in 1835 the Morrison 
Educational Society was founded. During the whole of 
this period, from 1807 to 1842, fifty-seven workers had 
either in China or in the Straits sought to advance the 
Kingdom of God among the Chinese. Of these fifty-seven 
persons, ten had died before the period closed, while fifteen 
had retired, leaving thirty-two still living in 1842. These 
fifty-seven workers had been connected with the following 



16 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

eight Societies : the London Missionary Society, the Nether- 
lands Mission, the American Board, the American Baptists, 
the American Episcopalians, the Church Missionary Society, 
the American Presbyterians, and the Morrison Educational 
Society. 



Period of the Ports, 1842-1860 

With the signing of the Treaty of Nanking and the 
opening of the five treaty ports, missionary work entered 
upon an entirely new era. At the time of Morrison's 
death there had been only two missionaries residing in 
China Proper, Messrs. Bridgman and AVells -Williams, both 
of the American Board. Dr. Parker and the Eev. Edwin 
Stevens both reached Canton in 1834, though the latter 
died in 1837. 

With the opening of the treaty ports there was an 
immediate move forward. Messrs. Eoberts and Shuck of 
the Aoierican Baptist Mission appear to have been the 
first to settle at Hongkong, moving there in 1842. In the 
following year the London Missionary Society transferred 
its printing press and its Anglo-Chinese College to that 
colony. Dr. Legge, who had been in Malacca since 1839, 
being its Principal. For the next thirty-four years, until 
his appointment as Professor of Chinese at Oxford, Dr. 
Legge continued his invaluable labours, placing the whole 
world, and the missionary body especially, under a lasting 
obligation to him for his translations and commentaries on 
the Chinese classics. Among his colleagues in the L.M.S. 
at Hongkong must be mentioned Drs. Chalmers and 
Hobson. 

Among the other Societies represented at Hongkong 
during this period were the Church Missionary Society 
temporarily ; ^ the Basel Missionary Society, which com- 
menced work on the island in 1847; and the Ehenish 

^ Bishop Smith of Hongkong first went out in connection with the 
C.M.S. in 1844, but his health failing, he had to return home after two 
years' service. He was consecrated Bishop of Victoria, Hongkong, in 1849. 




1. Rev. M. T. Yates. 
4. Rev. H. Z. Kloekers. 
7. Rev. Ed. Pagell. 



GROUP II. 

2. Rev. A. Williamson. 
5. Rev. Dr. Faber. 
8. Rev. M. Schaub. 



3. Rev. C. P. Piton. 
6. Rev. R. Lechlef. 
9. Rev. A. W. Heyde. 



For short Biographiad outliiies, see patjes 437-8. 



To face po.ge 1 tj. 



INTRODUCTION 17 

Mission with such men as Genaehr and Lobscheid. The 
Rev. George Piercy, who founded the Wesleyan Missions 
in China, commenced his work there before removing to 
Canton, and among the teachers connected with the 
Morrison Education Society should be mentioned the Rev. 
S. R. Brown. 

In Canton the work grew round such men as the Rev. 
R, H. Graves of the American Baptists, South, a worker 
who has recently celebrated his Jubilee of missionary 
service in China ; while the Rev. I. J. Roberts, subsequently 
famous as the one to whom the leader of the Taiping 
Rebellion made application for baptism, had moved from 
Hongkong to this city. 

The work at Amoy was founded by Abeel and Boone in 
1842, and among the names permanently associated with 
that centre are William Burns and Carstairs Douglas of the 
English Presbyterian Mission. Fuchow was opened by the 
Rev. Stephens Johnson of the American Board in 1846, 
after thirteen years' work at Bangkok, he being joined by 
the Rev. J. Doolittle of the same Society. The American 
Methodist Episcopalians and the Church Missionary Society 
followed, the latter Mission being severely tested by eleven 
years of hard toil before any visible results were seen. 
With this centre also is connected the first effort of the 
Church in Sweden to assist in the evangelisation of China. 
The Missionary Society of Lund sent out two men ; but 
before work had been commenced, one had been killed by 
pirates and the other so severely wounded as to be invalided 
for life. 

Going northward to Ningpo, we find the work there 
carried on by several Societies. The American Baptists 
were represented by Drs. D. J. Macgowan, E. C. Lord, and 
J. Goddard ; the American Presbyterians with a strong 
work under Dr. D. B. M'Cartee, Dr. W. A. P. Martin, and 
others ; the English Baptists with their first China Mission 
opened by T. H. Hudson ; and the Church Mission- 
ary Society represented by Cobbold, Russell, Gough, and 
G. E. Moule. Both Russell and G. E. Moule were subse- 

c 



18 THE CHINESE EMPIRE 

queiitly consecrated Bishops. The remarkable work among 
Chinese girls carried on by Miss Aldersey, who had left 
England as early as 1837 for Java, whence she removed to 
Ningpo, must not be forgotten ; nor the lamented Mr. 
Lowrie, who was murdered by pirates at sea. 

At Shanghai some nine or ten Societies commenced 
work, the details of which would weary the general reader. 
Among the outstanding men at that centre, mention should 
be made of Drs. Medhurst, Lockhart, Muirhead, Edkins, 
Griffith John, and Mr. Wylie, all of the L.M.S. ; Bishop 
Boone, the Rev., afterwards Bishop, Schereschewsky of the 
American Episcopalian ; Dr. Bridgman of the American 
Board, who had removed there from Canton ; and the Rev. 
J. Hudson Taylor of the Chinese Evangelisation Society, 
who removed to Ningpo in 1856. 

To summarise the period. During the eighteen years 
between the Treaty of Nanking and the Peking Convention, 
some seventeen Societies had commenced work in China, 
having, with the other Societies already on the field, sent 
out some 160 to 170 workers, not counting wives. Of these, 
seventy had either died or retired during the period, while 
of the seventeen Societies mentioned, at least five of them 
have no work in China to-day. 

The two outstanding events which materially affected 
the missionary work of this period were the outbreak of the 
Taiping Rebellion and the second war which preceded the 
Treaty of Tientsin. 

Hong Siu-ts'iien, with whom the Taiping Rebellion 
originated, was born in 1813, the year that Milne reached 
Canton. At the age of twenty he received a tract from 
Liang A-fah, Dr. Morrison's convert and helper. The 
tract was, however, neglected for some ten years, during 
which time his annoyance at repeated failures to obtain 
his degree greatly aggravated an illness which assumed the 
form of cataleptic fits and visions. Connecting these 
visions with what he subsequently read in the tract, he 
started upon a crusade against idolatry and the reigning 
dynasty. An attempt to arrest him resulted in his finally 



INTKODUCTION 19 

taking up arms against the throne and the proclaiming of 
himself as the " Heavenly King," 

Inspired in its beginnings with much that was good, 
such as the condemnation of opium-smoking, the observ- 
ance of the Sabbath, the circulation of the Scriptures — 
these being specially bound with the Taiping arms em- 
blazoned on the cover — it gradually degenerated into a 
cruel and terrible rebellion which devastated the fairest of 
China's provinces and slew millions of human lives. The 
rebellion was not quelled until 1864, wheu the city of 
Nanking fell before General Gordon, the rising having 
commenced in 1850. With the various opinions as to the 
good and evil connected with this movement there is not 
space to deal here. Suf&ce it to say that the British and 
Foreign Bible Society in 1853 decided to celebrate its 
Jubilee by the printing of one million New Testaments in 
Chinese, the Christian public at home, in common with 
many of the missionaries on the field, hoping that the 
movement might result in a general acceptance of Chris- 
tianity on the part of the Chinese. 

Meanwhile, in the midst of these troubles, England's 
second war with China broke out over the lorcha Arrow 
incident. This boat, engaged in smuggling opium, was 
flying the British flag, but without authorisation for so 
doing. The Chinese Government not unnaturally seized 
the boat (Oct. 1856), knowing her true nature, while the 
British demanded immediate satisfaction for what was re- 
garded by them as an insult to the British flag. The war 
which followed lasted, with an unsatisfactory peace of one 
year, from 1856 — when Canton was bombarded — until 
1860, when the 1858 treaty of Tientsin was ratified at 
Peking. 

From 1858 to 1860 no fewer than nine treaties were 
signed between China on the one hand, and Britain, the 
United States, France, and Eussia on the other, while one 
with Prussia was signed during the following year. By 
these treaties Peking was opened to the residence of Foreign 
Ministers, and, if the whole list as it appears in Article VI. 



20 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

of the Prussian Treaty ^ be followed, the following ports 
were declared opened to trade : Canton, Swatow, Amoy, 
Foochow, Ningpo, Shanghai, Chefoo, Tientsin, Niuchuang, 
Chinkiang, Kiukiang, Hankow, Kiungchow (Hainan), and 
Taiwan and Tamsui in Formosa. Five of these had, of 
course, been opened by the Nanking Treaty of 1842. 

Among the important items of the British Treaty must 
be mentioned the Tariff revision, which was acknowledged 
as part and parcel of the Treaty. Rule V. of this Tariff 
reads : " The restrictions affecting trade in opium, etc., are 
relaxed, under the following conditions : Opium shall 
henceforth pay 30 taels per picul import duty." This was 
to prevent the Chinese excluding the trade by the imposition 
of a more heavy duty. Comment is not needed. 

In addition to the opening of the ports mentioned above, 
the right to travel, with passport, throughout the eighteen 
provinces was granted, the protection of foreigners and 
Chinese propagating or adopting Christianity was promised, 
while the Chinese translation of the French Treaty gave 
special permission to French missionaries " to rent and 
purchase land in the provinces and to erect buildings thereon 
at pleasure." Although the French text, which was the 
final authority, did not contain this clause — it having been 
surreptitiously inserted by one of the French priests into 
the Chinese text, an action not unnaturally severely criti- 
cised — the Chinese never raised any serious objection and 
were guided by their own translation. 

Period of Penetration, 1860-1877 

To follow in detail the development of Missions through 
the succeeding years is increasingly difficult, and naturally 
quite impossible within the limits of a brief introduction. 
The Treaty of Tientsin was recognised as a loud call to the 
Churches at home to do more for the evangelisation of 
China. During the lull between the signing of the Treaty 

' Nanking being in the hands of the Taipings when the British Treaty 
was drawn up, the British Treaty does not name the Yangtse ports. 




1. Rev. Josiah Cox. 
4. Rev. Wm. Burns. 
7. Rev. Geo. Pieucy. 



GROUP III. 

2. Rev. Wm. Muikhead. 

.^). Rev. J. GiLMOUR. 

8. Rev. Roderick Macdoxald, M.D. 

For short Bioyraphical ovflines, see puyes 439-40. 



3. Mu. A. WvLiE. 

t). Rev. David Hill. 

9. Rev. Joseph Edkins, D.D. 

To face page 21. 



INTRODUCTION 21 

at Tientsin in 1858 and its ratification at Peking in 1860, 
the British squadron proceeded up the river Yangtse, and 
Dr. Muirhead of the L.M.S. was allowed as a special favour 
to accompany the expedition. In consequence of his 
report, Griffith John and R. Wilson were designated to 
Hankow by the L.M.S., which important city they reached in 
1861, soon after it had been opened as one of the new ports. 

In 1862 Josiah Cox, of the Wesleyan Missionary Society, 
reached the same strategic centre, being joined shortly 
afterwards by Dr. Porter Smith, the first medical missionary 
to Central China, in 1864, and by David Hill in 1865. 
In 1864 Griffith John had the joy of baptizing his first 
converts at Hankow, and in the same year the first Chinese 
clergyman connected with the C.M.S. was ordained at 
Shanghai by Bishop Smith. 

An advance was also made towards the north of China : 
Dr. Edkins of the L.M.S. settled at Tientsin in 1861, and 
Dr. Lockhart of the same Society was permitted to reside 
at Peking as medical adviser to the Legation. Dr. Edkins 
baptized the first converts at Peking in 1862, and settled 
there the following year, leaving the work at Tientsin in 
the care of Jonathan Lees. In 1864 Dr. Dudgeon succeeded 
Dr. Lockhart. The Methodist New Connexion commenced its 
China Mission in 1860, and early stationed its two workers, 
the Eevs. J. Innocent and "W. N. Hall, at Tientsin, out-station 
work being opened by this Society in Shantung in 1866. 

In 1862 the C.M.S. commenced its direct Mission work 
both at Hongkong and in Peking, though Bishop Smith of 
Hongkong had previously been a C.M.S. man. The Rev. 
J. S. Burdon (afterwards Bishop) was allowed to remain at 
Peking as quasi chaplain to the British Embassy, where he 
was joined by'W. H. Collins in 1863, when the restrictions 
against residence in that city were removed. Tengchow, 
some 55 miles north-west of Chefoo, was opened by the 
American Presbyterians, North, in 1861, the same Society 
commencing its work in Peking in 1863, by the transfer of 
Dr. W. A. P. Martin to that centre. 

In the autumn of 1865, the Rev. G. E. Moule (after- 



22 THE CHINESE EMPIKE 

wards Bishop Moule), with his family, moved to Hangchow 
in Chekiang. This was an important occasion, for it was 
the first definite case of inland residence at other than a 
Treaty Port, though the settlement of the American 
Presbyterians, as mentioned above, at Tengchow on the 
coast, some 55 miles from the nearest Treaty Port, must not 
be overlooked. The American Presbyterians and American 
Baptists soon followed to Hangchow, and in November 1866 
Mr. Hudson Taylor made that city the first headquarters of 
the newly-formed China Inland Mission. It should also be 
mentioned that the United Methodist Free Church com- 
menced its work in Ningpo in 1864. 

Although great opportunities for the evangelisation of 
China were presented to the Christian Church by the 
signing of the Tientsin Treaty, unfortunately the Civil 
War in America seriously crippled the Missionary Societies 
of that country, and a spirit of religious indifference was no 
less seriously affecting the Churches of Great Britain. In 
1860, when the Peking Convention was signed, the total 
number of missionaries in China is estimated to have been 
about 115 ; while in March 1865, when the China Inland 
Mission was projected, the total was only 1 1 2} "When the 
year 1866 dawned, there were in all only 15 Central 
Mission Stations, which were all at open ports, with the 
exception of Tengchow, which had been opened by the 
American Presbyterians in 1861; Kalgan, on the Mongolian 
frontier, which had been opened by the American Board in 
1865 ; and Hangchow, which had been opened by the 
present Bishop G. E. Moule in 1865. These stations 
were all located in 7 provinces (including Formosa), all 
coast provinces, with the exception of Hupeh, in which 
Hankow is situated. 

^ The figures are taken from the statistical table as published iu Mr. 
Hudson Taylor's original edition of China's Spiritual Needs and Claims. 
Mr. Hudson Taylor himself in his subsequent writings gives the number 
as 91, which figure has been frequently quoted by other writers. The 
details of the March 1865 statistical table are : 98 ordained and 14 lay 
missionaries ; 206 Chinese assistants, of whom about a dozen were ordained; 
3132 Chinese communicants ; 25 Missionary assistants, of which 10 were 
American, 12 British, and 3 Continental. 




L Rev. J. Macintyre. 
4. Rev. W. N. Hall. 
7. Rev. .J. Ross. 



GROUP lY. 

2. Dr. J. M. Hunter. 
.5. Rev. J. Innocent. 
8. Rev. H. Blodget. 



3. Rev. Carstairs Douglas. 
6. Rev. .J. L. Nevius. 
9. Rev. H. Waddell. 



Fur shiirt Bio(jraphical outlines, see pages 440-1. 



To face page 23. 



INTKODUCTION 23 

Before we pass to the developments of the later 'sixties, 
it should be mentioned that in 1863 the S.P.G. sent out 
two men to China, but these only remained on the field for 
a few months, the permanent work of that Society being 
commenced at a later date. In 1864 Bishop Smith of 
Hongkong, after fifteen years of service, resigned this 
office, and the Kev. C. R Alford was consecrated Bishop of 
Victoria, while W. A. Eussell was appointed as C.M.S. 
Secretary for China. Bishop Alford threw himself heartily 
into the work of the C.M.S., visiting all their stations on 
the China coast, and travelling up the river Yangtse. So 
great was his zeal for the evangelisation of China, that he 
even proposed the founding of a new Society for that 
special purpose. The proposal, however, was not favoured at 
home. 

The express object which lay behind the formation of 
the C.I.M. was the occupation of Inland China, there 
being at that time eleven inland provinces without any 
Protestant missionary. In 1866 two inland stations 
were opened in the province of Chekiang, by J. W. 
Stevenson, who had preceded the Lammermuir party. 
Three more inland stations in the same province were 
opened in 1867, and the city of Nankin, capital of 
Kiangsu, was occupied by Mr. Duncan in September of 
the following year. 

Kiangsi was the first of the eleven " unoccupied 
provinces " to be opened to the Grospel, and this was by the 
American Methodist Episcopalian Mission, which commenced 
work at Kiukiang in 1868, the C.I.M. following in 1869. 
Anhwei, another of the " unoccupied provinces," was opened 
in January 1869 by the C.I.M., the cities of Chinkiang 
and Yangchow in Kiangsu having been opened by the 
same Mission in 1868. It was at this latter city that 
the terrible riot of 1868 took place.^ 

^ The Duke of Somerset's bittei' attack upon Missions, made in the 
House of Lords at this time, received a crushing reply by Bishop Magee ; 
the same Duke's subsequent attack on African Missions, also made in 
the Upper House, being answered by Archbishop Benson. Mr. Stock has 
pointed out that both of these replies were maiden speeches. 



24 THE CHINESE EMPIKE 

Meanwhile missionary work had been commenced in 
Manchuria, Dr. Williamson, as agent for the National 
Bible Society of Scotland, visiting Newchwang in 1866,^ 
while William Burns settled there in 1867, though he 
died the following year. In 1869 the Irish Presbyterian 
Church opened its Mission in Manchuria by the appointing 
of Dr. J. M. Hunter and the Kev. H. Waddell ; the 
United Presbyterian Church of Scotland (now the United 
Free Church) followed in 1872 by appointing the Eev. 
John Eoss to that field, with which his name is now so 
familiar. 

It was in 1870 that the L.M.S. commenced its second 
effort for the evangelisation of Mongolia, the first, as has 
been mentioned above, being closed by the Eussian 
Government in 1840. This second effort is connected 
with the ever-to-be-remembered self-sacrificing labours of 
James Gilmour, who left Peking in 1870 to commence his 
twenty-one years of lonely and faithful toil for that land 
of his adoption. Gilmour's departure from Peking was 
hastened by the terrible news of the Tientsin massacre. 
Fearing that complications might arise which would hinder 
his undertaking, he by faith dared the possibility of having 
his line of communication cut, and " went out, not knowing 
whither he went." 

The dreadful Tientsin massacre horrified the civilised 
world. The French Consul, several French missionaries, 
including nine Sisters of Mercy, together with some Eoman 
Catholic converts, were at that time brutally killed. The 
time was one of considerable unrest, and even at Shanghai 
the foreign residents, with ships of war and more than five 
hundred volunteers, scarcely slept for fear of attack. Fresh 
criticism broke out at home against the missionaries, but 
Sir Thomas Wade and Earl Granville nobly stood by 
the missionary cause. As for France, the sudden outbreak 
of the Franco-German War prevented her bringing that 
strong pressure to bear upon China wiiich she had at first 
threatened. 

^ Newchwang was opened as a port iu 1861. 




GROUP V. 

1. Rev. Dr. Griffith John. 2. Rf>v. R. H. Graves. 

4. Bi8H()P G. E. Moui.E. 5. Bishop Schereschewsky. 

7. Rev. J. L. Maxwell, M.D. 8. Dr. J. G. Kerr. 



3. Bishop Russell. 

6. Rev. Dr. W. A. P. Martin. 

9. Bishop Hoare. 



For short Biographical outlines, see pages 441-2. 



To face page 25. 



INTEODUCTION 25 

Among the most important events which transpired 
between 1870 and 1875 should be mentioned the settle- 
ment of the long - delayed question of a Missionary- 
Bishopric in connection with the C.M.S. This was 
accomplished by the consecration of Bishop Eussell as 
Bishop for North China, and the regretted resignation 
of Bishop Alford ; J. S. Burdou being consecrated as Bishop 
of Victoria in 1874. In 1871 the Canadian Presbyterians 
commenced their work on the Island of Formosa ; and in 
1874 the S.P.G. definitely commenced its China Mission 
by the appointment of two men to that field, one of whom 
is the present Bishop C. P. Scott. It was also in 1874 
that the C.I.M. opened its station at "Wuchang as a base for 
its advance into the interior. The same Mission also opened 
Bhamo in Burmah in 1875, with the hope that it might 
soon be possible to enter China from the west. It was 
also during the same year that the C.I.M. commenced its 
itinerations in what were to prove two of the most 
difi&cult provinces to be opened to the Gospel, the provinces 
of Honan and Hunan. 

During this period an important advance was made in 
the intercourse of foreign nations with China, Ambassadors 
of the various powers being allowed audience with the 
Emperor Tong-chi, who had just attained his majority, 
without performing the usual Chinese prostrations. The 
missionaries had also been considerably perplexed by the 
difficult and vexed controversy over the terms to be used 
for God and Holy Spirit, concerning which subject more 
will be found in the chapter entitled " The Bible in the 
Chinese Empire." 

With the year 1875 Missions in China entered upon a 
new and wider sphere. The murder of Mr. R. A. Margary, 
an English Consular Official who had been sent across 
China from east to west to escort an exploring party 
under Colonel H. Brown from Burmah into China, led to 
the relations between England and China being strained to 
their utmost. After more than eighteen months of diplo- 
matic negotiations, with an ever -increasing tension, the 



26 THE CHINESE EMPIRE 

nations were brought to the verge of war. Sir Thomas 
Wade hauled down the British flag and left Peking. The 
Chinese Government finding they had gone too far, 
despatched Li Hung-chang as their special Commissioner 
to overtake him at Chefoo, when the Chefoo Convention ^ 
of 1876 was signed. 

Although the Tientsin Treaty of 1858 had, in the 
letter, given considerable facilities for missionary operations 
in the interior, these had been in large measure inoperative. 
The Chefoo Convention, however, in addition to giving 
force to privileges already granted, gave special facilities 
for travel, and made special arrangements whereby for two 
years officers might be sent by the British Minister to see 
that proclamations connected with the " Margary Settle- 
ment " were posted throughout the provinces. 

In a remarkable way God had provided for the facilities 
granted by the Chefoo Convention being utilised for the 
evangelisation of China. Some two years previously, Mr. 
Hudson Taylor had been led to put forth an appeal for 
prayer that God would give a band of eighteen men for 
work in the then nine still unoccupied provinces. These 
men were given, and when the Convention was signed they 
were all in China, ready to take advantage of the unfore- 
seen though prayed for openings. Mr. Taylor himself 
arrived just as the Convention was signed, and at once 
inaugurated a series of wide and systematic itinerations 
with the object of preparing the way for future and more 
settled work. That the opportunity was rapidly seized is 
proved by the fact that before the year closed — and the 
Convention had only been signed in September — Shansi, 
Shensi, and Kansu had been entered, while during the 
following year Szechwan and Yunnan had been traversed, 
the capital of Kweichow occupied, and Kwangsi visited. 

During 1877 Mr. J. McCarthy accomplished his remark- 
able walk across China, an account of which was published 

^ The Chefoo Convention was not ratified until 1885. Although the 
Chinese fulfilled its stipulations, the British Government delayed its 
ratification for nine years, that it might exact more onerous conditions 
concerning the opium traffic. 




1. Rkv. H. L. Mackenzie. 
4. Rev. R. P. Lau,ghton. 
7. Rev. J. M'Carthy. 



GROUP VI. 

2. Dr. J. Cameron. 

5. Rev. J. W. Stevenson. 

8. Mr. James Meadows. 



3. Dr. R. H. a. Sc'Hofield. 
6. Rev. W. M'Gregor. 
9. Mr. Adam Dor ward. 



For short Biographkal ovtlines, see j^ges 443-4. 



To face 2mge 27. 



INTRODUCTION 27 

by the Geographical Society, and in the C.I.M. Report for 
1878 it was stated that the missionary journeys of twenty 
pioneers had amounted to an aggregate of 30,000 miles. 
Could a clearer illustration of Divine guidance be desired 
than this. The men had been prayed for before there was 
any evidence of the way being opened. The way was, 
however, in an unexpected manner opened, and that just 
as the men ^ were ready to go forward. 

Both M'Carthy and Cameron in their journeys crossed 
from China into Burmah, but were forbidden by the British 
authorities to recross the frontier, and J. W. Stevenson and 
H. Soltau had to wait for four years before they obtained 
permission to enter China from the west.^ These journeys 
were only the beginnings of a more thorough survey of the 
unoccupied and less occupied parts of China. As many of 
these widespread itinerations were severely criticised at the 
time, it may perhaps be allowable to quote the opinion of so 
competent an authority as Mr. Eugene Stock. Writing of 
this period in the History of the Church Missionary Society, 
he says : " The work, in fact, only professed to be preparatory, 
and in that sense after years showed that its success was 
unmistakable. Gradually, but after a considerable time, 
not only the C.I.M. but many other Societies — the C.M.S. 
for one — established regular stations in the remoter pro- 
vinces ; and of all these Missions, the C.I.M. men were the 
courageous forerunners." 

If it be remembered that this, the real opening of the 
interior of China, took place only a generation ago, it will 
be recognised what an immense advance has since been 
made. In addition to the above-mentioned itinerations, 
several long and important journeys had been made by 

^ Of these men Mr. Stock has said : "Some of whom have since made a 
very definite mark in the history of Missions in China. " Among them, 
special reference should be made to Adam Dorward, who gave eight years 
to itinerant work in Hnnan (see Pioneer Work in Hunan, published by Morgan 
and Scott, 2s.), and Dr. Cameron, whose extensive journeys took him 
through seventeen out of eighteen provinces, not to speak of his itinerations 
in Manchuria, Mongolia, Eastern Tibet, and Bunnali. 

^ Mr. Stevenson made an experimental journey across the border in the 
winter of 1879 ; returning to Bhamo, he with Mr. Soltau set out in 1880 on 
what was the first journey across China from west to east. 



28 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

members of other Missions, which must not be overlooked. 
The most remarkable of these were the following : — 

1864. Dr. Williamson, to Eastern Mongolia. 

1865. Mr. Bagley, to "remote provinces." 

1866. Dr. Williamson and Rev. J. Lees, to Shensi, through 

Shansi, returning via Honan. 

1867. Mr. Johnson, of B. and F.B.S., to Honan. 

1868. Mr. Wylie and Dr. John, of L.M.S., to Szechwan and 

through Shensi. 
1868. Mr. Oxenham, from Peking to Hankow, through 

Honan. 
1867-70. Mr. Wellman, of B. and F.B.S., in Shansi. 
1870-72. Mr. Mollman, of B. and F.B.S., in Shansi. 

While these widespread itinerations were taking place, 
the first general Missionary Conference was held at Shanghai. 
At that gathering it was estimated that the total number 
of men who had joined the Protestant Missions to the 
Chinese up to 1876 was 484. The total number of 
workers, men and women, in the field in 1877 was 473. 
Of these, 228 were attached to 15 British Societies, 212 
were connected with 12 American Societies, while 26 
represented 2 Continental Missions, and 7 were uncon- 
nected. The total number of converts was 13,035. 



The Period of Pkogress, Persecution, and Prosperity, 
1878-1907 

The wider openings afforded by the Chefoo Convention 
and the interest aroused in the Home Churches by the 
Conference of 1877, together with other causes, led to a 
noticeable advance in the occupation of China for Christ. 
Only four new Societies entered upon work in China 
during the 'seventies. These Societies were : the Canadian 
Presbyterian, which commenced its work in Formosa in 
1871, though it did not open up work on the mainland 
until 1888; the S.P.G. in 1874; the American Bible 
Society in 1876 ; and the Church of Scotland in 1878. 
In addition to many Tract and Educational Societies formed 



INTRODUCTION 29 

in China about the time of the 1877 Conference and after- 
wards, there were no fewer than thirteen new Societies 
which entered upon work in China during the 'eighties. 
These were the following : — 

The Peking Bhnd Mission in 1881 ; the Berhn Missionary 
Society in 1882; the Church of England Zenana Mission in 
1884, when the French were at war with China; the German 
General Protestant Mission in 1885; the Bible Christians, 
which Society started its work as an associated Mission with the 
C.I.M. in 1885; the Christians Mission in the same year; the 
Foreign Christians Mission and the English Friends in 1886; 
the Swedish Mission in China and the German China Alliance, 
both associated with the C.I.M., in 1887 and 1889 respectively; 
the Scandinavian American Christian Free Church Mission and 
the Seventh Day Adventists in 1888 ; and the United Brethren 
in Christ in 1889. 

Especial reference should be made to the rapid increase 
in the number of workers connected with the C.I.M. at this 
time. In 1881 special prayer began to be offered that 
God would send out seventy additional workers during the 
years 1882, 1883, 1884. The actual number sent was 
seventy-six. In 1885 some forty more followed, among 
whom were the well-known Cambridge Seven, six of whom 
are still engaged in the evangelisation of China, while the 
seventh, Mr. Studd, is still a warm missionary advocate. 
In 1887, in answer to prayer, God gave one hundred 
additional workers to the C.I.M. Of that number fifteen 
have died on the field and seven suffered martyrdom ; 
twenty-four have retired after various terms of service, on 
the grounds of health, family claims, and other reasons ; 
sixteen subsequently became connected with other Societies, 
of whom thirteen are still in China ; while thirty-eight are 
still connected with the C.I.M. That more than fifty per 
cent of the hundred sent out in 1887 have been spared to 
devote twenty years of their lives for the evangelisation of 
Inland China is surely a cause for thankfulness. 

Among the many noteworthy events connected with the 
rapid extension of missionary effort which succeeded the 



30 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

Couference of 1877, special mention must be made of the 
important development of women's work, especially in the 
interior. As early as 1844, Miss Aldersey, as an inde- 
pendent worker, had commenced her work among the women 
and girls at Ningpo; while in 1850 the American Protestant 
Episcopalian Church, the first Society to send a lady worker 
to China, sent out Miss L. M. Fay to Shanghai. The 
Berlin Foundling Home at Hongkong soon followed this 
example, while the American Methodist Episcopalian 
Mission sent the Misses B. and S. H. Woolston to Foochow 
in 1859. The American Presbyterians and American 
Baptists followed in 1866, the latter Society sending Miss 
A. M. Field to Swatow. 

In 1866, when the C.I.M. Lammermuir party sailed, 
there were only fourteen unmarried ladies in China, of 
whom seven were at Hongkong, the others being stationed 
in six of the principal coast ports. In the Lammermuir 
party, however, were six single lady workers, in addition to 
two married ladies. At the Conference of 1877 there 
were sixty-two lady workers, not counting the missionaries' 
wives, so that the number had risen from fourteen to sixty- 
two in little over a decade. 

With the famine of 1877-78 in Shansi, women's work in 
the interior may be said to have commenced, and the first 
party of ladies to go west consisted of Mrs. Hudson Taylor, 
Miss Home, and Miss Crikmay, who reached Taiyuen Fu, 
the capital of the famine-stricken province, in October 187.8. 
Within the short space of three years from this date, 
women workers connected with the C.I.M. had entered 
and settled in six of the inland provinces, besides taking 
the Gospel to hundreds of women living in Honan and 
Hunan, where residence was not then possible. 

It was also at this time, through the energy and the 
appeals of Miss Foster of the Society for Pi-omoting Female 
Education in the East,^ that the Church of England Zenana 
Missionary Society extended their operations from India 

^ This Society was foriued as a result of the appeals of Mr. Abeel in 
England in 1834. 



INTEODUCTION 31 

to China, commencing their work in the latter field in 
1884. It is only necessary to refer to the Missionary 
statistics given on p. 39 to see to what proportions these 
small beginnings have grown. 

A comparison of the statistics of the two Conferences of 
1877 and 1890 show at a glance how rapid had been the 
progress made. The number of missionaries had increased 
from 473 to 1296; the converts from 13,035 to 37,287; 
the Chinese helpers from 660 to 1377; and the contribu- 
tions of the Chinese Church from $9271 to $36,884. 

As the details of recent missionary effort in China are 
still fresh within the memory of the majority of those who 
will read these pages, there is little need to do more than 
briefly enumerate the leading events which have either 
shaped or made manifest the wonderful movements of the 
last seventeen years, since the Conference of 1890. 

Two outstanding events, however, connected with that 
Conference must not pass unrecorded. The first was the 
unexpected unanimity with which it was decided that 
Union versions of the Scriptures should be prepared in 
Mandarin, High Wen-li, and Easy Wen-li, a task so far 
completed that the results are ready for presentation to the 
Centenary Conference of 1907. 

The second event was the appeal, issued by the Con- 
ference to the Protestant Churches of the world, to send 
out an additional thousand men within the next five years. 
God's answer to this prayer was the sending not of one 
thousand men, but of 1153 men and women. 

The workers had barely returned to their stations after 
these notable meetings at Shanghai, when a series of anti- 
foreign riots commenced. All along the Yangtse there was 
considerable unrest, and riots at several centres — one at 
"Wusueh resulting in the murder of one missionary con- 
nected with the Wesleyan body and of a Customs official. 
In the province of Fukien many of the workers also were 
shamefully treated, while a Presbyterian medical missionary 
in Manchuria was cruelly tortured. At the same time 



32 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

there commenced the wide circulation of the blasphemous 
placards which were issued from Hunan. In consequence 
of these and other disturbances, the Foreign Ministers of 
the various Powers presented a joint protocol to the Chinese 
Government in September 1891. 

It was during the autumn of this latter year that the 
new departure of the C.M.S. connected with the name of 
the Eev. J. H. Horsburgh, the author of Do Not Say, took 
place, when a band of workers consisting of one clergyman, 
seven laymen, and five single ladies, with Mr. Horsburgh 
and his wife with two children, commenced a Mission in 
the north-west of Szechwan, from which has developed 
the present C.M.S. West China Mission. Connected with 
this movement must be mentioned the consecration of the 
Eev. W. W. Cassels, one of the C.I.M. " Cambridge Seven," 
as Bishop of West China. 

While new workers and new Societies were entering 
into new spheres of work, the Chino-Japanese War suddenly 
broke out. The collapse of the Chinese before their island 
foe, whom they had, up to that time, despised as dwarfs, 
did not a little to somewhat rudely awaken China from her 
self-complacency and pride. With the awakening, however, 
there followed a period of serious unrest and trouble. In 
the west, the greater part of Szechwan was convulsed by 
serious riots, and many of the missionaries were for a time 
driven out of the province. This took place in May 1895. 
More serious trouble, however, was to follow, for in August 
of the same year the world was shocked by one of the 
worst missionary massacres of modern times. On the Hwa 
mountain, some twelve miles from Kucheng, in the province 
of Fukien, nine adult workers, with two children, connected 
with the C.M.S. and C.E.Z.M.S., were cruelly murdered on 
August 1, while others were severely wounded. 

Dreadful and harrowing as were the facts connected 
with this massacre, it would be difficult to find a more 
beautiful illustration of that spirit which should characterise 
those who represent Christ to men than that which was 
manifested by the sorely stricken families and missionary 



INTEODUCTION 33 

Societies. The command to " pray for those who despite- 
fully use you " was literally fulfilled, and a public meeting 
was immediately summoned in Exeter Hall, " not for protest, 
not for an appeal to the Government, but in solemn com- 
memoration of the martyred brothers and sisters, and for 
united prayer. . . . Not one bitter word was uttered, nothing 
but sympathy with the bereaved, pity for the misguided 
murderers, thanksgiving for the holy lives of the martyrs, 
and fervent desires for the evangelisation of China." 

How little did any one then know that within the short 
space of five years one of the worst persecutions known to 
history was to take place. Yet terrible as was the loss of 
life which subsequently took place during the awful Boxer 
outbreak of 1900, it would doubtless have been much 
greater but for the wonderful intervention of God Himself. 
During that sad year, the memory of which is still so 
painfully fresh, not only did 135 missionaries, with 53 of 
their children, lay down their lives for Christ in China, but 
thousands of Chinese Christians proved the reality of God's 
work in their hearts and lives by following in the footsteps 
of Him who is " The Faithful Witness." 

Of the coup d'Mat of 1898; of the assumption of official 
rank by the Koman Catholic missionaries in China in 
1899 ; of the seizure of Kiaochow by Germany in conse- 
quence of the murder of two Koman Catholic missionaries ; 
of the Eussian entry into Manchuria, and the fortification 
of Port Arthur ; of the British occupation of Weihaiwei ; 
and of the other various demands upon the Chinese Empire, 
all of which more or less led up to the terrible revenge of 
1900, there is now no need to speak. 

Nor will space allow any adequate survey of the rapid 
and complex movements of the last few years, of the Eusso- 
Japanese War, and the extraordinary collapse of the Eussian 
army ; of the alliance between England and Japan, and the 
guarantee of her integrity to China by that agreement ; of 
the extraordinary thirst for Western knowledge, so recently 
manifested ; of the awakening of a new sense of national 
life, and the assumption of the watchword " China for the 

D 



34 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

Chinese " ; of the creation of a Chinese national army in 
contradistinction to provincial troops; of the courageous 
crusade against the opium curse ; or to the many other 
developments in almost every department of Chinese life. 
These things are all known to those who have even super- 
ficially followed the course of events, which during the last 
few years have been re- shaping the Far East, and many of 
them are referred to, more or less in detail, in the separate 
articles which follow. 

A perusal of the Table of Foreign Publications (see 
opposite page), translations of which can now be bought 
nearly all over China, will show at a glance how wide is 
the gulf between the but recent past, when all that was 
good was thought by the Chinese to be contained in Con- 
fucian literature, and the present, when they hungrily devour 
every variety of literature that the West can supply. 

China has entered upon a new era in her history, and 
he would be a bold man who would dare to prophesy what 
the future has in store for the world in consequence. That 
China has immense and deep-seated evils to combat, her 
best friends know, and that she cannot make any serious 
progress without confronting many dangerous situations and 
fighting many a battle, is evident to all. He, therefore, who 
would be a friend to that land, and thereby a friend to the 
world, must be willing, at some sacrifice to himself and 
may be nation, to earnestly assist China in her desires for 
better things. " The elevation of China is not a thing to 
be afraid of, but her degradation is." Let the nations deal 
with her righteously ; let England in particular cease her 
opium trade, and offer a helping hand to her in her present 
struggle with those evils which threaten her life ; above all, 
let the Church of Christ take to heart more seriously than 
she yet has done the overwhelming needs and claims of that 
great Empire, and China with its countless millions may 
yet be spared to bless the world. 



INTRODUCTION 



35 



Foreign Publications which have been translated 
INTO Chinese 

The name at the heading of each column shows the medium of translation 

Class A, mostly the best Ancient Jewish Apostolic, Medi^eval, 
AND Reformation Litebature 



Subject. 


Roman 
Catholic. 


Biblical Works . 


3 


Church History 


7 


Christian Biographies 


16 


Theological Works . 


35 


Apologetic Works 


28 


Devotional Works 


43 


Church Rules . 


1 


Tracts 


124 



Religious 

Tract 
Society. 

67 

1 

9 

9 

4 
22 

2 

398 



Educa- 
tional As- 
sociation. 

2 
1 



Diffusion 
Society. 

10 

9 
11 
10 
10 
13 

1 
60 



Native 
Transla- 
tions. 



257 



512 



124 



Class B, mostly the best Modern Literature 



Subject. 


Roman 
Catholic. 


Beligious 
Tract 
Society. 


Educa- 
tional As- 
sociation. 


Diffusion 
Society. 


Native 
Transla- 
tions. 


Comparative Religioi 


1 






5 




Philosophy 


1 




2 


13 


40 


Ethics 








1 






Psychology 




'. 2 




1 


"i 




Medicine . 




2 




17 


2 


70 


Astronomy 




1 




5 


1 


20 


Geography 




3 


i 


11 


2 


40 


Geology . 








3 






Mineralogy 








3 


i 




Universal History 






2 


9 


"7 


National History 






5 


7 


83 


General Biographies 


i 






11 




Mathematics 


3 


"i 


15 


2 


70 


Physics 




5 




21 


5 




Chemistry 








10 






Electricity 








2 


'2 




Mechanics 








3 




40 


Government 








1 


"4 


60 


Law . 








2 


4 


40 


Education . 




'. 12 


2 


19 


17 




Language . 












50 


Economics 








"3 


6 


30 


Commerce 










2 




Industry . 








13 






Agriculture 










1 




Statistics . 




1 






1 


30 


Maps, Travels, Poetrj 


', etc. 6 


16 


40 


33 


130 


Miscellaneous . 


5 


32 


3 


10 


340 




42 


52 


182 


139 


1,050 


Class A 


. 257 


512 


3 


124 




Grand 


Total 


. 299 


564 


185 


263 


1,050 



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40 



THE CHINESE EMPIRE 



Comparative Table of China Missions 

Showing Progress of Missions as reported at Conferences of 
1877, 1890, and 1907.1 





1877. 


1890. 


1907. 


Protestant Missionaries 


473 


1,296 


3,719 


Chinese Helpers . 
Communicants . 


750 
13,035 


1,657 

37,287 


9,998 
154,142 


Stations .... 


91 


? 


706 


Out-Stations 


511 


? 


3,794 


Organised Churches . 


312 


522 




Hospitals .... 

Dispensaries 

Contributions of Native 


16 

24 


61 

44 


1 366 


Church .... 
Day Schools 


$9,271 
15 


$36,884 


2,139 


Pupils in do. . 

Boarding and Higher Schools 


280 

7 


] Total 
V Pupils, 


42,738 
255 


Students in do. . 


292 


J 16,836 


10,227 



1 As the official statistics presented to the Conference and those given in this book have 
been separately compiled, there will probably be some variations, especially as some Reports 
are so imperfectly furnished with statistics. Some reports actually give no statistics, and 
in not a few cases the figures needed are not easily found. Nothing more than an 
approximation is possible under existing conditions.— Ed. 




James Hidsox Taylok. 

James Hudson Taylor, M.R.C.vS., the bploved Founder of tlie Chiua Inland Mission, was born at Barnsley, 
Yorkshire, in 1832, sailed for China under the Chinese Evangelisation Society in 1853. He definitely founded 
the China Inland Mission in 1S65, though he had sent out the first member as early as 1862. There are now 
(1907) in connection with the C. I.M. 875 workers, wives included, in 16 of China's provinces. Mr. Taylor died 
at Changsha, the capital of Hunan, June 1905, after fifty-two years of labour for the Evangelisation of Inland 
China. To face imge 41. 



THE PKOVINCES OF CHINA 

AND THE ISLAND OF FORMOSA 



41 



Comparative Table 



Showing Area and Population of the Provinces of China 
as compared with other well-known countries. 



Province and Country. 


Area, Square Miles. 


Population. 


The Province of Kwangtung 


99,970 


31,865,251 


Italy 


110,650 


31,668,000 


The Province of Fukien 




46,320 


22,876,540 


Portugal .... 




35,507 


4,301,989 


The Province of Chekiang . 




36,670 


11,580,692 


Bulgaria .... 




38,331 


3,309,816 


The Province of Kiangsu 




38,600 


13,980,235 


Portugal .... 




35,507 


4,301,989 


The Province of Shantung . 




55,970 


38,247,900 


Greece .... 




25,143 


2,433,806 


The Province of Chihli 




115,800 


20,937,000 


Austria .... 




115,922 


23,895,413 


The Province of Hupeh 




71,410 


35,280,685 


England and Wales 




58,307 


29,002,525 


The Province of Kiangsi 




69,480 


26,532,125 


Scotland and Ireland . 




62,420 


8,730,397 


The Province of Anhwei 




54,810 


23,670,314 


New York State . 




47,600 


5,997,853 


The Province of Honan 




67,940 


35,316,800 


Missouri 




68,735 


2,679,184 


The Province of Hunan 




83,380 


22,169,673 


Korea 




84,400 


7,500,000 


The Province of Kansu 




125,450 


10,385,376 


Norway 




124,445 


1,988,674 


The Province of Shensi 




75,270 


8,450,182 


Nebraska . 




76,840 


1,058,910 


The Province of Shansi 




81,830 


12,200,456 


Scotland and Ireland . 




62,420 


8,730,397 


The Province of Szechwan 




218,480 


68,724,890 


Madagascar 




228,560 


3,500,000 


The Province of Yunnan 




146,680 


12,324,574 


New Zealand 




103,657 


668,651 


The Province of Kweichow 




67,160 


7,650,282 


Victoria (Australia) 




88,451 


1,140,405 


The Province of Kwangsi 




77,200 


5,142,330 


Sweden 




173,970 


5,009,632 


The Province of Sinkiang 




550,590 


1,000,000 


Cape Colony 




225,690 


1,727,000 



42 



THE PROVINCE OF KWANGTUNG 

By the Eev. J. Campbell Gibson, M.A., D.D., English Presbyterian 

Mission. 

The province of Kwangttjng, or Canton, is of special 
interest on many grounds, From its maritime position, 
its natural wealth, and its convenient harbours, it became 
in ancient times the seat of an extensive foreign trade, 
and had an earlier knowledge of foreign nations than any 
other province. It appears to have been in touch with 
the Eoman Empire, and Arab, Dutch, and Portuguese 
traders early brought it within the reach of Western 
commerce. It was almost the first field of labour of the 
Eomish Missions in China, and it was there also that 
Eobert Morrison began, in 1807, the work of the Protestant 
Missions. The Hakka section of the province was the 
cradle of the great Taiping Eebellion, and its people 
are always strongly inclined to revolutionary schemes. 
These plots are usually fruitless, but the great Taiping 
Eebellion held on its conquering course for years over a 
wide region of the Empire, and it held its own until the 
moral degeneration of its chiefs, under their unexpected 
successes, prepared the way for their defeat and failure. 
The numerous estuaries of the province, and the com- 
plicated network of its rivers and canals, not only lend 
themselves to legitimate commerce, but have from time 
immemorial been the shelter and hunting-ground of hordes 
of daring and formidable pirates. 

This province stretches along the southern seaboard 
of the Empire for a distance of nearly 800 miles. It 

43 



44 THE CHINESE EMPIRE 

lies for the most part within the tropics, has an agree- 
ably variegated surface of plain and mountain, is well 
watered by four ample river systems, with several smaller 
ones, and has large areas of fertile soil. Its products are 
of great variety and value, comprising silk, sugar, indigo, 
rice, tea, tobacco, fruit, salt, and oil ; and it exports also 
large quantities of fish, fresH vegetables, and live stock. 

Its population was reckoned at the census of 1812 at 
about 19,000,000, and has greatly increased since. It 
is now taken at 31,865,251. The people present strongly 
marked features of natural character, with very consider- 
able variations in different portions of the province. Three 
principal varieties of language are spoken, and these repre- 
sent the most ancient forms of the language. The 
" Swatow Dialect," also called the " Tie-chiu Dialect " 
(from the local pronunciation of the name of the pre- 
fecture in which Swatow is situated), occupies about 
140 miles of the coast-line, and extends from 40 to 
60 miles inland in the eastern portion of the province. 
To the north and west of this district is found the " Hakka 
Dialect," which meets the " Tie-chiu Dialect " along an 
irregular line running from east to west, stretches eastward 
into the province of Fukien, northward into the provinces 
of Kiangsi and Hunan, and shades off into the " Mandarin 
Dialect" of Central China. The western and southern 
sections are occupied by the " Cantonese Dialect," also 
called the " Pun-ti Dialect," which in varying forms is 
spoken by more than half of the whole population. 

The Hakkas have few large cities, and occupy for the 
most part scattered villages and hamlets in the mountainous 
districts, which are only capable of maintaining a rather 
sparse population. They are a manly and vigorous race, 
chiefly occupied in agriculture, but are better educated than 
those in the more crowded plains. At the same time, they 
are a turbulent and lawless people, and revolutionary and 
other secret societies flourish among them. Many of them 
go into other districts as blacksmiths and as barbers, and 
many find employment in the yamens as clerks and runners, 



THE PKOVINCE OF KWANGTUNG 45 

and in the lower ranks of the mandarinate. The Cantonese 
and Swatow men, on the other hand, have their numerous 
large towns and cities, and thickly crowded " villages " of 
large size. The country people are hard-working agricul- 
turists, while the people of the principal towns, and 
especially those of the sea-ports, are distinguished as the 
ablest and most enterprising of Chinese merchants. The 
" Canton Guilds " and the " Swatow Guilds " are the leading 
powers — and usually rival powers — in most of the trading 
communities of China, being found in great force in Shanghai, 
and as far north as Tientsin and Newchwang. 

From this province, too, come the most fearless and 
industrious of emigrants; They are found in large numbers 
not only in Singapore and the other Straits Settlements, in 
Borneo and the Philippines, but also southward in Australia, 
westward as far as South Africa, and eastward as far as 
British Columbia and California. The number of emigrants 
from the port of Swatow alone reached 103,202 in 1904, 
and 95,173 in 1905, or an average of close on 100,000 
yearly. There is a return stream of about 83,000 yearly, 
and, although no figures are procurable, there is a flow of 
money earned by these emigrants and sent home which must 
reach to several, perhaps many, millions of dollars annually, 
and brings a considerable amount of comfort into many homes 
in the poorer country districts. The conditions of emigra- 
tion are equitable and allow complete individual freedom. 
After paying off the cost of passage, which is not a large 
sum, many become landholders or shopkeepers, and come 
home for a time to take out w^ith them relatives or friends 
to assist in their undertakings. Thus in various ways the 
whole system alleviates substantially the poverty of some 
country districts in the Kwangtung province. In some 
cases considerable fortunes are made, and emigrants some- 
times return finally to their homes as men of wealth and 
influence. 

The coast towns and villages have a large population 
of bold and hardy seamen and fishermen, who reap the 
harvest of the sea, and often suffer terribly from the 



46 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

devastating tempests of these tropical waters. Many of 
these find employment on foreign steamers, the Swatow 
men having a high reputation as deck hands and carpenters, 
and the Cantonese as engineers. 

The literary annals of the province are perhaps less 
glorious than those of some other portions of the Empire, 
but it can claim by right of residence, if not of birth, the 
illustrious names of Han Yii, the brilliant statesman and 
essayist, and of Su Tung-p'o, the hardly less famous poet. 
In recent times the Kwangtung province has produced 
the well-known " Modern Sage " and apostle of reform, 
K'ang Yu-wei, the adviser of the Emperor in his memor- 
able and epoch-making efforts to regenerate his country. 
On the other hand, popular rumour, rightly or wrongly, 
claims for this province also the birth of the notorious 
head of the opposite party, the Empress-Dowager,^ who has 
presented to the astonished world the spectacle of a Chinese 
woman defying at once the most enlightened opinion of her 
own people and the allied fleets and armies of nine civilised 
powers. 

Taken as a whole, the people of this province have few 
rivals, either in physique or in mental capacity. They form 
an important element of the national strength, and are well 
worth winning for the Kingdom of God. 

The first Christian missionaries in the Kwangtung 
province were the Jesuits. Francois Xavier had only 
reached the island of San-siang "^ to die there in the year 
1552. In 1579 the Jesuit Michel Eogger was sent to 
Macao, and succeeded in effecting an entrance into Canton ; 
and he was joined soon after by the more famous Matthew 
Eicci. Their literary attainments greatly impressed the 
Chinese, but one of their own colleagues has frankly ad- 
mitted that they gained more applause than spiritual fruit. 
Chaoking, to the west of Canton City, and Shaochow, to 
the north, seem to have been the centres at which they 

' I have the best authority for saying that "the Empress-Dowager is 
certainly a lilanchu of Peking. " — Ed. 

- The Mandarin spelling would be Shang-ch'uan. — Ed. 



THE PROVINCE OF KWANGTUNG 47 

first established themselves. Eomanist writers claim that 
by the end of the thirteenth century they had two churches, 
6000 Christians, and a Papal Legate at Peking. But 
the Mission to the KwANGTUNG province near the end of 
the sixteenth century was the real effective beginning of 
the Eomish Missions in China. Its leaders made it their 
aim to reach Peking by way of Nanking, and so establish 
themselves in touch with the Chinese Court. In this aim 
they were successful to a remarkable degree. But the 
Jesuit orders were suppressed in 1773 by Papal Bull; and 
ten years later the Lazarists were put in their place, in 
possession of all their property in China. In 1848 the 
Pope entrusted the care of the two provinces of Kwang- 
TUNG and KwANGSi to the " Missions Etrangeres de Paris." 

According to a recent authoritative Catholic work {Les 
Missions Catholiques Frangaises au XIX^ SUcle), the posi- 
tion of these Missions in Kwangtung in 1900 may be 
gathered from the following figures : — 1 bishop ; 5 5 
missionaries; 11 Chinese priests and 201 catechists ; 
1002 stations and 303 churches and chapels; 38,552 
"Catholics." Adult baptisms in 1899, 2627; infant 
baptisms of children of Christian parents, 887; infant 
baptisms of children of pagans, 12,124. 

These figures, especially the last, give cause for many 
reflections, but space will not admit of their discussion here. 
It does not appear exactly what is meant by " Catholics," 
of whom 38,552 are reckoned, and there is no distinct 
statement as to the number of communicants, but 51,400 
" communions " are reported, though nothing is said as to 
frequency of participation. How far these figures are trust- 
worthy it is difficult to judge, as the only item one can 
check is so ludicrously incorrect as to suggest grave doubts 
as to the accuracy of all. The number of " heretics and 
schismatics " is said to be 3200 ! whereas the communicants 
alone in the Protestant churches of Kwangtung numbered 
8180 in 1893, and 17,715 in 1901. 

'The history of Protestant Missions in the province 



48 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

begins with Eobert Morrison in 1807. For many years he 
toiled bravely with no encouragement, until he baptized 
the first convert in a quiet spot by a little stream on the 
beach near Macao. The great work of his life was the 
preparation of his dictionary and his translation of the 
Bible. Both of these have been superseded, but Morrison's 
faith and devotion are a permanent inspiration to all who 
follow him. One of his contemporaries estimated in those 
early years that by the end of the first century of Mission 
work in China there might possibly be as many as 2000 
Christians in the Empire. How amazed these men would 
have been if they could have foreseen the actual results ! 
One or two years ^ of the century are still to run, and, 
instead of the scarcely hoped-for 2000 Christians in the 
Empire, we have, of communicants alone, close on 40,000 
in the Kwangtung province itself, with nearly as many 
baptized children growing up under Christian influence, 
and a multitude of hearers, worshippers, inquirers, and 
candidates for baptism, which must bring up the Protestant 
Christian community of this province to some 160,000 or 
200,000 souls. Besides these, there remain uncounted the 
many thousands who have already finished their course in 
the faith and fear of Jesus Christ. These, so often forgotten, 
are the ripest fruit of our Mission work. 

To borrow the fine remark of a Eomish writer, these 
numbers " are few to one who dreams of the foundation of 
a church and the conversion of a people ; they are great to 
one who reflects that each of these souls has been bought 
by the blood of Jesus Christ." 

Protestant Missions in the province of Kwangtung 
present a large variety of method. There are now close on 
twenty different Missions at work, which, with one or two 
exceptions, work harmoniously together. They are of 
different nationalities — American, British, Colonial, German, 
Scandinavian, and International — and present every type 
of ecclesiastical development. Scholarship has been nobly 
represented in the literary work of such Chinese scholars as 

1 Written in 1906.— Ed. 



THE PROVINCE OF KWANGTUNG 49 

Morrison, Legge, Chalmers, Eitel, Faber, and Schaub, now, 
alas ! all, but one, gone to their rest. Evangelistic preach- 
ing has had a large place both in street chapels, as in 
Canton City, and also in village itineration throughout the 
country districts. This province has been the scene of the 
unequalled medical missions carried on for so long, and on 
so large a scale, in Canton by Dr. John Kerr, and in 
Swatow by Drs. Gauld and Lyall. The growth of the 
Church has led to much attention being given to church 
organisation, especially, perhaps, in the Presbyterian 
Missions. Education, both elementary, secondary, and 
theological, has had a foremost place, especially in the 
Basel Mission. In some of the churches the independence, 
self-support, and self-propagation of the Chinese Church 
have been specially aimed at, with a good measure of 
success. In the Presbyterian Church of England Mission 
there are about ten well-trained Chinese ministers, ordained 
to the full responsibilities of the Christian ministry, and 
supported entirely by the contributions of their own people. 
There are also native Mission societies, who support from 
native funds several Chinese evangelists in outlying 
islands on the coast, and direct their work through the 
organisations of the native Church. It is an indication of 
the stage reached as regards self-support, that in 1904 the 
whole personal staff of congregational school teachers, 
preachers, and ordained ministers in the Tiechiu branch of 
the English Presbyterian Mission was supported by the 
gifts of the native Church to the extent of $4835, or 83 
per cent of the entire cost, only $1003, or 17 per cent of 
the whole, being furnished by Mission funds. 

In some of the Missions a beginning has been made in 
providing a Christian education in English, to meet the 
new demand for an English education and Western learn- 
ing, both among the Christian and the non-Christian 
community. In Hongkong much attention has been given 
to education, both English and vernacular, under the foster- 
ing care of the Hongkong Government. The largest effort 
to meet the new demand in this province is the founding 



50 THE CHINESE EMPIKE 

of the Canton Christian College. It has now been in 
operation in temporary premises for some years, but, a 
suitable site having been found, it will soon be more 
worthily housed. The College is being built at Honglok, 
two miles south-east of the city of Canton, on an extensive 
site, which will admit of very large extensions in future. 
A comprehensive plan has been prepared, providing for 
dormitories and other college buildings for 2000 students, 
including an auditorium, chapel, and residences for pro- 
fessors, an athletic field, and a hospital as part of a medical 
school. The first building is nearly complete, and measures 
166 feet in length and 53 feet in depth, A College on a 
smaller scale, but with a similar object, has just been built 
at Swatow. It consists of a quadrangle, enclosed on all sides 
by blocks of buildings about 135 feet in length, including 
large hall, dining-room, class-rooms, dormitories, gymnasium, 
rooms for resident Principal, and extensive playing-fields. 
The cost of the site and nearly half the cost of the building 
is the gift of a large-hearted Chinese Christian gentleman 
who had long desired to found such a College, and the 
remainder is the gift of other Chinese friends, many of 
them not Christians, who were stirred up by his example, 
and had themselves an enlightened appreciation of the 
undertaking. It has accommodation for over one hundred 
resident students, and the site will admit of large extensions 
if required. It is placed by the donors in the hands of the 
English Presbyterian Mission. In all parts of the province 
there is a strong demand for the " New Learning," and great 
efforts are being made, both by ofificials and people, to 
reorganise their educational system, and to provide schools 
of all grades to meet the needs of the time. 

Space will not admit of any details of the history or 
features of the several Missions. The grand result of their 
united work is the building up of a Chinese Church whose 
dimensions can be gathered from the statistical table which 
is given on p. 53. From this it appears that the number 
of communicants, which had more than doubled in the eight 
years from 1893 to 1901, and stood in the latter year at 



THE PEOVINCE OF KWANGTUNG 51 

over 18,000, has now more than doubled again in the four 
years from 1901 to 1905, and now stands at between 
39,000 and 40,000. 

The present outlook is of the most encouraging kind. 
Kecent events and the movements of the public mind for 
many years have led to a large amount of inquiry into 
Christian teaching. The persistent preaching of the truth 
for so many years, and the testimony, both by life and word, 
of the young Christian community, have created a very 
widespread knowledge of the outlines of our teaching. 
Multitudes who have not yet professed themselves Christians 
have become satisfied that the Christian teaching is morally 
sound, and there is a very general recognition, both by 
officials and people, of the good character of the Christian 
communities. All this constitutes a most favourable oppor- 
tunity for the presentation of the Gospel message, and 
promises at no distant date a large ingathering. 

Two serious dangers confront us. One arises from the 
hostile attitude of the French Catholic Missions to all others, 
their political action as advance-agents of French prestige, 
their policy of interference in litigation and clan feuds, and 
the free use of physical force by their large bodies of armed 
" converts." Intense irritation is thus created in the minds 
of both people and officials, which forms a serious danger 
to the peace of the province. On the other hand, these 
excesses tend to defeat their own end, and sometimes react 
favourably on the public mind by compelling attention to 
the wholly different character and aims of the Protestant 
Missions. The other danger which we have to meet is 
sometimes closely connected with the first. It arises from 
the large numbers of persons who are seeking to connect 
themselves with the Christian movement. Many of these 
are attracted to a growing cause by worldly and unspiritual 
motives, and the utmost vigilance and faithfulness are 
needed, both to enlighten and to sift these multitudes of 
people. 

The movement in favour of the " New Learning," already 
referred to, while full of hope, constitutes, if not a danger, 



52 THE CHINESE EMPIRE 

at least a difficulty for Mission work. Our most intelligent 
younger men, in full sympathy with these new movements, 
and attracted by a wider outlook, are drawn to many spheres 
of activity outside the older lines of church work. It will 
become increasingly difficult to retain the best of our men 
in the direct service of the Church, and, on the other hand, 
men of a low'er intellectual grade will become increasingly 
unequal to the demands made upon them. At the same 
time, the growing sense of power, and love of independence, 
in the Chinese Church will need full recognition, and will 
call for the most sympathetic and kindly welcome and 
guidance on the part of all missionaries. 

What is needed, in view alike of our opportunities and 
of our dangers, is the gift to the Chinese Church and to 
the missionaries alike of a more intense and manifest 
spiritual life. There have been movements of quickening 
in the churches of Manchuria, Fukien, and other parts of 
the Empire. May a like experience of revived life, mani- 
festing itself in larger fruits of holiness and energy, be 
granted soon to the churches of Kwangtung ! 



[Table 



THE PKOVINCE OF KWANGTUNG 



53 



Statistics of Missionary Societies at Work in 
THE Province of Kwangtung 





Figures for Year 1901. 


Figures 


for Year 1905. 




05 




a 


■3 




1 


i 

a 




K OS 






o 


a =8 




V 


o 




a g 

Is 

-1 


s 

6 

o 




'S 

= 

s 

c 
S 
o 


i| 


1 

1 
o 


Chinese Pr 
Teachers. 


"5 

3 
1 




o2 


Ut^ 


o 5 


2 


o3 


t-t 


=1 S 


O 




|l 






1 


II 


s 

3 




% 




= >s 


^ 




s 


C i^ 


12; 


S 






3.0 




3 


fe; ' 


S.D 




3 


^ 




^ 




^ 




^ 




t5 




London Missionary Society . 


3 




30 


900 i 


3 


5 


49 


1,049 


American Board of Commission- 


2 


16 


31 


912: 


2 


37 


64 


3,500 


ers for Foreign Missions 


















American Baptist Missionary 


5 


92 


90 


2,260 1 


6 


132 


119 


0,253 


Union 








1 










American Presbyterian Mission, 


3 


43 


99 


3,253 : 


8 


88 


144 


6,946 


North 








! 










Church ilissionary Society . 


3 




27 


360 


5 


11 


78 


722 


Basel Mission (Hakka) 


15 


65 


138 


4,176 


(20 


100 


200 


8,350) 


English Presbyterian Mission 


1 


32 


46 


578 


2 


42 


63 


985 


(Hakka) 


















English Presbyterian Mission 


o 


58 


54 


2,140 


3 


72 


70 


2,773 


(Hoklo) 






1 










Rhenish Mission 


6 8 


19 


764 1 


8 


14 


28 


1,031 


Wesleyan Missionary Society 


3 27 


27 


1,196 i 


4 


35 


50 


1,967 


American Baptist Mission, South 


1 




... 1 


3 


16 


52 


2,613 


Society for Promoting Female 


(Under ( 


:!hurch i] 


issionary 


Societ 


}'■) 


Education 












American Scandinavian Mission . 




(NoR 


eturns.) 






Berlin Mission .... 


6 


53 70 


1,377 


10 


150 


204 


5,^42 


United Brethren in Christ . 






... i 


2 


8 


27 


235 


Christian and Missionary Alliance 


6 


..'. 13 


67 


10 




20 


150 


Presbyterian Church, New Zea- 




... 




1 


' \ 


6 


69 


land 




1 












Reformed Presbyterian Church . 




1 . 




1 




1 


40 


Bible Baptist Mission . 


... 


... ! ... 


1 


1 




2 


38 


Seventh Day Advent Mission 

Totals for 1901 and 1905 . 






'.".". i 


1 




3 


5 


57 i 394 ! 644 

1 ' 


17,983 I 


90 


714 


1,180 


39,168 



The figures within brackets are estimated. 



THE PROVINCE OF FUKIEN 

By the Rev. Llewellyn Lloyd, Church Missionary Society. 

FuKiEN is one of the smallest, as well as one of the most 
picturesque, of the eighteen provinces which constitute 
China proper, being about as large as England, exclusive of 
Wales, and having a superficial area of 46,320 square 
miles. It is divided into eleven prefectures, all containing 
two or more counties (the counties in the Foochow prefecture 
number no less than ten), each having its walled county- 
town. The area of each county is, roughly speaking, that 
of an English shire, i.e. about 1000 square miles. The 
province is an extremely mountainous one, and wherever 
we lift our eyes we look upon the " everlasting hills," clothed 
with their varied foliage — amongst which that of the fir and 
bamboo are most prominent — or cultivated to their summits 
in tiny terraces by the industrious agriculturists. It is on 
the higher slopes of these mountains that most of the tea 
which finds its way to the marts of England, Australia, 
and America is grown. The famous Bohea hills are at 
the extreme north of Fukien. 

The people of the province are said to number 
22,876,540, but it is impossible to say whether this 
estimate is at all accurate, and it would probably be nearer 
the truth to reckon the population at 15,000,000. The 
Fukienese, together with their southern neighbours the 
Cantonese, have been called the Anglo-Saxons of China, 
and there can be no doubt that they are more active, more 
independent, more self-reliant, and better business people 
than those living in the north and west of the Empire. 

54 




■ .-•fk^l ^' 




'■'iM^?? 



I 



i;0 








* " ^ 




'z: "^ -1^ 
— " c 

^ 1 P 






» u a 



THE PEOVINCE OF FUKIEN 55 

The principal river is the Miu, which drains about three- 
fourths of the province, and is navigable for small vessels 
and rapid boats almost throughout its entire course of more 
than 300 miles. It flows past the provincial city, Foochow, 
and joins the sea at Sharp Peak, 30 miles lower down. 
The riverine scenery is grandly beautiful, altogether defying 
description, and is probably unsurpassed in the whole of 
China. 

All students of Chinese history will be aware that at 
one time the southern provinces consisted of numerous 
petty states, each having its own king, its own laws, and 
its own language ; and to-day, although these states have 
all been absorbed into the colossal Chinese Empire, the 
people still retain their peculiar characteristics, their own 
tribal laws and customs, and their own spoken languages. 
The consequence of this latter fact is, that it is impossible 
to travel any great distance in Fukien without meeting 
with a new dialect which is almost unintelligible 30 miles 
away. The mountainous character of the province makes 
it impossible to use vehicular traffic, and even where the 
roads are comparatively level, they are extremely narrow 
and uneven, consisting of rough undressed blocks of granite 
laid side by side transversely, and worn smooth on their 
upper surface by the countless feet which have trodden 
them from time immemorial. The Chinese seem quite 
satisfied to carry their heavy loads up and down these steep 
mountain passes on their shoulders, and he who would ride 
must in like manner be borne on men's shoulders in a sedan- 
chair. Needless to say, wherever a waterway is found it 
is crowded with craft of all sorts and sizes plying for hire. 

The chief industries of Fukien are paper-making, tea 
cultivation, cloth-weaving, and agriculture, though of course 
a multitude of minor trades and occupations are carried on 
in all the centres of population. Different tribes of the 
old aboriginal inhabitants of China dwell in the more 
remote mountain villages and are peacefully engaged in 
agriculture, the men having adopted Chinese garb, the 
women retaining peculiar head-dresses and other differences 



56 THE CHINESE EMPIKE 

of dress which distinguish them at a glance from their 
Cliinese sisters. 

Missionary work in the Fukien province commenced a 
few years after China's first serious collision with foreign 
nations, when, having been worsted in the fray, she was 
compelled, much against her will, to sign the Treaty of 
Nanking, which allowed foreigners — both missionaries and 
merchants — to reside at five of her most important ports, 
two of which — Foochow and Amoy — are on the seaboard 
of Fukien. This was in 1842, and a few years later the 
first missionaries, both from England and America (1846), 
took up their permanent residence in these cities. These 
pioneer missionaries are worthy of all honour, and must 
ever be held in high esteem, for they had to contend 
against difficulties of which the modern missionary knows 
hardly anything, and encountered obstacles which only 
a persistent prayerful faith could have overcome. The 
hostility of the Chinese in those early days was almost 
universal, the indifferentism of the people was appalling, 
and ridicule and insult almost invariably attended every 
appearance in public, and every attempt to preach Christ 
crucified ; but at length prayer and perseverance conquered, 
and the first-fruits of Fukien were gathered in. 

Nearly ten years elapsed, however, before the mission- 
aries of the Church Missionary Society — which had 
commenced work there in 1850 — were able to report any 
interest in their message, and it is not surprising that 
when in 1860 a review of the Mission fields of that 
Society took place in London, and the secretaries were 
obliged to say of Foochow once again, " no visible results, 
no convert to the truth, no baptisms," that the committee 
seriously contemplated withdrawing altogether from such 
an unpromising field. But God's ways are not our ways, 
and a brighter day was soon to dawn and cheer the 
hearts of His faithful servants. A little later two men 
emerged from this seething mass of superstition and 
idolatry, declared themselves believers in the truths of 
Christianity, and were received into the visible Church 



THE PEOVINCE OF FUKIEN 57 

by baptism. From that time till now the work has gone 
steadily forward, receiving cliecks and discouragements at 
times, and at others meeting with heavy persecution, 
involving death itself both for the missionaries and their 
converts, but ever widening out and occupying new 
centres. The Church has not only lengthened her cords, 
but also strengthened her stakes, as she has moved forward 
under Divine guidance to occupy new territories. 

There are two or three features of Mission work in 
FUKIEN which seem to call for special comment, and 
which should be borne in mind by the readers of this brief 
account of our labours. It must, then, be remembered that 
the thousands of converts who form the Fukien Church 
have never been gathered into Christian communities, but 
are scattered throughout innumerable towns and villages, 
living out their Christian life amidst their non-Christian 
countrymen, and therefore surrounded on all sides by the 
superstitions and idolatries from which God's grace has 
delivered them. Under these circumstances it is not 
surprising that now and then there are relapses into 
heathenism and falls into sin, but as a whole these Chinese 
converts remain true to their newly-found faith, and often 
display a zeal and devotion which prove beyond a doubt 
that their hold on Christ is a very real one. 

Further, it must be borne in mind that although, in a short 
paper like this, the subjects of church-organisation, self- 
support, and self-government are of necessity left largely 
out of sight, the Christian Church in this province has 
made rapid strides in this direction, and is gradually 
lessening her dependence on foreign aid, either financially 
or ministerially, and all who wish to see the development 
of a purely native Church in China will rejoice in this fact. 
It is necessary also to point out that Fukien happily 
possesses a large number of devoted lady missionaries 
belonging to different societies, who are doing invalu- 
able evangelistic, educational, and medical work amongst 
the women and children. 

The primary duty of the Christian missionary is un- 



58 THE CHINESE EMPIRE 

doubtedly to preach Christ, but missionary societies have 
rightly felt that alongside this supreme duty must be placed 
other duties of a philanthropic kind, which a missionary 
may legitimately undertake, and which give a new emphasis 
and meaning to his message. It is quite impossible to live 
in China for any length of time, or to traverse her crowded 
streets, without feeling her great need of help in many 
directions. In this vast empire the sick, the poor, and the 
blind are practically imcared for, and it is hardly felt to be 
a crime at all to throw away multitudes of newly-born 
babes. The missionary therefore, perforce, takes what 
measures he can to lessen the suffering which abounds, and 
this side of our work appeals very forcibly to the Chinese 
people. Our hospitals are usually crowded with patients ; 
sightless children of both sexes are gladly handed to us to 
be taught useful trades ; baby girls are left at our Found- 
ling Asylum instead of being thrown into the nearest pond ; 
the victims of opium present themselves at our Eefuges to 
to be cured of their evil habit, and the lepers meet together 
for Christian worship, maimed in body, but sound in soul. 
Who will say that such works as these have not the Master's 
approval, and are not a following of His example, Who went 
about doing good ? 

The tragedy of the Fukien Mission took place nearly 
twelve years ago at Hwasang, about 80 miles north-west 
of Eoochow, and a few miles from the city of Kucheng. 
The doing to death of that band of devoted missionaries 
at their summer retreat in the hills was such a ruthless 
and dastardly act that it aroused the indignation of the 
whole civilised world. No fewer than nine faithful 
servants of Christ passed through fire and sword into 
His presence that bright summer morning in 1895, slain 
by the people whom they had come to help and save. No 
indiscreet action on their part had aroused the animosity of 
the people ; all was peace in that secluded spot until the 
murderous band stealthily surrounded the simple cottages, 
and without question or comment put their occupants to 
death. A beautiful memorial tomb in the Foochow Ceme- 



THE PEOVINCE OF FUKIEN 59 

tery, the outcome of subscriptions voluntarily given by the 
foreign communities of China for the purpose, contains all 
that remains on earth of those brave martyrs, but they 
themselves are " without fault before the Throne of God." 

What St. Paul said of the Corinthian Church when 
writing to its members in the first century is true of the 
Fukien Church in this twentieth century. He told them 
that in their famous city " not many wise after the flesh, 
not many mighty, not many noble," had been called into 
fellowship with God and His Son Jesus Christ, and it is 
so in Southern China to-day. The Church is a Church 
of the poor, and the mighty and noble are seldom found 
within its ranks. Here and there we find members of the 
literary class and well-to-do traders enrolled as converts in 
our various churches, and very occasionally petty officials 
have been baptized ; but, speaking generally, our people 
belong to the lower classes, and are largely engaged in 
agriculture. One natural consequence of this is that they 
suffer a good deal of persecution of a heavier or a lighter 
kind at the hands of their more influential neighbours, and 
their inability to conscientiously continue their support of 
idol worship often makes their name a byword in their 
native villages. Usually these persecutions are taken as 
a matter of course, and borne more or less patiently 
until they die a natural death. But at times the converts 
appeal to the missionary for a redress of their grievances, 
and ask him to cast over them the aegis of the Church. 
These appeals he deems it wise in most cases to refuse, and 
urges the applicants to bear with their difficulties, to " over- 
come evil with good," and so to prove that they are willing 
to suffer for Christ's sake as the early Christians did. Such 
advice as this is, as a rule, followed, and only when matters 
become unbearable does a wise missionary appeal to the 
powers that be, asking that the provisions of the treaties, 
which forbid the molestation of converts to Christianity, be 
carried out. 

No sketch of a Chinese province is complete without 
some reference to what is perhaps China's greatest bane — 



60 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

the pernicious habit of opium -smoking. Into the solemn 
subject of England's guilt in compelling the people of this 
great empire to permit the importation of the drug sixty 
years ago, I cannot now enter ; but I would point out that 
the cultivation of the poppy is very largely on the increase 
in the FuKiEN province. A few years ago a field of these 
beautiful flowers, in which, alas ! the deadly poison lies 
concealed, was almost a curiosity ; now thousands of acres 
are bright with their hues, and there is scarcely a city 
whose wall is not surrounded with wide-stretching fields of 
what the Chinese call the " opium flower." The Fukienese 
are much addicted to opium-smoking, and whole villages 
may be found in the Foochow plain, once prosperous and 
flourishing, but now ruined and decayed through the intro- 
duction of this baneful drug. It is the easiest poison 
procurable, and as a consequence an opium suicide is a most 
common occurrence, the foreign doctor being generally called 
in too late for his services to be of any avail. One cannot 
help feeling saddened to know that the vessels which bring 
missionaries to China in their cabins, bring also in their 
holds chests of Indian opium. May the great Disposer of 
events soon gather this stone out of the way of the progress 
of Christ's Kingdom in this dark land. We do what we 
can to help those who are addicted to this debasing vice to 
free themselves from it, but not one in ten thousand of its 
victims can be reached by us, and they are passing away 
day by day unwept and unmourned. 

It is said on good authority that Fukien is more 
adequately supplied with missionaries and Mission stations 
than any other part of this great empire, and lest our 
friends should think we are treading on each other's toes, 
and that there are no unoccupied cities in the province, 
I should like to point out that of the 47 counties into 
which Fukien is divided, only 27 are occupied by 
European missionaries, and several have never yet been 
entered at all. The idea, therefore, that a network of 
stations, in touch with each other, covers the province is a 
mistaken one. " There remaineth therefore much land to 



THE PROVINCE OF FUKIEN 61 

be possessed " here as elsewhere in China, and it is possible 
to travel long distances across our fertile plains and over 
our lofty hills, and enter town after town, without finding 
any trace of Christianity or meeting with a living exponent 
of its doctrines. 

We rejoice that so much has been done ; we thank God 
for the numerous churches established in our midst ; we 
praise Him for the evident tokens of His presence which 
we see on every hand ; we remember with deep gratitude 
our noble band of native workers, both men and women ; 
we note with humble pride that about one quarter ^ the 
number of Christians in the whole of China are to be found 
in this province, and we are determining by God's grace and 
in His strength to take possession of the land yet un- 
occupied, assured that He is with us, and that His word 
to His Church is now, as of old, " Go forward." 

It is confidently hoped that one result of the publication 
of these sketches of the different provinces of China, and 
the efforts being made to make Christ known to the millions 
who inhabit them, will call forth much earnest prayer both 
for the work and for the workers ; and that such prayer 
may be definite and intelligent, I will enumerate briefiy 
some of the special difficulties which confront the Christian 
missionary as he carries on his work in Fukien, and also 
some of the encouragements which cheer him on and stimu- 
late him to further persevering efforts, asking my readers 
to remember that the difficulties and encouragements here 
mentioned refer not only to one part of China, but to the 
whole. 

Difficulties 

{a) The variety of spoken dialects, which confine a mis- 
sionary's efforts to a comparatively small area, and demand 
a multiplication of colloquial Bibles and other books, thus 
largely increasing the work of translation and publication. 

(&) The satisfaction of the people generally with their 

^ This is according to the figuies given by Hartmann in the AUgemcine 
Missions Zeitschrift for 1904. — -Ed. 



62 THE CHINESE EMPIKE 

own religious systems, which fact calls for constant prayer 
that God would create soul thirst for Himself. 

(c) The low standard of morality which prevails every- 
where, and often makes an appeal to live a higher life fall 
flat and forceless on the minds of one's hearers. 

(d) The pride and arrogance of the educated classes, 
which causes them to refuse even a hearing to the teaching 
of the " foreign barbarians." 

((?) The dislike and fear of many of the people with 
regard to foreigners, and their wish to avoid them as much 
as possible. 

(f) The treatment of China by foreign nations, which 
has increased their animosity to outsiders. 

(g) The wide prevalence of the opium habit, which besots 
and enervates its victims, and seems to close their hearts 
and ears to the Gospel message. 

Encouragements 

(a) The widely-open door for preaching the Truth in the 
towns and villages which so thickly stud the province. 

(b) The willingness of many of the Chinese to listen 
to what we have to say, and their civil treatment of those 
who visit their houses. 

(c) The tolerance by the " powers that be " of all reli- 
gions, so long as the laws of the Empire are adhered to. 

{d) The readiness and ability of the native converts to 
make Christ known to their neighbours. 

(e) The widespread desire for Western education, even 
where such teaching is given by missionaries on a distinctly 
Christian basis. 

(/) The dissatisfaction of the educated classes with the 
present state of the Empire, and their desire for change 
and improvement. 

(g) The fact that there are about 150,000 converts 
connected with the Protestant Church in China, many of 
whom are true servants of the Master, and have proved 
their sincerity in a multitude of ways. 



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THE ISLAND OF FORMOSA 

By the Rev. Thomas Barclay, M.A., English Presbyterian Mission. 

The Island of Fokmosa, one of the largest islands in Asia, 
is situated off the south-east coast of China, opposite to the 
province of Fukien, to which it formerly belonged. Its 
greatest length from north to south is over 260 miles, its 
greatest breadth about 80 miles. It has an area of 15,000 
square miles, which is half the size of Scotland. The 
population amounts to a little over 3,000,000. At the 
north end it is distant from the mainland of China about 
70 miles, at the south end about 250. To the west of 
Fokmosa, about 30 miles distant, lie the Pescadore Islands, 
with a population of about 60,000 inhabitants. 

The island consists of a high range of mountains, running 
from north to south, the highest peak of which is Mount 
Morrison, 13,880 feet, a little higher than Fujiyama in 
Japan proper. On the east coast these mountains run 
right down to the sea, in some places leaving not enough 
level ground for a road. The population on this side of 
the island is very sparse, though under Japanese rule it is 
increasing more rapidly ; they encourage settlers to go to 
live there with a view to the development of the resources 
of the hills. On the west side, between the mountains and 
the sea, is a level stretch of fertile land, where the main 
body of the people lives. In the north the mountains are 
more broken, the scenery is more varied, and hill and plain 
more intermixed. Speaking generally, the mountains are 
inhabited by wild savages, the lower hills along the base of 

63 



64 THE CHINESE EMPIRE 

the mountains by the civilised aborigines, and the level 
plains by the Chinese. These latter are mostly from the 
Fukien province — an important fact in our Mission work, 
as it enables us to make free use of the books prepared by 
the older ]\Iissions in Amoy. There are also a number of 
Hakkas, from the province of Canton, who clan together, 
speaking their own language and preserving their own 
customs. There are several thousands of Japanese now 
resident in the island, mostly in the larger towns. There 
are some sixty or seventy foreigners, European or American, 
resident chiefly at the old treaty ports north and south. 
Of these about half are missionaries, Protestant and Eoman 
Catholic. 

During the seventeenth century, from 1624 till 1662, 
Formosa was in the possession of the Dutch. During 
these years a good deal of missionary work was carried on, 
thousands of the natives were baptized, and schools were 
set up throughout the island. The Dutch authorities were 
fully in favour of carrying on this work ; they even issued 
a proclamation making idolatry illegal and punishable with 
public whipping and banishment ! 

About the middle of the century the old Ming dynasty 
in China was overthrown by the present Tartar dynasty. 
One of the last adherents of the fallen dynasty, Coxinga, 
whose father was a Chinaman and his mother a Japanese 
woman, sailed from Amoy with a large fleet to Formosa. 
There he was joined by the resident Chinese, and after 
some fighting and a prolonged siege he succeeded in 
driving out the Dutch and taking possession of the island. 
In 1683 the grandson of Coxinga submitted to the Chinese 
Emperor, and Formosa became a part of the Empire. 

Under the persecution of the Chinese rulers the Christian 
religion appears soon to have died out. The natives are a 
weaker people than the Chinese, and religion seems to take 
less hold of them ; even at the present time, under favour- 
able circumstances, we are troubled by their fickleness. 
Probably also the work of the missionaries was too much 
mixed up with politics ; Christianity was the religion of the 



THE ISLAND OF FORMOSA 65 

rulers, to which the people conformed. And finally there 
was no translation of the Bible, in whole or part, left in 
the hands of the people. A translation of the Gospel 
according to Matthew had been made, and an edition was 
printed in Holland, but news came of the expulsion of the 
Dutch, and the books were not sent out. These books 
were printed in Eoman letters, which the missionaries 
taught the people to read and write. It is an interesting 
fact that this is the part of their work that survived 
longest. For at least a century and a half the people 
retained the knowledge of reading and writing their native 
languages. Deeds are still in existence belonging to the 
early part of last century, written in duplicate, in Chinese 
on one side and Eomanised on the other, the Eoman letters 
recording what is now a dead language. Most of the 
semi - civilised tribes living in the plain country have 
acquired Chinese and forgotten their own language. When 
missionary work was resumed in Formosa, two centuries 
after the Dutch had left, these writings were almost the 
only trace left of the labours of the earlier workers. In 
addition there lingered among some tribes the tradition of 
a nation of kind foreigners, non-Chinese, who had once 
lived in the island, and who on leaving had promised some 
day to return for the deliverance of the people. 

Missions. — In 1865 Dr. James L. Maxwell commenced 
the work of the English Presbyterian Church in Foemosa. 
The Eoman Catholic Church had begun Mission work 
some years earlier, and have carried it on continuously 
till the present time. Their staff of foreign missionaries is 
smaller than those of the two Protestant Missions combined, 
and their work does not appear to be very extensive or 
very popular with the people. Happily there has been 
very little friction between the two Missions. 

Dr. Maxwell began work, medical and evangelistic, at 
Taiwanfu (now Tainan), but was soon driven by a mob to 
take refuge in Takow, a treaty port 30 miles to the south. 
There, on August 12, 1866, the first converts of the Mission 

F 



66 THE CHINESE EMPIKE 

were baptized by the Eev. W. S. Swanson of Amoy, who 
had come across on a visit. On that occasion there were 
four men baptized. Of these four, one was very soon made 
a preacher of the Gospel, which ofiice he continued to fill 
until 1905, when he resigned. He is still active as a 
voluntary worker, preaching nearly every Lord's Day. 
Shortly after these baptisms took place tlie disputes 
between the merchants of South Formosa and the Tao-tai 
came to a head, and riots occm-red, in which the Church 
was involved ; a chapel was destroyed and several Christians 
assaulted. The authorities refused to arrange the matter, 
whereupon a naval force was landed and the port of 
Anping was captm-ed. When this was done the Chinese 
became thoroughly alarmed, and the whole trouble was 
soon satisfactorily settled. The news of what had taken place 
spread all over the island, and in the eyes of the people 
exalted both England and the Church. During the next few 
years the Church grew rapidly in numbers, too often by 
the accession of those who joined from unw^orthy motives, 
though there were not wanting cases of interesting con- 
versions. As the people found that their expectations of 
worldly gain were not realised, there followed, not un- 
naturally, a period of coldness till things were settled on 
a more satisfactory basis ; since which time more real, if 
not quite so rapid, progress has been made. 

In 1869 Dr. Maxwell returned to Taiwanfu, leaving 
his colleague, Eev. H. Kitchie, at Takow. From Taiwanfu 
the work soon spread rapidly among the civilised Chinese- 
speaking aborigines, both in the district directly east from 
Taiwanfu and in a region about 100 miles to the north. 
The work among these tribes has in some respects been less 
satisfactory ; the people seem to move towards the Gospel 
by whole villages rather than from personal conviction. 
Some years later the work spread more among the towns 
and villages of the Chinese resident on the plains ; among 
them continuous progress has been made up to the present 
day. 

In 1872 the Canadian Presbyterian Church sent out 



THE ISLAND OF FOKMOSA 67 

Rev. G. L. Mackay to begin a Mission in China. He 
decided on North Formosa as the most interesting field 
that offered itself. From that date till his death in 1902, 
in conjunction with a succession of colleagues, he carried on 
an extensive work among the Chinese. The story of his 
work is told in his well-known book. From Far Formosa. 
Last year a successor was sent out from Canada, and in 
addition a medical missionary and two lady missionaries. 
The headquarters of the mission are at Tamsui. The whole 
island is divided between those two missions, the Tai-an 
river forming the natural boundary -line. 

The work of our Mission in the south, and to a very 
large extent that of the Mission in the north, has been 
along the lines of our older Presbyterian Missions on the 
mainland opposite/ The Gospel was preached throughout 
the country and literature distributed. Especial attention 
has been paid to medical missions ; at present one-third of 
our staff is purely medical, and the results in spreading 
the Gospel and opening up new districts have justified the 
amount of labour and money spent in this direction. 
Converts began to gather for worship in various towns and 
villages, and these were visited systematically by the 
foreign missionary for teaching and pastoral oversight. 

From the very beginning native helpers were largely made 
use of, to supplement the labours of the foreign missionary. 
For the training of these workers. Theological Colleges were 
set up at the two head centres. Local schools for the 
teaching of the children were set up where possible, and a 
central High School established for the education of those 
who wished some training better than the local schools 
could supply. The people were taught from the beginning 
the duty and privilege of raising money for the support of 
the Church, special emphasis being laid on the duty of sup- 
porting the preachers. As the work spread more and more, 
while the foreign staff remained almost stationary, the need 
of native ministers to take full charge of the congregations, 

^ This subject is fully treated in Mission Proilems and Missionary 
Methods in South China, chaps, vi.-x., hy Rev. J. Campbell Gibson, M.A., D.D 



68 THE CHINESE EMPIKE 

without the necessity of visits from the foreigner, became 
more and more pressing. With a view to maintain the 
independence and dignity of these ministers as being eccle- 
siastically on a par with the foreigner, we have required, as 
in our mainland Missions, that the entire amount required 
for their salary should be raised by the people from the very 
first. 

In the case of the unordained preachers we do not 
insist on this, though we urge it as an ideal. In some 
cases the entire salary of these preachers is borne by the 
congregation where they labour. In one district of our 
field, for the last two years, by means of an augmentation 
fund, to which members of congregations subscribe over 
and above what they give directly to their own preachers, 
sufficient funds have been raised to pay the salaries of all 
the regular preachers working in that district, though the 
salaries of evangelists, colporteurs, etc., still remain a charge 
on the mission funds. 

With a view to the organisation of the Church, about 
ten years ago the elders belonging to the various congrega- 
tions in South Fokmosa met together and constituted 
themselves into a Presbytery, which since then has met 
regularly twice a year. The foreign missionaries were 
invited to sit and act along with the Presbytery as full 
members, without their relation to the home churches being 
affected thereby. In 1905 the North Church similarly 
organised itself, and proposals have already been made for 
the union of the two churches into one. 

The cession of the island to Japan in 1895, as a con- 
dition of peace between China and her victor, has naturally 
produced very marked effects on the conditions of life 
among the people, and has also affected not a little our 
church work. The general results of the change of govern- 
ment need not be dwelt on here in detail. The occupation 
by Japan was strenuously objected to by the people, some 
of whose leaders set up a mock republic on the departure 
of the Chinese rulers. This required an armed occupation, 
which resulted in much suffering and loss of life and 



THE ISLAND OF FORMOSA 69 

property on both sides. It was followed by serious and 
repeated risings on the part of the people, which were put 
down with much vigour. Now, after ten years' rule, the 
whole of the island, with the exception occasionally of the 
savage districts, is at perfect peace, and the absolute safety 
of both life and property everywhere is recognised as an 
immense boon even by the most disaffected. More than 
200 miles of railway have been opened, connecting the 
north and south of the island. Steamship connection 
between the ports and the rest of the world has been in- 
creased. By means of the post office letters are delivered 
in almost every village of the island. Roads have been 
made throughout the country, schools have been opened in 
most of the towns and larger villages, telegraphic com- 
munication has been much increased, and many comforts 
and conveniences of Western civilisation have been intro- 
duced. Agriculture has been improved, and a better 
quality of sugar-cane has been introduced, with proper 
machinery for crushing it. Undoubtedly in many ways 
the condition of the people has been improved. The 
complaints are chiefly of the great increase in taxation, and 
of the endless registrations, so different from the easy-going 
methods of the old Chinese regime. 

Much was hoped for from the coming of the Japanese 
in the way of the abolition of opium - smoking. Their 
original plan of stopping it at once, except in the case of 
those confirmed smokers who might suffer from being 
suddenly deprived of the indulgence, to whom permits 
would be granted, promised well, and would have quickly 
put an end to the habit if rigidly carried out. For several 
years, however, permits were given to all and sundry who 
applied for them. The general feeling among natives and 
foreigners is that the authorities do not display very much 
enthusiasm in discouraging the vice. In order to carry 
out their programme the Government at once made the 
purchase and sale of opium a monopoly, to which no one 
could fairly object. The profits from this monopoly are 
great. And in the present state of Formosan finance it is 



70 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

only too probable that the temptation to make gain of it 
has been yielded to. In view of the action of their friend 
and ally, England, it is little wonder if this has been the 
case. 

In regard to Mission work, the coming of the Japanese has 
on the whole been distinctly favourable. It has, however, 
interfered with our schools, all private schools being closed 
within a certain distance of a Government one. It also 
bars the way to our medical students becoming practitioners, 
no permission being given to any one to practise who has 
not studied in Government schools. But the gain in other 
ways is great. The substitution of Japanese officials for 
the old mandarins is an immense improvement. We have 
now something more than a fair field and no favour. The 
rulers, while strictly impartial officially, secure absolute 
protection for ourselves and the native Christians, and 
often let it be seen that they disapprove of idolatrous 
observances ; whilst, on the other hand, they recognise in our 
Christian work an important factor in the civilising and 
elevation of the people. They give us genuine encourage- 
ment to go on further with our work. There are, of 
course, exceptions, but not many. 

Again, in regard to the people and their views of our 
work, there is a change for the better noticeable. The old 
suspicions are mostly gone. The hatred of the missionary 
as one who is working for political ends no longer exists. 
Even if they still believed it of us, it would be no good 
reason for objecting to our presence ! But they see ever 
more plainly what indeed they were coming to see before 
the arrival of the Japanese, that our work is a spiritual 
work, which does not interfere with their political standing. 
They have also been compelled in so many ways to make 
a complete break with old customs that the change to 
Christianity is less marked, and as their idolatrous prac- 
tices receive no sympathy from their rulers, who utilise 
their idol temples in all sorts of ways without, apparently, 
any harm coming to them, they are more prepared to 
give our message a less prejudiced hearing. Indeed, it 



THE ISLAND OF FOEMOSA 71 

is in this very direction probably that the Church's great 
difficulty will arise in the future. The overthrow of super- 
stition that is wrought by the new regime brings with it 
no corresponding truth to take its place. We are threatened 
with a great wave of unbelief and irreligion and worldliness 
that may be more difficult to meet than the superstition 
which it has displaced. But at present there is a great 
opportunity. We need no longer pray for open doors, the 
wall itself has fallen down. If only the Church could be 
raised to a sense of her duty — to guide Formosa to welcome 
her true Lord and Master ! — lest otherwise the last state 
of the house, swept and garnished, be worse than the first. 

According to the census returns, there are in Formosa 
about 100,000 wild savages in the mountains, who live by 
hunting and a little agriculture (chiefly of millet), and who 
are generally fighting with one another and with the 
Chinese. They speak quite a number of different dialects. 
There is absolutely no Christian work being carried on 
among them, and unhappily not much prospect of any 
being begun. There are difficulties of various kinds in the 
way of such work. But were the workers ready, openings 
might be found among some of the tribes that are com- 
paratively friendly but who as yet speak no Chinese. It 
would form a fresh field for any mission that is seeking an 
opportunity of service, and would in no way interfere with 
work that is already being done. 

The two Missions in the island have not been able to 
do anything for the care of the Japanese who come to 
Formosa. But they have not been neglected by their own 
countrymen. There are now five Japanese congregations 
in the island, three Presbyterian and two Episcopal, with 
resident ministers. They are not very large, though one 
of them is self-supporting. Their presence among us is 
very desirable, both for their services to their own country- 
men and also as a testimony to the Chinese, Christian and 
heathen. 

The following are the latest statistics of the two 
missions, not including the Japanese : — 



5 


2 


7 


3 


1 


4 


1 





1 


4 


2 


6 


13 


5 


18 


5 


3 


8 


2,942 


2,143 


5,085 


2,211 


839 


3,050 



V2 THE CHINESE EMPIKE 

E.P.M. C.P.M. Total. 
Missionaries (not including wives) — 

Ordained .... 

Medical .... 

Educational 
Lady workers 

Totals . 

Native ministers 
Communicants 
Baptized children . 

There are 2 Theological Colleges, 2 High Schools, 2 
Girls' Schools, 1 School for Women, 4 Hospitals, about 150 
out-stations, and 100 preachers. There are four centres 
at which missionaries live. There is a monthly paper 
published at Tainan in the Komanised vernacular. It is 
now in its 255th number. It has a paying circulation of 
over 1000 copies monthly. The amount of money raised 
in the South Church for all purposes last year amounted to 
nearly $11,000, say about £1000 sterling. 

The following additional figures are from a census taken 
in the South Church this year ; I am sorry I have not 
corresponding figures for the North Church : — 

Total Forenoon attendance at 87 places of worship . . 6,496 

,, Afternoon „ » ;> • • 6,435 

Readers of the Romanised vernacular .... 4,079 

Professing Christians and their families (including com- 
municants and children) ...... 15,925 

Towns and villages in which at least one worshipper resides 740 

The following books should be consulted by any one 
wishing fuller information on Formosa : — 

The Island of Formosa, Past and Present. By J. W. Davidson. 
London : Macmillan & Co., 1903. 

An Account of Missionary Success in Formosa. By Rev. W. 
Campbell, F.R.G.S. London : Triibner & Co., 1889. 

Formom under the Dutch. By the Rev. W. Campbell, F.R.G.S. 
London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Triibner & Co., Ltd., 1903. A full 
bibliography is given at the end of this work. 



THE PROVINCE OF CHEKIANG 

By the Venerable Arclideacon A. E. Moule, B.D., 
Church Missionary Society. 

The province of Chekiang contains 36,670 square miles. 
It is the smallest of the eighteen provinces of China proper ; 
and yet this small area equals the whole of Lancashire and 
all the midland and southern counties of England. The 
province measures 260 English miles from east to west, 
and 380 from north to south. It is equal in size to 
Portugal, and is twice as large as Denmark ; Ireland could 
lie within its boundaries, and the vast Victoria Nyanza is 
scarcely large enough to float Chekiang. The population 
is extremely hard to estimate. The latest statistics, pub- 
lished in the Statesman's Year-Book, give 11,580,692 as the 
estimated population ; but older estimates, both Chinese and 
English, gave a population of 26,000,000. 

The province is one of great historic and antiquarian 
interest. It formed the extreme southern boundary of Old 
China, the provinces and districts farther south being in 
early days regarded as outside and barbarous states. Che- 
kiang has from olden times been the stage upon which 
some of the principal acts in Chinese history have been 
performed. Shun, the semi-mythical patriarchal emperor 
of 4000 years ago, the Cincinnatus of China, called from 
the fields to reign, is said to have ploughed his father's 
acres with an elephant not far from the city of Yiiyao, 
40 miles west of Ningpo ; whilst two or three miles 
outside the walls of Shaohing stands the tomb of the 



74 THE CHINESE EMPIRE 

Emperor Yii, the " Great Yii " as he is called, the Chinese 
Noah, who is said to have subdued the deluge which 
inundated China in his time, 2205 B.C. The man who 
attempted to recreate China and make its history begin 
with his rule, Shih Hwang-ti, 259-210 B.C. (the constructor 
of the Great Wall, 1250 miles long, and of the Grand 
Canal, 650 miles from north (Tientsin) to south (Hang- 
chow in Chekiang), and the destroyer of the Confucian 
books and ancient classics), visited Hangchow, Shaohing, 
and Ningpo. 

In religious legend and antiquities also this province 
has treasures of singular interest to Buddhist and Taoist 
devotees. Chang Tao-ling, the Pope or Grand Lama of the 
Taoists, was born, a.d. 34, near T'ien-moh-san (the " Hill 
of the Eye of Heaven"), a fine mountain 5000 feet high 
within the borders of Chekiang. The island of P'u-t'o 
(the most sacred place to Buddhists in the east of Asia, 
where Kwan-yin, the " Goddess of Mercy " and patroness of 
sailors, is said to have lived) lies 50 miles east of Ningpo, 
and belongs to Chekiang. The great temples beyond the 
West Lake at Hangchow founded by Indian monks, the 
one a.d. 306, the other a.d. 581, attract vast crowds of 
pilgrims from Central China. 

Chekiang suffered greatly during the Taiping Rebellion, 
that great chapter in China's more recent history. In 
1861 the Taipings invaded Chekiang, and after storming 
Hangchow and Shaohing, they captured Ningpo, December 
9, 1861. They were driven out of Ningpo in May 1862, 
and after ravaging the country round for some months, 
and beleaguering the city a second time, they were eventu- 
ally driven back on Shaohing and Hangchow ; and finally 
evacuated the latter city and the province of Chekiang 
in 1864. The idol temples with scarcely any exceptions 
were destroyed and the idols abolished throughout the 
province. The Christian element in the aims of the first 
leaders of the Taipings was early obliterated by the lust of 
conquest and the adhesion of a vast number of irreligious 
followers. 




The BURIAL-PLACE OF Yu THE Great. 



At this "Kiosk of the Burial-stone" the Great Yii is said to be buried. He was appointed 22S6 B.C. by 
Shun to control the waters and recover the Empire from the floods. This task occupied him for nine years, 
during which time he is reported to have thrice passed the door of his own home and yet ignored it in his 
devotion to liis work. Shun appointed him as his successor, and Yii founded the Hsia dynasty 2205 B.C. after 
liaving been joint regent for nineteen years. To face page 74. 



THE PEOVINCE OF CHEKIANG 75 

A few notes are added on some of the chief cities of 
Chekiang. 

Hangchow, the capital of the province, and for 149 
years the imperial capital of China (under the Southern 
Sung monarchs in the twelfth century a.d.), is not, as 
China's antiquity measures time, an ancient city. It was 
founded in the year a.d. 606. During the Taiping 
Eebellion it was three times besieged, stormed, and sacked, 
but it retains much of imperial grandeur and dignity. 
Marco Polo describes the city,, under the name of Kinsay, 
as he saw it in the thirteenth century. 

The history of Ningpo goes much further back. The 
original city was founded 2205 B.C., just after Yti's deluge. 
It was moved to its present site a.d. 713, the celebrated 
" Heaven -invested " pagoda having been erected twenty 
years earlier. The city is proud of its threefold line of 
defence — the city walls, the river and moat completely 
surrounding the city, and the amphitheatre of hills 
beyond. 

Shaohing, the A^enice of China in Marco Polo's esti- 
mation, is probably older even than Ningpo. There are 
traces of an original foundation as far back as Yao and 
Shun, 2357-2208 B.C. There the Great Yii held court 
after the flood. Shaohing is famous for its wine, and for 
its manufacture of idolatrous paper. 

The other Fu cities are Kiaking, Huchow, Wenchow, 
Chuchow, T'aichow, Kinhwa, Yenchow, and Chiichowfu. 

The chief river of the province is the Tsientang, on 
which Hangchow is situated. This river is remarkable for 
its tidal wave, which sometimes attains to the height of 12 
to 14 feet, with a stretch of a mile and a half in width. 
It is worshipped by the people, and at certain seasons by 
the magistrates at Hangchow, outside the south-east city 
gate, which is called, " The Gate waiting for the Tide." 
Among the numerous smaller rivers, the river Yung, on 
which stands Ningpo, may be mentioned. In its upper 
waters it is called sometimes the Yao, sometimes the Shun, 
the names of the ancient mythical emperors of China. 



76 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

Some branches of the aboriginal race, the Miao-tse, are 
met with in the mountainous country beyond Kinhwa. 

Hangchow is noted for its mulberry and silkworm 
culture and manufacture of silk. Both in the plains and 
on the terraces of the hills of Chekiang, rice in its 
different varieties is the principal crop. Tea is largely 
grown in the hill districts. The hill people are chiefly 
occupied in the cutting and carrying of bamboo and fir. 
Kiver and sea fisheries are important ; fleets of fishing- 
smacks of several thousand sail may be seen off the coast. 

The country is intersected in all directions by natural 
and artificial waterways, and all these streams and canals 
are utilised for irrigating the boundless expanse of rice- 
fields. In April the view from the hilltops is exceedingly 
beautiful. The hills themselves, rising in some cases to 
3000 feet above the plain, are clothed with yellow and red 
azaleas. Down below in the plains emerald patches of the 
most brilliant hue are seen. These are rice-seed beds nearly 
ready for transplanting into the irrigated fields. In August 
the scene is changed, but still remarkable for fresh beauty. 
Overhead is the arch of the blue summer sky, broken only 
by the white masses of the thunderstorm, still far away on 
the northern horizon. The groves of bamboo are swayed 
by the southerly monsoon, and far down in the plains there 
are breadths of golden grain ready for the sickle, yellow 
reaches intersected by the lines of Pride of India or of 
willows which mark the watercourses. 

The province of Chekiang stretches nearly from the 
27th to the 31st parallel of latitude N. The climate 
during nine months of the year is temperate, but the 
summer heat is great and the cold of January and February 
is severe. There are rainy seasons in June and September, 
the latter being the most unhealthy month of the year. 

The province of Chekiang is governed by a Lieutenant- 
Governor, residing at Hangchow, who is under the Viceroy 
of the two provinces of Chekiang and Eukien, who re- 
sides at Foochow. The Governor is assisted by a Provincial 
Treasurer and a Provincial Judge, and within the province 




Thk T'ie.n FnN(; T'ah — " Heaven-appointed " Pagoda, Nin(;po. 

This pagdda was built about a.d. 693, and is, therefore, more than 1200 years old. See text on page opposite. 
"Theformof the Chinese T'ah (pagoda) is probably derived from the spire on the topof the Hindu Uagoba, as its 
name is doubtless taken from the tirst syllable of that word. " To face page TO. 



THE PEOVINCE OF CHEKIANG 77 

four Intendants of Circuit or Taotais bear rule. These 
4 Taotais govern 11 prefectures (Fu), including 3 T'ing 
cities and 63 Ilsien cities, with market towns, villages, and 
hamlets innumerable, all the cities being walled. 

Roman Catholic Jesuit Missions were early at work in 
Chekiang. 

Protestant Missions. — Milne, one of Morrison's later 
associates, visited and resided in Ningpo some years before 
the first treaty which opened ports of China, amongst them 
Ningpo. In the summer of 1845 the Eev. G. Smith 
(afterwards Bishop of Victoria) visited Ningpo on behalf 
of the Church Missionary Society, and urged its adoption 
as a missionary centre of the first importance. He found 
missionaries of the American Baptist and Presbyterian 
Societies already in Ningpo. The dates of the commence- 
ment of the different Missions, and statistics as to the 
present number of their workers and their several fields of 
work, are given on p. 79. 

All the Fu cities of the province are occupied by one or 
more of the above Missions, and about a third of the Hsien 
cities, while missionary work, either by foreign or by native 
agents, reaches now to all parts of the province. 

Evangelistic work, either in mission rooms or by itiner- 
ation and open-air preaching, is carried on by all these 
Missions, the China Inland Mission devoting its chief 
attention to this work. 

Educational work is carried on by the American Baptist 
Mission in Ningpo, Shaohing, and Hangchow ; by the 
American Presbyterian Mission (North) in Ningpo and 
Hangchow ; by the Church Missionary Society in Ningpo, 
Hangchow, and Shaohing ; by the American Presbyterian 
Mission (South) in Hangchow, Kashing, and Dongshang ; 
by the United Methodist Free Church in Ningpo and 
Wenchow ; and by the Christians' Mission in Ningpo. 

Medical work is carried on by the American Baptist 
Mission in Ningpo, Shaohing, and Huchow ; by the Church 
Missionary Society in Ningpo, Hangchow, and T'aichow ; 



78 THE CHINESE EMPIKE 

by the American Presbyterian Mission (South) in Kashing, 
Dongshau, and Kiangyin ; by the United Methodist Free 
Church in Ningpo and Wenchow ; and by the China Inland 
Mission in T'aichow. 

The number of Protestant native agents is approximately 
700, and of native Christians from 12,000 to 15,000. 

The China Inland Mission began in 1866, but the 
founder, Mr. Hudson Taylor, with his associates, had worked 
from 1854 in connection with the Chinese Evangelisation 
Society. 

The province of Chekiang was the first in which 
inland residence and permanent work were effected. In 
1859 the Eev. J. L. and Mrs. Nevius of the American 
Presbyterian Mission, and the Eev. T. Burdon (afterwards 
Bishop of Victoria) of the Church Missionary Society 
visited Hangchow at some risk, and resided there for some 
months ; but they were unable to secure permanent 
residence. Mr. Burdon subsequently attempted residence 
in Shaohing, and worked there during the summer of 
1861, but both Shaohing and Hangchow were left in 
consequence of the approach of the Taipings. Hangchow 
was occupied permanently for Inland Mission work in 
1864,^ when the Kev. Gr. E. Moule of the Church Missionary 
Society (afterwards Bishop in Mid-China) moved thither 
from Ningpo, followed a few months later by the Eev. D. 
Green of the American Presbyterian Mission. Hankow 
in Hupeh had been previously occupied by Dr. Griffith 
John of the London Missionary Society in 1861, but Han- 
kow was an open port. Hangchow was made the first 
headquarters of the China Inland Mission in 1866. 

^ Mr. Stock says "the autumn of 1865." See History of C.M.S. vol. ii. 
p. 583.— Ed. 



THE PKOVINCE OF CHEKIANG 



79 



1 

... . DateofCom- 
Mission. mencement. 


Present 
number of 
Workers. 


Present 

number of 

Stations and 

Out-Stations. 




Chief Stations. 


American Baptist^ 
Missionarj" Union / 


1844 


24 


22 


- 


'Ningpo. 
Shaohing. 
Kinhwa. 
Hangchow. 
Huchow. 


American Presby-^ 
terian, North / 


1844 


22 


16 


'Ningpo. 
\ Hangchow. 


Church Missionary^ 
Society / 


1848 


65 


62 


[■ Ningpo. 

Hangchow. 
-\ Shaohing. 

Chiiki. 
iT'aichow. 


China Inland "^ 
Mission j 


18571 


67 Mem- 
bers, 

1 5 associ- 
ates 


136 




• Ningpo. 

Shaohing. 

Hangchow. 

Chuki. 

T'aichow. 

Kinhwa. 
.Wenchow. 


English Methodist ■! 
Mission j 


1864 


16 


11 


(Ningpo. 
\ Wenchow. 


American Presby-' 
terian, South 


1867 


25 


37 


[Hangchow. 
A K'ashing. 
[Dongshang. 


Christians' Mission 


1895 


10 


10 


Ningpo. 



^ Archdeacon Moule had stated the date as 1867. The Editor has 
ventured to change it to 1857, the date which appears in all China 
Inland Mission statistics, which, though prior to the formation of the China 
Inland Mission as a Mission, was the date when Mr. Hudson Taylor 
commenced work at Ningpo, 



THE PROVINCE OF KIANGSU 

By Rev. John Darroch, Translation Department of the Shansi 
Imperial University, 

The province of Kiangsu gets its name by combining the 
first syllable of its metropolis Kiangning (another name 
for Nanking) with that of Soochow, the capital, its richest 
city. 

The area of the province is about 38,600 square miles, 
and the population is computed to be 14,000,000. The 
province consists chiefly of flat tracts of exceedingly fertile 
land. It is, indeed, nothing else than the detritus of 
China's two mighty waterways, the Yellow Eiver and the 
Yangtse. Doubtless the sea-coast was once much further 
inland than it is at present, but the sediment deposited in 
its bed from year to year gradually filled up the shallow 
ocean, and what were once islands are now hills in the 
midst of a great plain of fertile rice or wheat fields. 

The Yellow Eiver has always been an erratic stream, 
and in 1853 it changed its course, and now finds its way 
to the sea through the province of Shantung. The mighty 
Yangtse flows from the west through the south of the 
province, entering the sea beyond Shanghai. The Hwai 
river rises in the province of Honan, traverses the north 
of Anhwei, and enters the Hungtse lake in the north of 
Kiangsu, whence it has its outlet into the Grand Canal. 
This in its turn links the numerous lakes in the pro- 
vince together and provides a waterway throughout its 
entire length from north to south. The country is also 
intersected by innumerable navigable canals, rivers, and 

SO 



THE PEOVINCE OF KIANGSU 81 

creeks, and it may be taken for granted that no country in 
the world of equal extent is so well watered as this province 
of KiANGSU ; it would also be difficult to find anywhere an 
equal extent of territory as rich, as fertile, and as densely 
populated. 

The Grand Canal reflects far more credit on the 
monarchs who devised and executed it than does the much 
more famous Great Wall. Kublai Khan (1260) is generally 
credited with the construction of this most useful waterway, 
but, as a matter of fact, it existed, in parts, long before his 
day. The total length of the canal is 650 miles. It has 
always been of immense importance to the whole Empire 
and to this province in particular. In these days steam 
launches, towing a train of house-boats or junks, jostle each 
other on its southern reaches, and so a new and important 
trade is being developed. 

Nanking, the official capital, is situated on the southern 
bank of the Yangtse, 200 miles west of Shanghai. It was the 
metropolis of China from a.d. 317 to 582, and again from 
A.D. 1368 to 1403. It is still the seat of the Viceroy of 
the Liang-kiang, who is the Governor-General of three 
provinces, and is consequently the rallying centre of a large 
concourse of officials, expectant and substantive. Nanking 
has always been famous in China for its scholars, wealth, 
and culture. The wall of the city is nearly 25 miles in 
circumference, and encloses a population of about half a 
million souls. The district exports quantities of raw silk 
and flowered satin. 

"On the banks of the Grand Canal, 80 miles west of 
Shanghai, 12 miles east of the great lake, and 40 miles 
south of the Yangtse, stands Soochow, the silk metropolis of 
the Orient. Founded 500 B.C., it was laid out only 250 
years after Eomulus had traced the walls of the mistress 
of the ancient world, and from that date Soochow has been, 
and still is, a literary and commercial centre." This city is 
called the Venice of China, " Beautiful Soo," and has a 
population of about 700,000. 

Chinkiang, at the juncture of the Grand Canal with 

G 



82 THE CHINESE EMPIRE 

the Yangtse, is a large and bustling commercial city. It 
was captured by the British in 1842 after an heroic resist- 
ance by the Tartar garrison. When all was lost Hai-ling, 
the general of the troops, immolated himself in his yamen, 
rather than submit to the " foreign barbarian." 

Yangchow, 15 miles north of Chinkiang, and on the 
banks of the Grand Canal, is famous for its wealth and the 
beauty of its women. Marco Polo was governor of this 
city for three years (about a.d. 1280). 

The city of Shanghai is better known to foreigners than 
any other place in China. It was taken by the British 
forces in 1842, and was one of the five ports thrown open 
to the trade of the world at the conclusion of the war of 
that date. Its position at the mouth of the Yangtse makes 
it the emporium for Central China. Where, when the 
port was opened, was a towpath for the trackers, who 
laboriously dragged their junks up the river, a handsome 
street, called the Bund, now fronts the Hwangpu river, and 
what was then a wide expanse of paddy fields is now a dense 
city of Chinese houses and wealthy shops. Beyond this, 
away into the country, five miles to the north and west of 
the Bund, stretch the residences of foreign merchants. 

The total foreign population of the International Settle- 
ment of Shanghai is 11,497. Of this number 3713 are 
British, 2157 are Japanese, 1329 are Portuguese, 991 are 
American, 785 are German, and 393 are French. There is 
a French Settlement outside the International Settlement 
in which there are a few hundred more French subjects, 
the remaining population being divided amongst twenty 
other nationalities. The Chinese population is 452,716. 
If we consider the large Chinese population in the French 
Concession, in the native city, and in the villages just outside 
the bounds of the Settlement, it is probable that the Chinese 
population of Shanghai is not less than one million. 

The first railway in China was laid down between 
Shanghai and Woosung (12 miles) in 1876. The Chinese 
were bitterly opposed to this enterprise from the first, and 
after a few months they succeeded in buying the whole 



THE PEOVINCE OF KIANGSU 83 

plant from the foreign firm which had the concession, and 
then immediately tore up the rails. The line was relaid 
and opened to traffic in 1898. The railway is being carried 
westward to Soochow, which section is now nearly completed. 
The other sections to Nanking and to Wuhu are in course 
of construction and will be rapidly pushed to completion. 
The Chinese are now as keen to get railways as they 
were formerly opposed to them. The poor as well as the 
rich subscribe eagerly for shares, and those who reckoned 
that the Chinese were too poor to build their own railways 
without foreign assistance are likely to get a surprise. 
Another important railway, one from Nanking to Tientsin, 
is projected, but the concessionaires have been so dilatory in 
commencing the work, that the Chinese are now clamour- 
ing for the retrocession of the permission to construct the 
line. 

When these railways are finished Kiangsu will have 
two great trunk lines running east and west and north and 
south through the province ; it is safe to prognosticate that 
there will be an immense development of trade in conse- 
quence of these increased facilities for transport. 

From the printing presses of Shanghai books, magazines, 
and newspapers pour forth in an unresting stream. The 
older literature of China's dreamy sages is being pushed 
aside, and text-books on subjects of which the ancients never 
dreamed are being circulated literally by the hundred 
thousand. The works of Spencer, Huxley, and Montesquieu; 
Ivanhoe, Uncle Tom's Cabin, Sherlock Holmes, and a host 
of other books equally modern have been translated and 
are being read with avidity by the younger generation 
of China's scholars. 

In a word, KiANGSU is the wealthiest, the most cultured, 
and the most progressive of the eighteen provinces. Not 
only so, but this province sets the fashion for all China. 
What is done here to-day will be the rage in the most 
distant parts of this great Empire in a few months or at 
most a few years' time. This emphasises the importance of 
the province from an educational and evangelistic standpoint. 



84 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

The Roman Catholics have had Missions in Kiangsu since 
the sixteenth century. About eleven years after Ignatius 
Loyola had founded the Society of Jesus, Xavier, the most 
zealous of the Jesuits, was reconnoitring the great closed 
land of Sinim. He never gained an entrance. Disappoint- 
ment and intrigue broke his heart, and he died within sight 
of China's shore before the " rock " opened. 

In 1579 Matteo Eicci arrived in China. Foiled in his 
first attempt fo enter Nanking, he proceeded to Nanchang, a 
city of evil repute, but returned to Nanking and ultimately 
made his way to the capital. The impression this man made 
on her rulers is written legibly in the annals of China ; no 
missionary of any denomination has since exerted a tithe of 
his influence. 

A notable convert was gained for Christianity when 
Sii Kwang-chi, a Cabinet Minister of that date, became the 
friend and pupil of Eicci. "When the officials at Nanking 
denounced the missionaries of the new religion as a 
" depraved sect," Sli memorialised the Emperor in their 
favour. His books, political and religious, are still on 
sale in the book-shops in Shanghai. A memorial arch to 
his memory was erected in this, his native city, and to this 
day his name is enshrined in a little temple called " The 
Hall of Sli Wen-ding " (the resolute and elegant Sli). Surely 
it has fallen to the lot of few men to be canonised by 
Christians and pagans alike. 

Siccavvei, literally (Sii-kia-wei) " the homestead of the Sii 
family," is now the site of the Eoman Catholic establishment 
near Shanghai. It comprises an observatory, art schools, 
printing-press, etc., and is reckoned one of the most interest- 
ing places in the Far East. 

Since those early days Catholic Missions have been 
prosecuted in the province with varied success. As Pro- 
testants, we can neither acquiesce in their tenets nor approve 
their methods of mission work, but the self-sacrifice and 
persistence of the missionaries are such as we can only 
admire. 

Their success, though great, has not been adequate to 



THE PKOVINCE OF KIANGSU 85 

their efforts nor commensurate with their opportunities. 
One of the Fathers said to me, " Our work in China 
resembles Penelope's web. What is woven in the day while 
man can work is ever unravelled in the dark night of per- 
secution." Protestant Missions, though still inferior to the 
Romanists in the number of their converts, are now for the 
first time their equals in prestige and equipment. It 
remains to be seen whether (avoiding the bickerings which 
ruined the Romanist Mission in the time of its fairest 
opportunity) they will respond to the call of God, and 
accomplish the task of Christianising this province — the 
task in which the Romanists have conspicuously failed. 

From 1850 to 1864 the terrible Taiping Rebellion 
desolated China. The rebels captured Nanking in 1853, 
and from that time they made that city their capital. It is 
estimated that 20,000,000 people perished in that awful 
war, and of this number possibly a third were inhabitants 

of KlANGSU. 

The Taipings professed faith in Christianity, but their 
deeds were a repetition of the horrors wrought by Attila and 
Jenghis Khan. Several Protestant missionaries resided for 
longer or shorter periods in the camps at Nanking and 
Soochow. Amongst these were Roberts — from whom Hung 
Siu-ts'iien, the rebel leader, first heard the Gospel, which had 
such an unexpected influence on his life and through him 
on China — Griffith John, Muirhead, and Edkins. The hopes 
entertained by the missionaries that the rebel movement 
would become a great moral force were sadly disappointed, 
and, one by one, they withdrew from the Taiping armies. 

I have heard ex-Taipings say that the foreigners made 
a great mistake when they sent General Gordon to crush 
the rebellion. By so doing, they say, the foreigners pro- 
longed the reign of the conservative and bigoted Manchus 
and ensured the supremacy of idolatry for many years. 
Whereas, had the British Government supported the rebels 
and enabled them to found a new dynasty, China would 
have been immediately thrown open to the commerce of 
the world. 



86 THE CHINESE EMPIKE 

Doubtless if the rebel army had been permeated with 
the Gospel leaven of truth and righteousness, that host 
might have become a great reforming force. As it happened, 
there was not sufficient goodness in the mass to save it 
from corruption. We must rejoice that an end was put to 
the unspeakable atrocities of the Taipings, but we may be 
allowed to ponder regretfully " What might have been " 
had Hung Siu-ts'iien and his followers been imbued with 
even a modicum of Christian virtue. 

The first Protestant missionary to visit the province of 
KiANGSU w^as Karl Eriedrich Gutzlaff, who sailed along the 
coast of China in a sailing vessel in 1832 and visited 
Shanghai during the trip. He distributed Gospels to the 
people, who received the books courteously. 

To the London Missionary Society belongs the honour 
of commencing settled work in Mid-China. Dr. Medhurst 
first visited Shanghai in 1835. In 1843, in company 
with Dr. Lockhart, he took up his residence there, renting 
premises outside the east gate of the native city. Here he 
erected the first printing-press and engaged in evangelistic 
work. It was here too that, on November 13, 1845, the 
first two converts were baptized. In 1843 Dr. Lockhart 
rented premises outside the south gate and established the 
first Mission hospital in Mid-China. Since 1843 the 
Mission work of this great Society has been continued 
without intermission in the city and surrounding country. 

The Eev. T. M'Clatchie of the Church Missionary 
Society rented a house inside the native city of Shanghai in 
1844. Bishop Boone of the American Episcopal Church 
arrived in 1845. Eev. M. T. Yates of the American 
Southern Baptist Mission, and Drs. Carpenter and Wardner 
of the Seventh Day Baptist Mission, arrived in 1847. 
The American Methodist Episcopal Mission (South) 
commenced work in Shanghai in 1848, and the American 
Presbyterian (North) in 1850. The China Inland Mission 
rented its first house in Shanghai in 1873, and other 
Missions have followed since, until there are now about 



THE PEOVINCE OF KIANGSU 87 

twenty Societies working in the city, and the total number 
of missionaries engaged in evangelistic, medical, literary, 
and educational work is close on 200. 

It is impossible even to glance at the manifold activities 
of the Societies working in Shanghai. The literary work of 
the Christian Literature Society, combined with the print- 
ing establishments of the American Presbyterian Mission 
and the American Methodist Episcopal Mission, has been 
to China what the initial impulse is to the great ship as 
she leaves the stocks to launch herself upon the waves. 
Such educational institutions as St. John's University 
(American Episcopal Mission) and the M'Tyiere Girls' 
Boarding-School (American Methodist Episcopal Mission) 
not only fulfil the purpose of their existence by turning 
out Christian men and women educated and equipped for 
their life-work, but they also serve as models on which the 
Chinese are shaping their own educational institutions. 
The well-managed hospitals, St. Luke's (American Episcopal 
Mission) and the London Mission Hospital, Shantung 
Eoad, have often elicited eulogies of approval from 
enlightened Chinese officials. The ordinary daily preach- 
ing in the street chapels is also having a twofold effect. 
It is not only turning men to righteousness, but is intro- 
ducing the new and democratic method of direct appeal 
from the platform to a popular audience. 

It is worth recalling for a moment the names of the 
great missionaries who have laboured in this field and are 
now gone to their rest : Medhurst, Milne, Muirhead, 
Wylie, Williamson, Edkins, Faber, Hudson Taylor, and 
others. These men laid the foundations of the Church in 
Mid-China ; they were giants in faith and intellect, and 
they shall be had in lasting remembrance as long as the 
Church of Christ in China shall endure. 

Dr. H. C. Du Bose in his book on " Beautiful Soo " says : 
— " For years the missionaries in Shanghai looked upon 
Soochow as a great evangelistic centre, and longed for the 
time when its gates should be opened. Before the city 
was taken by the Taiping rebels, young Griffith John, 



88 THE CHINESE EMPIRE 

now a veteran, and others visited the place with a view 
to securing a foothold. Rev. William Muirhead came to 
this city in native dress, with a queue which was, un- 
fortunately, too securely fastened. He was seized, dragged 
along the street, while a heavy blow on his head made him 
think his time was short, 

" The first foreigner to live in this city was Charles 
Schmidt, who laboured under the auspices of the American 
Presbyterians (North). He came in 1868. He had been 
an officer in the ' Ever Victorious Army,' and his extended 
acquaintance among military mandarins secured him an 
unmolested sojourn. He was a man of wonderful tact in 
dealing with the people. He had a far-reaching acquaint- 
ance with Chinese affairs, was a fluent speaker, a gifted 
preacher, and wrote a most excellent tract. He afterwards 
withdrew from the Mission service. 

"In 1867 Rev. J. W. Lambuth, D.D., obtained a room 
with a dirt floor near the Ink Pagoda, and on his regular 
visits to the city held religious services. He was assisted 
by a native minister. Rev. C. K. Marshall, who had resided 
some years in America. 

" During the occupation of Nanking by the rebels. Dr. 
Muirhead visited that place, and passing near the wall 
heard shrieks and groans. Going upon the wall, he found 
a young lad, wounded and ill, who was about to give up 
his life in despair. He was taken to Shanghai and kindly 
cared for. In 1872, when Dr. Muirhead came to Soochow 
and tried to rent a place, a rice merchant proffered his 
assistance and secured for him a chapel on the principal 
street of the city. It was the aforesaid lad, who in this 
way showed his gratitude. Thus Messrs. Muirhead and 
Lambuth were the first regular preachers in this pagan 
city. 

" There are now fifteen chapels in the city. There are 
four hospitals and twenty day-schools. The people enter- 
tain the kindliest feelings towards the American residents, 
who have lived so long among them and identified them- 
selves with the city's interests." 



THE PROVINCE OF KIANGSU 89 

Mr. Duncan of the China Inland Mission was the first 
Protestant missionary to work in Nanking. He reached 
the city in 1867, travelling vid Soochow and Chinkiang. 
His first lodging was in the Drum-tower — a conspicuous 
landmark in Nanking — where he rented a room from the 
Buddhist priest in charge of the building. Communication 
with the coast was difficult in those days, and it came to 
pass that Mr. Duncan's funds were exhausted. His servant 
had contributed his scanty store, but in spite of the utmost 
frugality that too was almost gone. One morning as Mr. 
Duncan was leaving his lodging to go to his daily task of 
street preaching his servant asked anxiously, " What shall we 
do now, teacher ? The money is all used up." " Trust in 
the Lord, and do good ; so shalt thou dwell in the land, and 
verily thou shalt be fed," was the cheery reply. When Mr. 
Duncan returned at night, weary from the long day's work, 
the servant was looking out for him, and seeing him afar 
off, he ran to tell him the good news. Mr. Eudland had 
come in from Shanghai that very day and their need was 
met. " Of course," was Mr. Duncan's reply ; " God said 
' verily thou shalt be fed,' and He is always to be 
trusted." 

To-day Nanking is one of the great missionary centres 
of China. The Methodist Episcopal and the Foreign 
Christian Mission have both large hospitals and well- 
equipped colleges in the city. The other missions, working 
in the city and district, are too numerous to be mentioned 
seriatim, but it may be asserted that, with the exception 
of Shanghai and possibly Peking, there is no city in China 
which has such a large body of missionaries or such 
magnificent institutions. Mr. Duncan died at Torquay in 
1872. He never saw the fruit of his labours. Like Paul 
in Athens, his soul was stirred as he saw a great cultured 
city wholly given to idolatry, and, without a home, without 
a friend, he wandered daily from temple to temple, from 
tea-shop to tea-shop, telling to all who would listen the 
story of a Saviour's love. Could he revisit the city now 
how delighted he would be to see the progress that has 



90 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

been made ! and yet, in very truth, we are to-day only at 
the beginning of Christian work in Nanking. 

The Kev. J. Hudson Taylor of the China Inland 
Mission rented a house in Yangchow in 1868. From the 
first there was considerable opposition to the missionaries. 
The gentry and literati, with the connivance of the officials, 
plotted to drive the foreigner out of their gates. It was 
difficult to get up a riot, for the lower classes in Yangchow 
are not turbulent, though they can be rude enough if they 
think it safe to indulge the propensity. The missionaries 
dressed in Chinese costume, and made every effort to 
conciliate the prejudices of their heathen neighbours ; it 
was plain that they were the most inoffensive people 
imaginable. The gentry, sure of official approbation, 
persisted, and the riot came off", happily with no fatal 
results, though the lives of some of the ladies of the 
Mission were doubtless shortened by the strain and 
brutality of that fearful time. The whole affair was 
manoeuvred, both before and after the riot, in such 
characteristic style, that if the name was altered the de- 
scription of the outbreak and the settlement would apply to 
many of the subsequent regrettable disturbances in China. 

However, work in Yangchow has been continued from 
that date to the present time. The China Inland Mission 
Home for lady workers is in this city, and hundreds of lady 
missionaries have received their first ineffaceable impressions 
of Chinese life and missionary work during their residence 
there. 

Before 1868 the London Mission had commenced work 
in Chinkiang. They regarded this city as an out-station 
from Shanghai and had rented a chapel and stationed an 
evangelist there to carry on the work. After the Yang- 
chow riot the China Inland Mission secured premises in the 
city. Chinkiang is now very adequately supplied with 
missionaries and the accessories necessary for Mission work. 
There is the China Inland Mission Hospital, the women's 
hospital and girls' school of the Methodist Episcopal 
Mission, also the large and well-organised men's college 



THE PEOVINCE OF KIANGSU 91 

of the same Mission. Besides these conspicuous buildings 
there are, of course, the usual churches, chapels, and out- 
stations of these and other Missions. 

These are the principal centres of missionary work in the 
province, but from these centres the work has gradually- 
spread to the neighbouring cities. Mention ought to be 
made of the city of Tsingkiangpu, at the confluence of 
the Grand Canal and the Hungtse Lake, and of Soochow, a 
large prefectural city near the borders of Shantung. Both 
of these are well-manned missionary stations. 

The main lesson which this brief review emphasises is, 
not that a great work has been accomplished, but that, in 
the providence of God, we are on the threshold of a 
success which has hitherto been only dreamed of in 
Christian Missions in China. 

Sixty years have elapsed since missionary work was 
commenced in Kiangsu, and since that date, as we have 
seen, almost every strategic point in the province has been 
seized on and is now to be the base of a farther advance. 
Missionaries in the early days were men of an heroic faith, but 
they necessarily lacked knowledge of China and experience 
of the Chinese. To-day the missionaries are no less zealous 
than of yore ; they are also wise with the experience of 
half a century, and in their ranks are not a few who are 
reckoned cultured Chinese scholars even by the literati 
of China. 

The Christian literature which has been issued from 
the printing presses set up in the province of Kiangsu has 
been of such dynamic force that it has rent asunder the 
bands of the old conservatism which bound China hand 
and foot. It also provides a spiritual food for those who 
are born (regenerated) into the Church. 

Schools, colleges, and hospitals have been established, 
where leaders of the Church of God in China have been 
and still are being educated ; but, above all, a Church has 
been called out of heathenism, and it is to this agency rather 
than to the foreign missionaries that we look for the future 
evangelisation of Kiangsu. 



92 THE CHINESE EMPIKE 

It is significant that a Chinese independent Church has 
been formed in Shanghai. It is composed of Chinese 
church members of all denominations, and aims at spreading 
the Gospel without recourse to the aid of foreign govern- 
ments or consuls. The Tao-tai of Shanghai has issued a 
proclamation in favour of this body, and they have received 
considerable financial help from their compatriots in America. 
The officers of the Church are able and energetic men, and 
though the formation of this Church has been viewed with 
suspicion by some missionaries, who see in it a premature 
attempt to throw off the restraint of foreign control, there 
can be no doubt that it indicates the healthy vitality of 
the native Church, The promoters of the new Church are 
likely to make mistakes. They will be very unlike the 
directors of all other religious organisations if they do not ! 
Nevertheless, the inception of the Chinese independent 
Church marks the beginning of a new era in the history of 
Missions in China, and is a significant forward step which 
will have far-reaching consequences. 

We therefore say thankfully, "What hath God wrought!" 
and we look forward with hopefulness to the future, know- 
ing that Jesus is with us " alway, even to the end of the 
world." 



THE PROVINCE OF SHANTUNG 

By Mr. C. F. Hogg. 

Shantung (" East of the Hills," as Shansi is " West of the 
Hills ") lies to the south-east of the metropolitan province, 
Chihli, and to the north of Kiangsu ; a part of Honan 
divides these and completes the landward boundaries of the 
province. Shantung, as to a considerable portion of its 
area, is a promontory, the northern coast of which is the 
southern littoral of the Gulf of Chihli, or Pe-Chihli, as 
it is sometimes called, the added syllable " Pe " signifyino- 
" North." 

The area of Shantung is stated at 53,762 square 
miles (English), or nearly twice that of Ireland, and con- 
siderably more than that of England. Its surface may 
be described, roughly, as flat as to one half, and hilly as to 
the other. The southern and eastern parts are hilly, and 
in places mountainous ; the remainder is a plain. The 
rugged heights of the eastern extremity of the promontory 
present a forbidding appearance from the sea, from which 
the mountains, rich in granite, seem to rise sheer. Only 
towards this extremity are natural harbours to be found. 
Westward, north and south of the promontory, the shoal 
water makes access to the land difficult for boats of any 
burden. There are, however, a few places where native 
junks find shelter, ships of tonnage not greatly differing 
from those with which Columbus discovered America. 
The principal, if not the only exceptions, are Chefoo, 
where the Treaty of 1876 was signed by Sir Thomas Wade 

93 



94 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

and Li Hung-chang ; Weihaiwei, now in the occupation 
of the British, on the north coast ; and Kiaochow, now in 
the hands of the Germans, on the south coast. 

Since the year 1858 (1852 Hassenstein) the Yellow 
Eiver (Hoang-ho, pronounced Whang-ho) has found its way 
to the sea through the north-western plain of Shantung, 
returning to the old course it had deserted for a more 
southerly one fourteen hundred years before. The Yellow 
Eiver is probably unique among the great rivers of the 
world, inasmuch as it is practically useless as a means of 
communication. The suspended matter, brought down from 
the loess plains of the north-west, which gives the stream 
its name, is deposited in its lower reaches, and thus the bed 
of the river has been gradually raised above the level of the 
surrounding country. Enormous embankments have been 
made to contain the immense volume of swiftly-flowing 
water, but these very frequently break down under the 
strain to which they are subjected in times of flood. The 
waters devastate the country, and, receding, leave behind a 
sandy silt that permanently deteriorates the soil. There 
are not any other rivers of importance in the province, but 
the Grand Canal, on its way from Canton to Peking, passes 
through the same section as does the Yellow Eiver. The 
advent of the steamer and the lighthouse, by making coast 
traffic more practicable and more safe than formerly, have 
considerably reduced the importance of this artificial w^ater- 
way, which is by far the longest in the world. 

In the west-central part of the province, near the city 
of Taian Fu, to which it gives its name, stands Tai-shan 
(Mount Tai), one of the five sacred peaks of China whither 
the devout make pilgrimage. 

The soil of Shantung has been exhausted through 
centuries of uninterrupted production without adequate 
compensation. Enriching material is poor in quality and 
insufficient in quantity ; grazing is unknown, and the land 
never lies fallow, but produces a minimum of three crops in 
two years without intermission. The output consequently 
falls far short of what might be attained under better 



THE PROVINCE OE SHANTUNG 95 

management, and the quality of the food-stuffs is deficient 
in nutritive power. Wheat, millet, maize, sorghum, sweet 
potatoes, pea-nuts, hemp, indigo, and a variety of bean and 
pea crops are regularly grown. Maize and sweet potatoes 
are not indigenous, and though of recent introduction, are 
already among the principal food products of the province. 
Eice, of a variety not requiring water in great abundance, 
is occasionally found, but the quantity is inconsiderable, 
though the quality is esteemed by the natives. Fruit is 
abundant, but from lack of cultivation — even the crudest 
form of pruning is not practised — the quality is usually 
poor. Apples, pears, apricots, peaches, nectarines, plums, 
cherries, grapes, and persimmons are plentiful. 

Wood is not a feature of the landscape, though the 
villages that nestle in the valleys or stud the plains are 
usually surrounded by trees, spared for their shade. Willow, 
dwarf oak, stunted pine, ash, mulberry, walnut, catalpa are 
all to be found in one part or another of the province, but 
wood for building purposes and for coffin-making are, for 
the most part, imported from Manchuria. 

Sericulture is an important allied industry. The worms 
are fed in the west on the leaf of the mulberry, in the 
east on that of the dwarf oak, the material made from the 
product of the latter finding its way into the market as 
pongee or Chefoo silk. The worm itself, after the cocoon 
has been used, is esteemed as a delicacy. There is an 
export trade in wheat straw braid also, but this, like all 
export trade in China involving anything except raw 
material, is apparently declining. 

The mineral resources of Shantung are reputed to be 
extensive. The Germans, who obtained mining rights 
consequent upon their seizure of Kiaochow, have pushed 
their railway westward from that port to Tsinan Fu, the 
provincial capital, thus making accessible the coalfields of 
the central section. 

The imports of Shantung are inconsiderable, and the 
produce of the soil not being sufficient for the support of 
its inhabitants, the balance is on the wrong side. The 



96 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

opening of a new source of wealth may redress the in- 
equality to some extent. One of the greatest disabilities 
under which China, as a nation, labours, is that a large 
proportion of its population seldom get a meal sufiicient in 
qviality and nutritive power. Philanthropy may do a little 
to relieve the abnormal pressure consequent upon drought 
and floods, but, obviously, external interference can do 
nothing to meet a normal condition of insufficient aliment 
extending over a great extent of country and involving an 
enormous population. Dwellers on the coast supplement 
the meagre harvest of the soil by the more precarious 
harvest of the sea, but at high cost in human life. They 
go far out on the deep in their open boats, and when, as 
so often happens in the winter, the promise of the morning 
is belied by the sudden rise of a fierce north-western gale, 
they are driven before its icy breath, and are either lost in 
the open ocean or cast up on some neighbouring island, 
dead, or frost-maimed in every limb. 

The struggle with the elements has made the Shan- 
tungese fishermen a hardy race of sailors, brave, patient, 
cheerful, and self-reliant, characteristics which are shared in 
some degree by their fellow-provincials, whose environment 
is not so well calculated to develop the more active physical 
virtues, but who are, nevertheless, stalwart, well-built men, 
steadfast, blunt, outspoken, persevering, not so easily roused 
as the men of the southern provinces, nor so easily pacified, 
but yet sharing other common characteristics of the race. 
Mentally the Shantungese are hard-headed and incredulous 
in their dealings with fellow-mortals, though they manifest 
the opposite of these qualities in their relations with the 
spirit world. They are more convinced idolaters than are 
to be found in most of the provinces of China, if we may 
judge from a certain readiness to argue in defence of the 
popular deities. 

Among sailors the most popular divinity is a goddess, 
known as the "Holy Mother, Queen of Heaven," to whom vows 
are made and redeemed by those sailors or travellers who are 
about to face or have just escaped the perils of the deep. 



THE PEOVINCE OF SHANTUNG 97 

In the cities and towns the Shantungese shows himself 
a shrewd business man, for the Chinese have a good claim 
to be known as a nation of shopkeepers. Markets are held 
in most large villages at intervals of live days, and are so 
arranged that salesmen can move from one to another 
without loss of time. These afford opportunities for the 
preacher of the Gospel also, for the men at least of the 
surrounding district attend these markets very frequently, 
and when work is slack in the fields the number present 
is often very large. 

The Chinese divide men into four classes, according to 
their occupation — the literatus, the agriculturist, the 
artisan, and the merchant ; and the order is ideal — the 
thinker, the producer, the worker, and the distributor. 
There are few families, however, that are not more or less 
interested in the land. In late May and early October 
the schools are closed, the streets and shops deserted ; the 
workman leaves his bench, the fisherman his nets, and the 
scholar his books, that all may help to gather from the 
fields the precious harvest which is to keep the wolf of 
hunger from the door for another year. 

Thou providest them with corn . . . 
Thou crownest the year with Thy goodness. 

Psalm Ixv. 
He left not Himself without witness . . . 
Filling your hearts with food and gladness. 

Acts xiv. 

The population of Shantung varies in density, and the 
presence of so many hills and mountains lowers the average 
of inhabitants to the square mile. By actual count, in a 
district in the west of the province, not including any city 
in its area, as many as 1300 people were found to the 
square mile. In the neighbourhood of Weihaiwei, in 
the east, the British surveying party estimated a popula- 
tion of 500 to the square mile; throughout the province 
generally, the average population per square mile is given 
as 557. 

Shantung has contributed to China the best-known 

H 



98 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

names on her long roll of famous men, viz. Confucius and 
Mencius. These are the Latinised forms of the Chinese 
K'ung-fu-tz and Meng-fu-tz. K'ung and Meng are sur- 
names in everyday use. Fu-tz is master. Confucius 
alone is the Sage, Mencius is recognised as of secondary 
rank, though Western students of philosophy seem inclined 
to reverse the native verdict. In 551-479 B.C., the era 
of Confucius, China was a conglomerate of feudal states 
owning allegiance, as actual as is usual under such circum- 
stances, to the house of Chou. What is known of the 
teaching of the Sage has come to us in the form of table- 
talk, gathered up and put on record by the band of young 
men who followed him about from place to place receiving 
his doctrine. It is worthy of note, surely, that the classic 
literature of China is absolutely devoid of anything offensive 
to good taste. Its morality is of a high, if artificial, order, 
and what the Chinese are is in spite, not in consequence of, 
the teachings of antiquity. Confucius did not write books ; 
the only writings with which he is credited are the Annals 
of Lu, his native state. He died, after a life full of 
vicissitudes, at the age of seventy-three. His lineal de- 
scendants are Dukes till the present day. Mencius (372- 
289 B.C.) was also a native of the ancient state of Lu, and 
he, like Confucius, was dead some hundreds of years before 
posterity admitted them to the honourable places they now 
hold in the national esteem. 

Missionary Operations. — Shantung was early visited 
(1851-53) by Carl F. Gutzlaff, in the course of his 
extended coasting tours, undertaken in a native junk, 
for the purpose of distributing the Scriptures. In 1860 
Mr. Holmes of the American Southern Baptist Mission 
settled in Chefoo with his family, a colleague, Mr. J. B. 
Hartwell, settling in Tengchow the following year. In 
1861 Chefoo was threatened by one of the hosts of 
marauders called into existence by the success of the 
Taipings. Mr. Holmes, with Mr. Parker of the American 
Episcopal Mission, volunteered to intercede with the rebels. 



THE PEOVINCE OF SHANTUNG 99 

supposing them to be Taipings, and while engaged on this 
errand of mercy both were murdered. In the same year 
missionaries of the American Presbyterian Mission (North) 
began work in Tengchow, and in 1862 they established 
themselves in Chefoo. In 1866 the English Methodist 
New Connexion missionaries, reaching out from Tientsin, 
opened a station about 15 miles from Laoling, a depart- 
mental city in the north-west of the province. In 1873 
the American Presbyterian Mission (North) began work in 
the provincial capital, Tsinan Fu, 300 miles south-west of 
Chefoo, and in 1874 the American Methodist Episcopal 
Mission rented premises in Taian Fu. The remaining 
stations of the American Presbyterian Mission were opened 
as follows: — Weihsien in 1882, Yichow Fu in 1891, Tsi- 
ning Chow in 1892, and Kiaochow, after its occupation 
by the Germans, in 1898. The English Baptist Mission 
began work in Chefoo in the early 'sixties. In 1874 they 
removed to Tsingchow Fu, the ancestral home of the 
Emperors of the Ming dynasty, and in 1888 they 
added Chowping to the number of missionary centres in 
Shantung. 

A unique feature of the work in Tsingchow Fu was 
the Museum, formed there by Mr. Whitewright. The 
contents and the building containing them would have 
reflected credit on any town of similar size in this country. 
This museum proved a great attraction, and many who 
came to satisfy curiosity heard within its walls the word 
of the truth of the Gospel. The Boxer outbreak of 1900, 
however, brought to destruction the result of the patient, 
painstaking labour of many years. Other Missions at 
work in Shantung are the American Board of Com- 
missioners for Foreign Missions (1880), and the Gospel 
Baptist Mission (U.S.A. 1892). To these should be added 
the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, which com- 
menced its work in Shantung in 1874. Eastward of Chefoo 
some unconnected workers are located in three stations — 
Weihaiwei, Shihtau, and Wenteng. 

China Inland Mission. — Foreseeing the need of a place 



100 THE CHINESE EMPIRE 

where, under approximately healthy conditions, members of 
the C.I.M. might recuperate, Mr. Hudson Taylor established 
a sanatorium in Chefoo in 1879, an institution which has 
grown with the Mission and has proved an inestimable 
boon to many who suffered in health under the conditions 
inevitable in Inland China. Schools for the children of 
missionaries soon became a pressing need, and to meet this 
the late Mr. W. L. Elliston began to teach in a room in the 
mission house beside the sanatorium. This work also has 
grown, and as, under certain conditions, the schools are open 
to children of parents other than missionaries, the Chefoo 
schools are now an important factor in European life in 
China. In recent years two commodious buildings have 
been erected, fulfilling modern scholastic conditions, for 
the accommodation of 180 boarders — 100 boys and 80 
girls — and another building, formerly used as a hotel, has 
been purchased and modified to meet the requirements of 
a mixed preparatory school for younger children. 

The China Inland Mission also carries on medical 
mission work in Chefoo in two hospitals, one in the 
mission compound, the other, the Lily Douthwaite Memorial 
Hospital, primarily intended for the isolation of fever cases, 
built at a little distance. At Ninghai Chow, 18 miles to 
the south-east, Mission work, evangelistic and industrial, has 
been carried on by the China Inland Mission since 1886. 

It was in Shantung that the Boxer movement was 
first turned against the foreigners in China, under the 
direction and fostering care of the notorious Yii-hsien^ 
since executed by Imperial command not far from the 
door of the China Inland Mission House in Lanchow, 
Kansu province. 

The name of a Shantung missionary, the Rev. S. P. 
Brook of the S.P.G., heads the long, sad list of those to 
whom it was granted to suffer the loss of life for Christ's, 
sake and the Gospel during the terrible Boxer uprising. 



THE PROVINCE OF CHIHLI 

By the Rev. Thomas Brtson, London Missionary Society. 

Chihli, as the name " Direct Eule " implies, is the seat of 
the supreme government of the Empire, and therefore the 
most important of all the provinces of China. Some 
foreign maps (see Uncyclopcedia Britannica) erroneously 
limit its northern boundary by the Great Wall. That 
monumental landmark really divides the province into 
two nearly equal parts, the northern portion being occupied 
by a thinly scattered Mongol population, under the juris- 
diction of Mongol princes, but subject also to the authority 
of Chinese officials who reside in the towns beyond the 
Great Wall. 

The province is bounded on the north by the Hsilamulun 
river, a tributary of the Liao ho, and Inner Mongolia ; on 
the west by Shansi ; on the south-west by Honan ; on the 
south-east by Shantung ; and on the west by the Gulf of 
Pechihli and the Manchurian province of Shengking. 

Confining our attention to the part south of the Great 
Wall, we notice the prevailing physical feature of the 
province is its Dutch-like dead level, subject to inundation 
in the wet season and from frequent bursting of the river 
embankments. The delta on the east is the flattest portion 
of that vast plain which, beginning near the capital, stretches 
southward for 700 miles through Honan to the Yangtse 
valley. The late Kev. Jonathan Lees has for ever described 
the sensations of the traveller who takes his first " Winter's 
Eide through Chihli." 

101 



102 THE CHINESE EMPIRE 

It were best to leave behind 
All hopes of an aesthetic kind, 
Eye, ear, or nose small joy will find 
Upon the plain of Chihli. 

Look not for lake or rippling rill. 
Or giant tree, or wood-crowned hill. 
Or sweet wild-flower, or aught to thrill 
Your artist sense in Chihli. 

As a set-off, however, to this depressing flatness of the 
land, the climate may fairly claim to be the most invigor- 
ating and healthiest in China. The summer months are 
hot, the winters often intensely cold, with a cloudless sky 
almost all the year round. 

For administrative purposes the province is divided, 
according to Consul Playfair's The Cities and Towns of China, 
into 11 prefectures, 3 sub-prefectures, 6 independent de- 
partments, 17 departments, and 124 districts. Of these 
beyond the Great Wall there are 1 " fu " or prefecture, 
1 " ting " or sub-prefecture, 1 department or " chow," and 
3 districts or " hsiens." 

The principal cities are Peking, Paotingfu, Tientsin, 
Jehho, Tungchow, Chentingfu, Shanhaikwan, and Hochien. 
For nearly one thousand years, through varying fortunes 
with each change of dynasty, Peking has been the metropolis 
of the Empire. Paotingfu is the capital of the province, 
and, before treaties with foreign powers existed, was the 
residence of the Governor-General. During Li Hung-chang's 
viceroyalty, for convenience of intercourse with consuls 
and diplomatists, the yamen was transferred to Tientsin. 
Paotingfu witnessed the murder of several American and 
English missionaries during the Boxer year, and for this 
crime was visited by the allied troops, and severe punish- 
ment inflicted upon its responsible officials. 

Tientsin, memorable as the place where Lord Elgin 
signed the Treaty of 1858, where the massacre of 1870 
took place, and which shared with Peking the siege and 
bombardment of 1900, stands next to Shanghai in the 
volume of its trade and the extent of its foreign population. 



THE PEOVmCE or CHIHLI 103 

Five miles of frontage on the right and left banks of the 
Peiho river are owned and governed by foreign powers. As 
a result of the Treaty of 1860, the British and French had 
concessions allotted to them. The Japanese, after the war 
of 1895, acquired the same right; and now, since 1900, 
there are in addition concessions belonging to Germany, 
Russia, Austria, and Belgium. Jehho or Jehol lies outside 
the Great Wall, and is chiefly interesting to foreigners be- 
cause Lord Macartney's embassy of 1793 was there received 
in audience by the Emperor Kien-lung ; and to Jehho the 
Emperor Hien-fung fled before the advance of the Allies 
on Peking in 1860. Tungchow lies 12 miles east of 
Peking, and is now connected with the capital by a branch 
line of railway. Its former glory has departed. The 
imperial grain fleets which crowded the river and unloaded 
their harvest of tribute rice from the southern provinces 
at this northern terminus of the Grand Canal arrive here 
no more. Coasting steamships and railways have displaced 
the old junk traffic. The granaries of Tungchow are empty 
— its importance now is as an educational centre. Here 
are the splendid group of college buildings and professors' 
residences which constitute the North China Union College 
of the American Board Mission, with the Eev. Dr. Sheffield 
as Principal. Chengtingfu on the Chinghan railway, the 
residence of a Eoman Catholic bishop, held its gates closed 
against the Boxer rebels, and sheltered within its walls a 
few Protestant missionaries who would otherwise have been 
massacred in 1900. 

Shanhaikwan, a strongly fortified town at the eastern 
extremity of the Great Wall, has been occupied by detach- 
ments of foreign troops since the Boxer year, and has also 
a small European community of railway employes. 

Hochien Fu was the scene of the recent military 
manoeuvres of the Northern Army under H.E. Yiian 
Shih-kai, which so greatly impressed the foreign attaches 
and newspaper correspondents who were invited to 
witness it. 

The population of the province is stated as nearly 



104 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

twenty-one millions. Peking and Tientsin are supposed to 
contain a population of about one million each. 

Under the enlightened rule of powerful viceroys such 
as H.E. Li Hung-chang and the present H.E. Yiian 
Shih-kai, Chihli has been foremost in the adoption of 
Western ideas and industries. The first mining enterprise 
conducted with foreign machinery was started at Tang- 
shan ; and the Kaiping collieries are to-day the largest in 
China. From the pit-head to Hsu Kochuang, a distance 
of 7 miles, the first line of railway was laid. From Hsu 
Kochuang to Lutai the first canal on European principles 
was constructed, and at Tangshan the first locomotive was 
built. No longer is the Lutai canal needed for its original 
purpose, to carry coal to the river, for the railway has been 
extended to Tientsin and Peking in one direction, and to 
Shanhaikwan and Newchwang on the other. Gold mining 
has been tried, but with less satisfactory results. 

To these industrial enterprises have to be added various 
educational reforms dating from the establishment in 1861 
of the famous Tung wen College, under the patronage of the 
Government and the presidency of Dr. Martin, down to 
the great revival of learning, mainly under Japanese 
guidance and teaching, since the close of the Kusso- 
Japanese War. The old order of education has changed. 
The old system of examinations has been abolished. New 
schools are being everywhere established ; and we may soon 
see a law passed enacting compulsory education. 

Por lack of sufficient Board School accommodation, the 
old temples, cleared of their idols, are being freely used. 
Attention is also being paid to Industrial and Technical 
Schools, Girls' Schools, Normal and Medical Colleges, Prison 
Eeformatories, and Sanitary Science. Of newspapers, there 
are in Tientsin alone seven dailies published, and the 
Public Lecture Halls have been opened in the city to 
spread the modern ideas among the adult population. A 
great wave of patriotism is spreading through all ranks of 
the people. The spirit of independence and emulation is 
abroad ; and the electric tramway now running on broad 



THE PEOVINCE OF CHIHLI 105 

macadamised roadways where once the walls of Tientsin 
stood, may be taken as an index and sign of the movement 
in all departments of the life, governmental, industrial, and 
educational, of this metropolitan province. 

Christianity, in the form of Eoman Catholicism, was 
introduced into Chihli towards the end of the thirteenth 
century. The province is divided into three Vicariates ; 
the north and west under the jurisdiction of the Lazarists, 
and the south or south-east in charge of the Jesuits, The 
number of their converts cannot be less than 200,000. 

The G-reek Church has been in Peking for more than two 
hundred years. It had its origin in the border wars between 
Russia and China in the time of the great Kang-hsi. A 
colony of Christian Tartars from the fort Albasin on the 
Amoor river were carried captive in 1685. This was used 
by Eussia to establish an ecclesiastical mission in the 
capital, with an Archimandrite at its head. The Mission 
has never been aggressive in seeking to make Chinese 
proselytes. 

Among the large group of Protestant missionaries 
gathered at Shanghai in 1859 and 1860, waiting eagerly 
for the opening of new ports on the northern coast and 
along the Yangtse valley, were Drs. Blodget, Burdon, 
Lockhart, Edkins, John, and Messrs. Innocent and Hall. 
With the exception of Dr. John, who in the providence 
of God followed the " pillar of cloud " to Hankow, all the 
others here mentioned became pioneers in the province of 
Chihli. Dr. Blodget of the American Board Mission began 
preaching in the streets of Tientsin in 1860. The Eev. J. 
Innocent of the Methodist New Connexion Mission (English 
Methodists) settled there in 1861, and was closely followed 
by Dr. Edkins of the London Mission. 

Dr. Lockhart had the honour of being the first Protestant 
missionary to reside within the walls of Peking. He rented 
a house next to the British Legation, and immediately 
opened a dispensary. The Society's report for 1862, 
referring to this event, says : " We indulge the sanguine 
expectation that the introduction of Christianity to the 



106 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

inhabitants of Peking, in connection with the exercise of 
benevolence to the afflicted, will tend to conciliate their 
regard for foreigners." How wonderfully this expectation 
has been fulfilled was witnessed in the opening of the 
Union Medical College on February 13, 1906. Every one 
has heard of the contribution of Taels 10,000 by the 
Empress Dowager to the building of this institution. 
H.E. Na-tung, a member of the Inner Council, was specially 
deputed to represent the Empress on the occasion of the 
ceremonial opening of the College, and he was accompanied 
by a brilliant assembly of the highest dignitaries of the 
Court, by members of the various Legations, Sir Eobert Hart, 
and other residents in the capital. H.B.M. Minister, Sir 
Ernest Satow, and Sir Eobert Hart, both of whom were 
personally acquainted with the late Dr. Lockhart, paid a 
high tribute to the character and labours of the pioneer 
missionary to Peking, and first ^ English Medical Missionary 
to China ; and called attention to the fact that his memory 
was being fittingly perpetuated by the golden letters 
inscribed on the central gable of the building, " The 
Lockhart Medical College." 

The American Board Mission, commenced by Dr. Blodget, 
is now strongly represented in five centres of foreign occu- 
pation. These are, in their chronological order : Tientsin, 
1860; Peking, 1864; Kalgan, 1865; Tungchow, 1867; 
and Paotingfu, 1873. Large country districts are vigorously 
worked from these head stations. The foreign staff in- 
cludes 14 ordained missionaries, 3 physicians, 8 single 
ladies, 3 ordained native pastors, over 50 unordained 
preachers, nearly as many teachers, and about 40 Bible 
women and female teachers. Communicants in 1904 were 
1822. The well-equipped college and seminary at Tungchow 
are the educational headquarters of this Mission. 

The English Methodist New Connexion Mission occupies 
a most extensive field in the north-east corner of the 
province, following the line of railway towards Shanhaikwan, 

^ Dr. Peter Parker was the first : see p. 15, and The Medical 3Iissionary 
in China, by Dr. Lockhart, pp. 121-122. 



THE PEOVmCE OF CHIHLI 107 

Their training school for preachers is in Tientsin. Work 
was begun in Tientsin, 1861 ; in Tangshan, 1884. The 
Yungping circuit was formed in 1902, and the Wutingfu 
circuit in 1904. The staff consists of 3 ordained mission- 
aries, 3 doctors, 28 native pastors and evangelists, as many 
local preachers, 8 school teachers, and 8 female helpers. 
Their communicants number about 1000 in Chihli. 

The London Missionary Society's stations are : Tientsin, 
1861; Peking, 1861; Chichow, 1888; Weichen, 1894; 
and Tsangchow, 1895, The country lying between Peking 
and Tientsin has been worked for many years by a 
foreign missionary residing at Tungan. The Chichow 
and Tsangchow fields were originally out -stations of 
Tientsin. Weichen was begun by the Eev. A. H, Bridge, 
an independent missionary, but was joined to the London 
Missionary Society on his becoming a member of that 
Mission in 1899. Yenshan was the headquarters of the 
Tsangchow field till the transference of the foreign mission- 
aries to the latter city on the Grand Canal in 1895. 
Work among the Mongols was carried on by the lamented 
James Gilmour, who during the later years of his life 
made his home in Chaoyang. That station, soon after 
Gilmour's death, was handed over to the Irish Presbyterian 
Mission. Besides the distinguished place which the medical 
branch has occupied in the evangelical operations of this 
Society, as seen in the lives of Lockhart, Mackenzie, and 
Eoberts, mention should be made of the Anglo-Chinese 
College in Tientsin, under Dr. S. Lavington Hart and a 
staff of foreign and native teachers, which has now over 
250 pupils. An Anglo -Chinese Church of over forty 
members meets every Sunday in the College chapel. 

The latest statistics of the London Missionary Society 
for Chihli are reported thus : — Missionaries — men, 1 8 ; 
women, 5 ; native preachers, 48 ; teachers, 32 ; Bible 
women and female teachers, 21 ; church members, 1998. 

The Church Missionary Society maintained a staff in 
Peking for many years, the work having been commenced 
in 1861 by the Eev. J. S. Burdon (afterwards Bishop of 



108 THE CHINESE EMPIRE 

Hongkong), who acted as chaplain to the British Legation. 
The present diocese was formed in 1880 under Bishop 
Scott of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, and 
the Church Missionary Society withdrew from North China 
in favour of that Society. The staff in 1905 consisted of 
the bishop and 5 clergy, 2 of whom only are engaged in 
native work ; 1 doctor and 5 ladies. They employ 6 native 
preachers, and their communicants are 211. 

The first representative of the American Presbyterian 
Mission in Peking was the Rev. Dr. Martin, who arrived in 
1863. The Rev. D. C. M'Coy and Rev. J. L. Whiting, 
who had come to China as agents of the American Board 
Mission, connected themselves with the Presbyterians at 
Peking about 1870. Dr. Wherry arrived about the same 
time, and still represents, along with able junior colleagues, 
this Mission in the capital. A new station was opened at 
Paotingfu in 1893 under the leadership of the devoted 
missionary Dr. J. W. Lowrie, who acted for a time as 
Interpreter to the German Military Commander at Paotingfu 
in 1900. A vigorous evangelistic campaign has been 
carried on in all the large towns surrounding the capital 
of the province, and many out-stations have been opened 
and occupied. The Presbyterians have provided at Peking 
the buildings and equipment of a Theological College in con- 
nection with the Union Educational Scheme. The latest 
statistics are: — Foreign workers (including wives), 35; 
native pastor, 1 ; other helpers, male and female, 5 ; 
church members, 380. 

The Methodist Episcopal Mission of the U.S.A. was 
commenced in Peking by the present senior missionary. 
Dr. Hiram H. Lowry, in 1870. True to their itinerating 
system and to Wesley's motto, " The field is the world," the 
agents of this Society have spread themselves over an 
immense area of the province of Chihli. They may be 
found posted at the far eastern Limit of the Great Wall, 
Shanhaikwan, and in regions beyond it. Tsunhua, an 
important town midway between Peking and Shanhaikwan, 
was formerly one of their prominent stations, but has not 



THE PROVINCE OF CHIHLI 109 

been reoccupied by foreign missionaries since the Boxer 
troubles, Changli, a town to the east of Tsunhua, on the 
line of railway, taking its place. To the north-east of the 
capital, as far as the Pass of Kupeikow, and to the north- 
west in the direction of the proposed railway to Kalgan, the 
Mission has many out-stations ; while southward to the 
borders of Shantung they are to be found cultivating a 
wide field. Peking, with its University, is the educational 
headquarters of the Mission. Statistics for 1904 give: 
Missionaries — men, 1 5 ; women, 1 2 ; ordained preachers, 
10 ; other preachers and helpers, 68 ; teachers, 33 ; female 
teachers and Bible women, 16 ; communicants, 2871. 
The province is divided into 5 circuits, having in all 45 
separate stations, viz. Peking, 14 ; Tientsin, 8 ; Tsunhua, 8 ; 
Lanchow, 7 ; and Shanhaikwan, 8. 

The China Inland Mission, acting on their principle of 
preaching Christ as far as possible in regions where His 
name is unknown, have left Chihli largely to be occupied 
by other and older societies. They have a most important 
agency at Tientsin, which transacts all the business of its 
missionaries in the interior of Chihli, Shansi, and Shensi. 
Tientsin was occupied in 1887, Hwailuh in 1887, Shun- 
tehfu in 1888. Subsequent to the Boxer outbreak, during 
which time the members of this Mission suffered greatly, 
especially those at Hwailuh, the work has been more 
encouraging. 

The South Chihli Mission was begun by the Eev. Horace 
W. Houlding at Tamingfu in 1896. It is a Society 
mainly supported by friends in California and the western 
states of America. Within a few years extensive mission- 
ary journeys have been undertaken and many towns 
occupied. Tz'uchow was opened in 1903; Weihsien, 1903; 
Linmingkwan, 1904; Kaichow, 1905; Kuanpingfu, 1905; 
Kuanpinghsien, 1905. The number of missionaries is 28 
(including wives); church members, 330. 

Besides Chaoyang, in the hands of the Irish Presby- 
terians, the only other town occupied by foreign mission- 
aries beyond the Great "Wall is Pakow, or Pingchiianchow". 



110 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

The Brethren have been here for some years, and have 
itinerated in the regions around. They have also recently 
entered and occupied Jehho. 

The International Committee of the Y.M.C.A., whose 
headquarters are New York, sent out one of the College 
Secretaries in 1895 to North China. Premises were 
erected in Tientsin near the then University, and work 
was begun among the students of that institution. Since 
the Boxer year, when the University buildings were seized 
and confiscated by the German military authorities, the 
Y.M.C.A. has moved into the French Settlement, and has 
opened another centre within the native city. Work is 
carried on mainly on educational lines by means of day 
schools, evening classes, science lectures, and Bible Institute 
meetings, while a prominent place is given to athletic 
sports and recreation. Eecently an Association has been 
formed in Peking, and the staff at present numbers six. 

The three Bible Societies, British, Scotch, and American, 
all have agents stationed in Tientsin, and cover the province 
with a large corps of colporteurs. The Eev. W. H. Murray 
began his labours as an agent of the National Bible Society 
of Scotland, but is now best known as the founder of the 
Mission to the Blind, and the inventor of an ingenious 
system by which not only the blind but illiterate seeing 
Chinese may learn their own language in a comparatively 
short time. The highest praise that can be given to 
Mr. Murray is the fact that the Chinese have practically 
adopted and modified his system ; that a newspaper is 
being issued in Peking printed in shorthand type, and that 
it is being recommended for use elsewhere by responsible 
officials. 

Bible translation has occupied a considerable portion of 
the time of missionaries at the capital. The present standard 
Mandarin version of the New Testament, known as the 
Peking version, was prepared by a committee consisting 
of Drs. Blodget, Burden, Martin, Schereschewsky, and 
Edkins. Among the revisers of the Union versions in 
Mandarin and Wen-li are found the names of Sheffield, 



THE PKOVINCE OF CHIHLI 111 

Wherry, Goodrich, and Owen of Peking. With regard to 
other Christian literature, we can only in a word refer to the 
work of the North China Tract Society, and to the fact that 
the Eev. William Burns spent the years 1864-67 in the 
capital, where he made and published his most popular 
translations of The Peep of Day and The Pilgrims Progress. 

Two great movements in favour of Union and Federa- 
tion among the churches of North China and throughout 
the Empire have been inaugurated in Peking since 1900, 
and have already achieved some important results. The 
Educational Union, on its medical side, has members of ten 
different missions in North China on its faculty or as 
lecturers on special subjects. On its literary and theo- 
logical side, the Union embraces at present two American 
and one English Society. In furtherance of this scheme, 
the London Mission has already given one man to Tungchow, 
transferring him from Peking, and the American Board has 
transferred Dr. Goodrich from Tungchow to the Presby- 
terian Mission as Principal of the Union Theological 
College, Peking. 

Conferences on Federation, at which a wonderful spirit 
of unanimity and brotherhood prevailed, have been held at 
Peitaiho and Peking. One very practical outcome of these 
is that, whereas the North China Tract Society previously 
issued its publications in three sets of terms for the name 
of God and Holy Spirit, thus entailing great waste and 
expense, now by a compromise in which all parties were 
agreed, only one set of terms is employed. An endeavour 
is being made to induce all missionaries throughout China 
and the Bible Societies to use hereafter only this set of 
terms. The Conference also suggested that one name be 
adopted to designate the Protestant Church, and one 
common name be given to all churches and chapels of 
every denomination. They further advocated the prepara- 
tion of a common hymn-book for all China, and have 
already added to Union hymn-books elsewhere a small 
collection for use of the churches in North China. They 
aim also at the formation of Eepresentative Councils in four 



112 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

or five great divisions of the Empire, on which the native 
church will be adequately represented, to take into considera- 
tion questions affecting the common interests of all, and 
looking towards the creation of one Protestant Church 
for China. 

Another movement of a similar nature was started by 
the Eev. E. G. Tewksbury at the summer resort of Peitaiho 
in 1903. Each year since then a " Northfield " Convention 
of native workers has met by the sea for a season of spiritual 
communion, Bible study, and physical recreation. The 
attendance has steadily increased, till last year there were 
present 115 from August 16 to 27. 

I cannot conclude this paper better than by quoting 
the words of the late Eev. Jonathan Lees from China's 
Millions of April 1902. They describe a conference held 
at Peitaiho in 1899, and may fitly be applied to all the 
subsequent conferences held there and at Peking. " Those 
who were privileged to be at the last large Conference at 
Peitaiho must have been struck with the strength, unity of 
purpose, breadth and variety of plans and modes of labour, 
and the spirit of hopefulness and faith which characterised 
it. I remember thinking how worthily that gathering 
represented the latest, and, if one may so speak, the most 
expert forms of Christian Evangelism ; and how wonderfully 
God was welding the Churches of many lands into one for 
the triumphant conflict with evil. Here were preachers and 
physicians ; translators and educationalists ; special workers 
among the literati, officials, the young and the blind ; 
theological professors ; while men who regularly visited 
village churches might be counted by the score. And then 
one remembered that the 300 less or more gathered thus 
in the hall by the sea, built at their own cost simply for 
such purposes as this Mission Council, were but the trained 
foreign officers of an already not inconsiderable native army 
of Soldiers of the Cross, many of whom had themselves 
become leaders in the strife with ignorance, superstition, 
and sin. For every one there had ' chosen and faithful ' 
followers who were his joy and strength in far-off cities 



THE PEOVINCE OF CHIHLI 113 

and in quiet country villages. It really seemed no vain 
dream to imagine that in less than another forty years the 
metropolitan province of Chihli might be won for Christ 
by the might of God's Spirit working in and through His 
consecrated people." 

To summarise the statistics given above, there are in 
Chihli 250 foreign workers, including 103 male and 50 
female missionaries, 17 male and 9 female doctors, and 71 
wives of missionaries. To the 250 foreign have to be 
added about double that number of native workers. The 
total number of converts is between nine and ten thousand. 



THE PROVINCE OF HUPEH . 

By the Rev. Arnold Foster, B,A., London Missionary Society. 

The province of Hupeh (North of the Lake) and its adjoin- 
ing province, Hunan (South of the Lake), formerly con- 
stituted a single province called Hukuang (Lake Expanse). 
Under that name or under the name of Lianghu (Two Lake 
provinces) they still form a single viceregal jurisdiction, 
each having, however, its own provincial capital and its 
own provincial administration. The lake, or " hu " (pro- 
nounced who), from which they both derive their names, is 
the Tungting hu — the largest lake in China, having a shore 
line of over 200 miles. 

The northern province, which is the subject of the 
present article, is said to have an area of about 70,000 
English square miles. Thus it is considerably larger than 
England and Wales put together, about twice the size of 
Portugal, or more than six times the size of Belgium. Its 
population is said to number about thirty-five millions, but 
all statistics relating to the population of China, or any part 
of it, require to be taken with a great deal of reserve, as there 
is no really satisfactory way of computing the actual numbers 
of the people with any approach to accuracy. In Hupeh, 
as in other parts of China, the population is very unevenly 
distributed. Not to speak of great towns and cities 
where a large number of people are contained in a very 
limited area, some country districts are thickly populated, 
owing to the land being fertile and both well watered and 
well drained, while other districts often suffer from liabilities 

114 



THE PEOVINCE OF HUPEH 115 

either to drought or to inundations. In these low-lying 
localities the population is very sparse. 

The country people show differences of temperament in 
different parts of the province, and in the south especially 
there are considerable variations in dialect. Everywhere 
there are signs of great poverty amongst the peasantry, and 
in times of unusual scarcity, through failure of crops, the 
distress is liable to be very great. In some places where 
the opium habit is specially common, the poverty is seen 
in its most intense form, and a general air of dilapidation 
and decay characterises whole communities and even the 
houses the people occupy. 

It will be my endeavour in this article to give, 1st, a 
picture of the conditions under which missionaries are to-day 
working in Hupeh ; 2nd, the best idea I can of the general 
character of missionary life and aim ; 3rd, a list showing the 
Societies represented in this province and the dates at which 
they commenced their work. 

1. The Conditions amongst which we are working. — If I 
here enlarge chiefly on life in Wuchang and Hankow this 
is because — (1) the characteristics and the needs of the 
Chinese as seen at this busy centre represent inclusively 
most of the features of Chinese life that are to be met with 
separately in particular districts of the province ; (2) there 
are influences at work here — not fully observable as yet 
in the interior of the province — that are gradually making 
the China of to-day a totally different place from what it 
was twenty-five or thirty years ago. Slowly but surely 
these influences are diffusing themselves all around, modify- 
ing all the thoughts, reasonings, and practices of the people. 
A single illustration will show what I mean. Within the 
past two or three years we have seen in Wuchang idols thrown 
out into the street or into the river, as temples were being 
xileared of priests and of all the emblems of worship, to make 
room for public schools. The movement is not a religious 
but a purely materialistic one. The leaders of it, stimulated 
by the example of Japan in adopting Western methods of 
teaching, are seized with the idea that education is the one 



116 THE CHINESE EMPIRE 

thing needed to make China great. They regard religion, 
whether Buddhism, Christianity, or any other, as an 
unpractical superstition. Idolatry may linger for a time 
in the country, but under new influences its power in the 
city has already been largely broken. The worship of 
Confucius remains for the present in the schools, but it is 
purely the worship of a great memory. It has in it no 
element of faith in an overruling providence, of confession 
of sin, or of prayer for forgiveness. 

Let us look then at the picture presented to the eye of 
any observant person who to-day visits Wuchang and 
Hankow, Close to the second of these two great cities, 
which stand almost opposite to one another on the southern 
and northern banks of the Yangtse respectively, lies the 
smaller city of Hanyang, separated from Hankow by the 
river Han, which at this point empties itself into the 
Yangtse. In point of population, Wuchang is probably 
only a third or a fourth of the size of Hankow. In 
political importance it takes the precedence, being the 
capital of the province and the seat of Government of the 
Viceroy, Chang Chih-tung. Here, in addition to the high 
provincial mandarins, and the mandarins responsible for the 
government of the city and of the whole prefecture, there 
are to be found hundreds of expectant mandarins awaiting 
appointments which have to be filled up as various official 
positions become vacant in all parts of the province. If 
in some ways the official atmosphere of such a place 
is unfavourable to Christian work, in other ways it 
presents unique opportunities, especially for the medical 
missionary (whether male or female), or for the zenana lady 
missionary, to gain access to the households of men of 
great influence who naturally regard missionary work with 
something of supercilious indifference or contempt. Again 
and again I have had occasion to thank God for the entrance 
of my medical colleagues into the houses of the highest 
officials in the city, and for the object-lesson that they 
have been able to give of Christian sympathy, love, and 
self-sacrifice, over and above any mere physical relief they 



-"Z5= I 




THE PEOVINCE OF HUPEH 117 

may have brought to their patients. Now a new class of 
opportunity is presenting itself to us in connection with the 
movement in the direction of Western education. Two 
Mission High Schools for boys and young men situated in 
different parts of the city, accommodating together about 
two hundred and fifty students, are offering an education 
on entirely Christian lines, so much superior both in point 
of educational efficiency and of moral influence to that 
offered in the Government schools, that well-to-do Chinese 
parents will gladly pay what must seem to them a high 
fee to get their sons into the Christian school, rather 
than send them to the non-Christian free school. In the 
matter of female education the Chinese till recently have 
done nothing to open girls' schools in Wuchang, as else- 
where Missions have for many years had day schools for 
girls, and we have now two prosperous boarding-schools 
each accommodating fifty or sixty pupils. Another great 
opportunity is now offering itself in Wuchang from the 
fact that Normal and other coUeges have recently been 
opened here by the G-overnment, and in these institutions 
thousands of young men are being trained who will here- 
after go out into all parts of the province as teachers of 
elementary and other schools. To bring these young men 
now into touch with Christian thought. Christian ideals, 
and, above all, with the Christian life, must mightly affect 
the character of their future influence, both as teachers and 
as men, amongst their countrymen. For such work, on 
such a scale, Wuchang offers unrivalled opportunities among 
all the cities of Hupeh. 

From Wuchang, with its distinguishing characteristics 
as a factor in the life of Hupeh, we turn to Hankow. 
Here is the great centre of gravity for the trade, not merely 
of a province, but almost of an empire. Here, too, is the 
great meeting -place for all Central China of the East 
with the West. Here thousands of shopkeepers and their 
assistants, as well as workmen of all descriptions, gather, 
drawn from all quarters by the prospect of better profits 
or larger wages than they could hope to make at home. 



118 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

Hankow was first opened to foreign trade in 1861. 
At that time it was suffering greatly, as other cities in the 
neighbourhood were, from the effects of the Taiping Eebellion, 
and a large portion of the Chinese city was in ruins, while 
multitudes of the people had fled for safety to less disturbed 
districts. Since then, however, it has more than recovered 
its former prosperity, and the trade and population have 
both increased by leaps and bounds. At no period of its 
history has the development been more rapid or extensive 
than during the past eight years, i.e. from 1898 to 1906, 
and the progress is becoming more and more remarkable 
every year, as a few facts will show. 

(1) The Keturns of Trade issued by the Imperial Customs 
give the number of steamers entering the port in 1884 
at 469, representing a tonnage of 444,895 tons. The 
corresponding figures in 1904 were 1417 steamers, with a 
tonnage of 1,546,414 tons. 

(2) The opening of the railway from Hankow to Peking, 
which took place recently, must prove a factor of great 
importance in the future relations of Central China with 
the rest of the Empire. At no very distant date this line 
will be extended southwards from "Wuchang to Canton. 
We shall then have two great streams of traffic at this 
point intersecting one another, the waterway of the 
Yangtse bringing produce and people down from Szechwan 
and the west to the coast, and taking back the imports 
and produce of the coast provinces, as well as numberless 
travellers to the far interior ; while the great trunk railway 
from Canton to Peking will convey an enormous traffic 
between these cities and all intermediate places. 

(3) The great development of machinery in the heart 
of HuPEH during the past twenty years — ironworks, mints, 
factories of various kinds, not to mention the multiplication 
of small steamers carrying thousands of passengers daily, 
in a few hours, to places that hitherto it took days to reach 
— is another feature of the present situation. 

(4) To notice one more item of material progress, 
since 1896 an entirely new system of postal communication 



THE PEOVINCE OF HUPEH 119 

has been developed in connection with the Imperial Customs. 
Not only is it superseding the old Chinese methods of 
forwarding letters, it is also rapidly developing the habit of 
letter -writing among the Chinese to an extent entirely 
unknown before. In 1901 there were but six post-offices 
open in Hupeh ; in March 1906 there were 100. In 1903 
the Hankow post-office handled something under three 
million articles ; in 1905 it handled considerably over six 
millions. Bishop Westcott says : " No one who has looked 
patiently and reverently upon life will be inclined to 
underrate the influences upon a man's nature ... of 
education and of material circumstances. We hardly 
realise how even a lifeless machine, or a mere intellectual 
conception, can stir human life to its inmost depths, so 
that a discovery made at a particular time separates by an 
ineffaceable partition those who come before from those 
who come after." He illustrates his point by the introduc- 
tion of the steam engine into Europe and the changed 
relations which machinery led to between employers and 
employed and the moral consequences thereof. I have 
dwelt upon the material forces at work in China because I 
believe them to be no chance or irrelevant influences in the 
ordering of a nation's life and history, but a part of God's 
purpose. I might mention other potent influences that 
are to-day modifying the life of the Chinese and changing 
their national characteristics, but I have given enough 
examples to illustrate my point already. What bearing 
has all this movement on the work of missionaries ? 

It suggests, if I mistake not, the following amongst 
other thoughts : — 

(1) That the passing away of faith in idolatry may 
be accompanied with something even more disastrous 
than idolatry, viz. the coming in of a practical disbelief 
in anything beyond the seen and temporal. There is 
a greater need now than ever for the preaching by 
missionaries of positive truth, and still more for the 
building up of a Christian Community — a Church in which 
that truth will show itself embodied in a corporate life. 



120 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

It is useless and it is unreal, as I believe it is quite wrong, 
to try and convince the matter-of-fact Chinaman that the 
Christian should be indifferent to all the developments of 
" modern civilisation " and of " material progress." It is 
not, however, useless to show him how all this new influence 
can be used for the glory of God and the good of our fellow- 
men. Qui- Lord's life was a life of giving object-lessons as 
to the use to be made of power, whether such power as He 
Himself possessed, or whether that which was possessed by 
any ordinary person. Our lives should be the same. 

(2) The present keen desire of the Chinese for Western 
teaching constitutes a clear call to the Church to utilise its 
great resources of teaching power — not indeed to meet every 
ill-conceived desire for knowledge that the Chinese may 
express as they ask for only that education which promises 
increased opportunities for making wealth, but to impart 
true and thorough instruction to those who are most likely 
to make good use of it. To the Christian all knowledge is, 
or ought to be, sacred, for all knowledge is a knowledge of 
the works and ways of God either in creation, in history, 
or some other portion of His dominion. The Church as a 
whole has yet to wake up to a true estimate of the place 
of knowledge in Christianity, and to a true sense of the 
sacredness of the teacher's office and ministry. It will be 
an evil day for Missions if, with all the opportunities God 
has now put within the reach of Christian teachers, our 
Societies assume the position that the proper persons to 
instruct the young in China in so-called " secular " things 
are those to whom a heathen Government would entrust 
the task, viz. persons who know nothing beyond the 
" secular " view of life and are themselves imbued with the 
spirit of secularism. 

I pass now to illustrate by a few concrete examples. 

2. The Missionary Work being done in Hupeh. — I shall 
speak of this without regard to Societies, except in the case 
of particular departments of work which require special 
organisation. The Bible Societies, the Societies for diffus- 
ing Christian Literature, and the Y.M.C.A. have a place of 



THE PEOVINCE OF HUPEH 121 

their own and do what they can to help all Missions alike. 
In HuPEH most of these are doing good work, but the 
National Bible Society of Scotland and the Central China 
Eeligious Tract Society are specially identified with this 
province through having their headquarters in Hankow. 
Erom the printing-press of the National Bible Society vast 
numbers of copies of the Scriptures in Chinese issue every 
year for circulation in almost all parts of China. The 
same press prints the millions of books and tracts published 
by the Central China Tract Society, largely by means of 
funds contributed by the Eeligious Tract Societies of 
England, America, and Canada. 

Of the work of the Missionary Societies proper, it will 
be convenient to speak under departmental headings. 

(1) The Public Preaching of the Gospel in Chinese. — In 
most Mission stations the preaching hall occupies a pro- 
minent place in the missionary organisation. About this 
branch of evauoelistic effort much of the romance of 
Missions will ever centre for those who, conscious of the 
vocation of the preacher, throw themselves heartily into it. 
In large cities it is possible almost at any hour to draw a 
congregation of passers-by into any building in a good 
situation where preaching is being carried on. Through 
this agency numbers of the Chinese have been brought to 
Christ, and, apart from actual conversions, it would be hard 
to overestimate the place preaching has had in spreading 
among the masses right ideas of God, of sin, and of redemp- 
tion, as well as of great moral and social questions and 
their bearing upon life. 

(2) Works of Benevolence. — The late David Hill once 
said, " I feel persuaded that we need more charitable work 
for poor struggling souls, some care for waifs and strays, 
some aid to the destitute blind, and some home for the 
destitute aged. These things would, if put on a proper 
basis, reveal to the Chinese a more perfect Christ ; and 
this is our great business, the true road to success, the 
vision of the perfect Christ ; the beauty and symmetry of 
the body answering to the Head will soon win the Chinese 



122 THE CHINESE EMPIRE 

from their lifeless images as no other revelation will." In 
the " David Hill Blind Asylum " in Hankow there exists a 
fit memorial of the life and work of one who, like his 
Master, was ever seeking the salvation of men in all the 
complexity of their being as body, soul, spirit, individuals and 
at the same time members of families and of classes of men. 
There is as yet great difficulty in getting the place of 
ministry to the suffering in heathen lands recognised in the 
Churches at home through any organised effort save that of 
hospitals, which happily tend to increase in number every 
year. It has been my privilege to see the work of many 
exceptionally able surgeons and physicians, both male and 
female, engaged in medical missions and to rejoice with 
them in the results of their work from the point of physical 
healing ; but I have Ijeen still more impressed by the spirit 
and manner of their dealing with their patients and with 
the testimony which work so done bears to the true 
character of the Master we serve. But special forms of 
ministry have their place. The Mission to Lepers in the 
East has several asylums in China, one of them being 
carried on at a city 40 or 50 miles from Hankow in 
connection with the oldest of the Protestant Missions in 
HuPEH. It is one of the most wonderful and moving sights 
I have looked on in China, to see this collection of some 
sixty outcasts from society on account of leprosy being 
tenderly cared for and taught by example, not less than by 
word of mouth, something of the love and tenderness of the 
Son of Man and the Saviour of the world. In Canton 
there exists an Asylum for the Insane, and in Shantung a 
School for the Deaf and Dumb. The power of such insti- 
tutions as object-lessons in a country like China, which 
sometimes seems like a vast wilderness of unalleviated 
sorrow and suffering, is immense. Happily, notwithstanding 
the fewness of benevolent institutions, individual mission- 
aries, in scattered stations, are often found attempting on 
a small scale to treat with some particular form of evil. 
Here one or two ladies take a leper slave girl under their 
charge and tend her till she dies. In another place, far 



THE PEOVINCE OF HUPEH 123 

away from other missionary fellow-workers, a missionary 
and his family add to their special work of evangelisation 
a small boarding-school for the waifs whose condition so 
moved Mr. Hill, and provide the means for their support. 
In another place a few blind girls are gathered together by 
a missionary lady in order to rescue them from the fate to 
which many, if not most of their class, are consigned by 
heartless " friendg." 

I know of many instances where benevolent enterprises 
of this kind have been taken up at the promptings of 
compassion, but not of one where they have been made 
a substitute for preaching, teaching, and seeking the 
conversion of sinners and the upbuilding of believers. 
Volumes might be written to illustrate the way in which 
the light of the life and love of Christ shines out in 
acts of loving ministry from numberless isolated mission- 
ary homes in this as in almost every other province in 
China. Nor is the light confined to the homes of mission- 
aries only. There are those among our Chinese fellow- 
workers who have caught the spirit of the missionaries 
from whom they first learnt the kingliness of service and 
the blessedness of giving, for the spirit of service and 
devotion is infectious, and in China finds a congenial soil in 
which to spread, as slowly the lesson is mastered by Chinese 
Christians and the vision of the glory of Christ is appre- 
hended by them. 

(3) Educational Institutions. — These are of various 
kinds, but they suggest the thought rather of what ought 
to be than of satisfaction with what is. In Hankow and 
Wuchang five small theological training institutions, sup- 
ported by as many different Missions, suggest the thought 
that the work accomplished would probably be much more 
efficiently done if the five Missions concerned could agree 
to depute the department of theological instruction to one 
of the Societies interested. Such a scheme presupposes an 
amount of mutual trust and confidence between Missions to 
which I hope we are gradually moving, though as yet we 
are only " not as though we had already attained." 



124 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

But one great want of all the educational work, at least 
of our English Missions, is the want of hearty support from 
home in teachers and financial support for making them 
really efficient. Schools of all grades — Primary Schools, 
High Schools, Normal Schools, Medical Schools — suffer in 
greater or less degree from " starvation." In this matter 
American Missions have for the most part been far better 
supported than our own. 

I have endeavoured in this article to treat the missionary 
work as 07ie — the work of our Lord Jesus Christ committed 
to His Church as a whole. I have abstained from all 
comparisons between one Mission and another, and between 
the " results " of one Society's operations and those of 
another. " In archery," said Confucius, " it is not going 
through the target that is the principal thing, because men's 
strength is not equal." To hit the centre of the Master's 
approval is the principal concern of the Christian archer. 
My life in China has led me thankfully to see how many 
people with different gifts, different degrees of strength, and 
different ideals, are cast in their own place and work 
approximating to that. It is through the collective 
energies of all that the Kingdom which " cometh not with 
observation " is gradually coming throughout this province. 

And yet how much remains to be attempted as God, 
year after year, sets before us new " open doors " — not only 
opening gates of Chinese cities that hitherto have been 
barred against the missionary, but opening new and 
unfamiliar paths of service and regions of influence which, 
perhaps because our forefathers never thought of walking 
in them, are therefore regarded by some to-day as leading to 
no Divine end, and offering no opportunity for extending 
the knowledge of the Lord. Such thoughts always come 
to my mind as I hear good people questioning whether 
education or benevolent enterprise should form any part 
of the regular and organised machinery of Christian 
Missions. 

3. Statistics. — The Protestant Missionary Societies work- 
ing in one or more of the three cities of Wuchang, Hankow, 



THE PROVINCE OF HUPEH 



125 



and Hanyang, besides having work in other parts of the 
HuPEH province, are as follows : — 



1. The London Missionary Society 

2. Wesleyan Missionary Society 

3. American Episcopal Church Mission 

4. China Inland Mission ..... 

5. Swedish (Congregational) Missionary Society . 

6. American Norwegian Lutheran Missionary Society 

7. American Baptist Union 

8. Christian and Missionary Alliance 

9. Church of Scotland Mission . 

10. Swedish American Mission Covenant 

11. Norwegian Lutheran Mission 

12. Hauges Synodes Mission 



861 
862 
868 
874 
890 
891 
893 
895 
878 
890 
891 
891 



In addition to the above, the National Bible Society of 
Scotland, the British and Foreign Bible Society, the Central 
China Eeligious Tract Society, and the Y.M.C.A. all have 
representatives living in Hankow. 

^ The work of Protestant Missions in Hupeh was commenced by Dr. 
Griffith John, who, in 1905, kept the Jubilee of his arrival in China. A 
leader in many forms of missionary enterprise, he has had the joy of seeing 
the gradual spread of tbe work to its present dimensions, not only in Hupeh 
but also in Hunan, in which province also he was one of the pioneers of 
evangelisation. 



THE PROVINCE OF KIANGSI 

By Mr. Archibald Orr-Ewing, China Inland Mission. 

The name Kiangsi (West of the Eiver) is at first sight 
not a little perplexing, the province obviously being south, 
not west, of the river Yangtse. The name is, however, an 
abbreviation of an old title, Kiang-nan-si. Previous to the 
tenth century, under the T'ang dynasty, almost all of China 
south of the Yangtse and north of the Canton province was 
included in an enormous circuit entitled Kiang-nan or 
" South of the Eiver." The unmanageable proportions of 
this circuit led to its being subdivided under the Sung 
dynasty, A.D. 960, into six " Lu." Two of these subdivisions 
retained the names of Eastern and Western Kiang-nan, viz. 
Kiang-nan-tong and Kiang-nan-si. The former of these, 
Kiang-nan-tong or " Eastern Kiang-nan," is still known as 
Kiang-nan, while the western portion, Kiang-nan-si, became 
known as Kiangsi, the word nan or " South " being dropped 
out for the sake of brevity. 

Under the succeeding Mongol dynasty the bounds of 
the province underwent some changes, but these alterations 
were reversed when the Ming dynasty came into power in 
A.D. 1368. The fact that a narrow strip of territory north 
of the Yangtse, nowhere more than 10 miles wide, is in- 
cluded in the province, is thought to be accounted for by 
the changes in the river's channel during the last eight 
hundred years. 

The area of the province is given by llie Statesman's 
Year-Booh as 69,480 square miles, which is considerably 

126 



THE PEOVINCE OF KIANGSI 127 

larger than Scotland and Ireland combined, while the 
population is given by the same authority as 26,532,125, 
or a population nearly equal to that of England, On the 
subject of population there is considerable difference of 
opinion, about which more will be said later on. 

The province may be described as mountainous and hilly 
throughout, with, however, large areas of fiat cultivated land, 
the most extensive of which is that which lies to the south 
of the Poyang lake and stretches away, on both sides of 
the Kan river, to 60 miles below Nanchang Eu. The 
breadth of this plain varies somewhat owing to the 
irregularities of the hill ranges. It is almost entirely 
given up to the cviltivation of rice. Near Chian Fu, 
Kanchow Fu, and Eaochow Fu, there are also large tracts 
of comparatively level country. While hills abound, there 
are many fertile valleys well irrigated by numerous streams 
and rivers. 

KiANGSl is, in fact, one of the best-watered provinces of 
the Empire. There are four large rivers flowing into the 
Poyang lake, which at high water bring nearly, if not all, 
the walled cities and larger towns of the thirteen prefectures 
into touch with the capital. The largest of these is the 
Kan. The streams, navigable to native boats, which in 
the vicinity of Kanchow Fu unite and form this river, 
come from the four points of the compass. From that 
city, however, its course is almost due north, being fed by 
the waters of the Yunghsin, Yuan, Shui, and other rivers 
en route. In high water small steamers have ascended 
as far as Chian Fu, which is about 200 miles south 
of the Poyang lake. During the summer of 1905 a 
British gunboat of light draught anchored off this city. 
With one or two small exceptions, the province is the 
natural watershed of the rivers which drain into the Po- 
yang lake. 

When the spring rains raise the waters of the Yangtse 
so as to hinder the outflow at Hukow, the Poyang 
lake becomes large and full, it being then about 100 
miles in length and in some parts as much as 25 miles 



128 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

in breadth. There are numerous inlets on the east, 
one of which extends for 20 miles. In the winter, when 
the Yangtse is low, the lake bed drains to a mud flat 
with a river flowing through it. This lake, with the 
exception of the narrow outlet at Hukow, is shut off from 
the Yangtse basin by mountains. 

On the west of the province are several roads leading to 
Hunan, the one most frequented passing from the capital 
vid Linchiang Fu and Yuenchow Fu. On the south the 
main route to Canton is vid the Meilin pass. On the 
east is the highway to the province of Fukien, leading 
from the capital vid Chienchang Fu. One of the widest 
and best made roads is on the north-east and gives access 
to the province of Chekiang. 

It was over the famous Meiling Pass mentioned above 
and along the Kan river that the early embassies which 
landed at Canton proceeded to Peking. The records of 
Lord Macartney's embassy in 1793 and of Lord Amherst's 
in 1816, both of which traversed this route, give many 
interesting details of the country through which they 
passed. Although this route is still somewhat used, the 
Governor- General of Canton having passed that way during 
the last few years, this great highway, both for business and 
official intercourse, has been largely neglected since the 
introduction of steamers on the China coast and Yangtse. 
It is thought by some that the diversion of trade caused by 
the introduction of steamers was one of the reasons for the 
anti-foreign feeling manifest along the Kan valley some 
ten or fifteen years ago. 

The province is in the main agricultural, and in some 
parts very productive. One district known to the writer 
yields four crops in the year. Two ingatherings is quite a 
common thing, one being of rice and the other of wheat, 
opium, rape, buck-wheat, etc. The tea plant is sometimes 
grown on the borders of the paddy fields, though occasionally 
the hillsides are planted with it. Tobacco is much grown, 
that produced in the Kwangfeng Hsien being most in 
repute. Various qualities of hemp are also to be seen, but 



THE PROVINCE OF KIANGSI 129 

the finest grass-cloth is made from that grown in the Yuan- 
chow prefecture. 

Whilst cotton is cultivated in many parts, the best 
grade comes from the Kiukiang prefecture north of the 
Yaugtse. Sugar-cane is grown for eating in the east of 
the province and in Kanchow Fu ; by a crude process it is 
extensively made into sugar. The bamboo flourishes more 
or less throughout Kiangsi, but it is especially culti- 
vated in the Kwangsin and Fuchow prefectures for the 
manufacture of paper, which is a large and important 
industry. Timber forms one of the principal exports, the 
forests being chiefly located on the west and south-west 
borders. It is bound in small rafts for floating down the 
shallow streams. On reaching the main river large rafts 
are constructed, and again yet larger ones before crossing the 
Poyang Lake, whence it is borne by the waters of the 
Yangtse to Wuhu and Nanking. 

Fruit of various kinds is grown much more plentifully 
in some parts than others. There are extensive orange 
groves in Linkiang Fu and Chienchang Fu. Dates, per- 
simmons, chestnuts, peaches, plums, melons, pomelos, and 
loquats are all to be had in varying quality. Oil is largely 
produced from rape seed, ground nuts, and the nut of one 
variety of the camelia tree, with which many hills are 
thickly covered. Several root crops are raised : ginger, 
sweet potatoes, turnips, yams, carrots, garlic, onions, etc. 

The mineral wealth of the province is very great, though 
it has been little developed hitherto. The writer has seen 
washings for gold in the river-bed near Kanchow Fu and 
also in one of the tributaries of the Kwangsin river. A 
sample of ore from a deposit near Kanchow Fu was sent 
to an assayer in London, who reported that it contained 
98 per cent of pure copper. Iron is found in several 
localities, notably in the west of the Chian prefecture ; 
the smelting of it, however, is so inferior that for finer uses 
imported metal is used. Coal certainly abounds in eight 
out of the thirteen prefectures. 

In the Yuanchow prefecture, some 5 miles from Ping- 

K 



130 THE CHINESE EMPIKE 

hsiang Hsien, coal-mines are being worked by a Chino- 
German syndicate. Here in the heart of China the visitor 
suddenly finds himself among surroundings largely Western 
in appearance. Numbers of foreign dwellings, large work- 
shops, high brick chimneys, and a railway using American 
Baldwin locomotives meet the gaze. Here some two 
thousand Chinese are employed, under the supervision of 
eight or ten foreigners, mostly Germans. The railway line 
runs almost due west from the mines for some 70 miles, and 
is being extended to join the proposed Canton -Hankow 
railway near Changsha, the capital of Hunan. The coal 
used in the Government ironworks at Hanyang (near 
Hankow) comes mainly from these mines. 

In May 1905 the output was 800 tons of coke per day. 
The quality of the coal is not very good, for it shows 28 
per cent of slate, which fact necessitates the whole being 
washed and separated before putting it into the retorts. 
The mine consists of one main shaft with two tunnels. 
In the neighbourhood the Chinese manufacture a large 
quantity of coke after the foreign plan, which they sell 
to the Chino-German syndicate. Coal can be seen cropping 
out everywhere in the surrounding country. 

Iron is also found in some parts of the province, a con- 
siderable amount being smelted and exported from the 
western part of Chian prefecture. 

In addition to the railway mentioned above, an Imperial 
Decree, issued a year or two ago, gave permission to a 
Chinese syndicate to construct a line from Kiukiang to 
Nanchang Fu, a distance of some hundred miles or so. 
For several years various companies have been running 
steam launches between these two cities. In Consul W. J. 
Clennell's report on this province it is pointed out that 
obvious geographical considerations point to railway com- 
munications between Canton and Nanchang the capital, 
along the Kan valley, and also up the Kwangsin river to 
Hangchow Fu, as fairly sure of fulfilment in the future. 
Meanwhile the province is well supplied with waterways, 
nearly all the walled cities and larger towns being accessible 



THE PROVINCE OF KIANGSI 131 

by water, and for the improvement of these waterways the 
provincial government is said to have purchased dredgers. 

As to the population of the province, there is little 
to base an accurate estimate upon. While the figures of 
The Statesman's Year-Booh have been given as twenty-six 
and a half millions, Consul Clennell believes that the truth 
will be found somewhere between ten and twelve millions, 
though the present writer is inclined to think that he 
understates the facts. The basis for Consul Clennell's 
estimate can be found in his Report, a report worthy of 
consultation by all who desire to possess fuller knowledge 
about this province.^ 

Concerning the capital of the province, Nanchang Fu, 
Consul Clennell's words are especially interesting. He 
says : " Nanchang, though containing some ponds, mulberry 
gardens, and other open spaces, is for the most part a very 
crowded town. The walls are about 6 miles in circuit, but 
are far from including the whole town. I should estimate 
that the densely peopled and truly urban area occupies 
about 3 square miles, and that it is on an average as 
fully occupied as any area in Shanghai. In Shanghai we 
know the population within narrow limits of error. Some- 
thing like 160,000 to a square mile is there found in 
some areas, though I do not think there is any entire 
square mile so closely packed. I consider Nanchang 
much more densely peopled than any equal area in London, 
where population ranges up to 60,000 or so to the complete 
square mile, or to any but the poorest parts of Liverpool, in 
which city I think the density of population is nowhere 
above 100,000 to any complete square mile, however dense 
it may be in some smaller areas." If this be so, then 
Nanchang Eu equals in its density of population London 
and Liverpool combined. 

Nanchang, which now stands on the right bank of the 

Kan river, where it is nearly one mile wide, was originally 

built on the shore of the lake, which has since receded some 

30 miles. This lake, as with other low-lying parts of 

1 See China, Paper No. 1 (1903). 



132 THE CHINESE EMPIKE 

Central China, has been slowly silting up with the detritus 
from the surrounding mountains. 

The second town in Kiangsi in point of population is 
Kingteh Chen, the famous centre of the porcelain industry. 
These potteries owe their fame to the special quarries from 
which the clay used is obtained. Mr. Archibald Little in 
The Far East states that it has an apparently inexhaustible 
quarry of white clay, formed from decayed granite, and 
that the only similar deposit in England is said to be 
in Devonshire in the Teign valley. This clay is locally 
known as " Kaolin," a word derived from the name of the 
range and meaning " high pass." Dr. F. Judd, who has 
somewhat carefully studied this question, says that three 
qualities are used : the local supply ; that taken from the 
Lii mountains, which is shipped near Nankang Fu ; and 
another from Yukan Hsien not far below Anren. Consul 
Clennell estimates that some 30,000 workpeople are em- 
ployed in these porcelain works, which with their families 
means at least 100,000 persons directly dependent upon 
these works for their living. 

It must not be omitted to mention that the finest 
Congou in China, " if not the finest tea in the world," 
comes from the far-famed valley of Wuning and Ning- 
chow. This tea is retained mainly for the consumption of 
connoisseurs in Russia. 

Kiukiang, the chief port of the province, was opened to 
foreign trade in 1861, at which time "the fine native city 
was a waste of broken bricks with scarce a single in- 
habitant," having suffered terribly during the Taiping 
Rebellion. A few miles to the south of Kiukiang, on the 
summit of the Lii mountains, a fine range — a hog-back in 
appearance — some 5000 feet high, is the now well-known 
summer resort of KuUng. This summer retreat has been 
so largely developed that there is accommodation for a 
thousand foreign visitors if not more. 

At the time that Kiukiang was opened as a port, it 
was debated whether Hukow or Kiukiang should be chosen 
as the site of the port. Sir Harry Parkes, Admiral Hope, 



THE PEOVINCE OF KIANGSI 133 

and the Eepresentatives of the Shanghai Chamber of 
Commerce, gave their decision in favour of Kiukiang, but 
it is thought to-day by some that Hukow would have 
been a better place. In 1876 Hukow was opened as a 
port of call for steamers under the Chefoo Convention. 

Among the notable men of the province must be 
mentioned Chu-hsi, the great philosopher of the Song 
dynasty. Although born in the province of Chekiang, 
where his father was holding official appointments, he was 
himself appointed Governor of Nankang in 1180, and 
while in office there he built for himself as a retreat The 
White Deer Grotto in the hills near the Poyang lake. 
Chu-hsi's " commentaries on the classical writings have 
formed for centuries the recognised standard of orthodoxy." 
The Taoist Pope also resides in this province at Shantsing. 
In 1015 A.D. the Taoist Pope was endowed with the free- 
hold lands at Longhu in the Kwangsin prefecture. 

Boman Catholic Missions flourished in this province 
during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, until 
they were suspended by the Emperor Yung Cheng in 1723, 
These Missions were, however, reopened by Pere Amiot in 
1846. Their work in the province is very extensive, and 
is in charge of three bishops, who live at Kiukiang, Chian, 
and Fuchow Fu. 

Protestant missionary work in this province was opened 
by Eev. V. C. Hart of the American Methodist Episcopal 
Mission. He with the Eev. E. S. Todd entered the province 
on December 1, 1867, and extended their labours towards 
the west and east of the city of Kiukiang. In December 
1869, two years later, Mr. Card well of the China Inland 
Mission reached Kiukiang, and was kindly welcomed by 
Mr. Hart. He soon rented a native house on the busy 
street outside the west gate of the city and opened a street 
chapel. 

The work of the American Methodist Episcopal Mission 
has been built up round the two central stations of Kiu- 



134 THE CHINESE EMPIKE 

kiang and Nanchang Fu, the capital. At the former of 
these places a strong educational work has been carried on 
in connection with the William Nash College, from which 
institution a number of young men have gone forth as 
helpers in the Mission, or as workers in the Chinese 
Imperial Post Offices, or other positions of influence. At 
the same centre a large girls' school has been opened, 
which until lately was under the charge of Miss Howe, a 
devoted veteran lady still in the field. Among the former 
pupils of this school are two Chinese lady doctors who took 
their degrees in the United States of America. 

These two ladies on their return to Kiukiang designed 
and erected a hospital for women and children, the cost 
being defrayed from America. Excellent work is being 
carried on there by Dr. Mary Stone. Owing to urgent 
appeals. Dr. Ida Kahn has taken up residence at Nanchang 
Fu, where she is carrying on a self-supporting medical work. 
Her skill has gained for her a high reputation among the 
officials and gentry of the city, who have contributed liberally 
both to the building and support of the hospital. This 
Mission also has a staff of workers at Nanchang Fu, who 
are responsible for the oversight of the churches in that 
city and of the out-stations in the Fuchow, Chienchang, 
and Linkiang prefectures. There is also an important 
school for girls in the capital which is well attended by the 
daughters of the officials and others. The Mission has 
about fifteen missionaries working in this sphere. 

The four northern prefectures, Kiukiang, Nanchang, 
Nankang, and Shiuchow, are also worked by the members 
of the " Brethren Mission " (English). Their work was 
commenced about 1885 by Messrs. Blandford and Molland. 
At Wuchen, their chief centre, they have a large hall 
capable of seating 500 people, also an excellently organised 
adult Sunday school attended by some hundreds of persons, 
the Chinese leaders being mainly responsible for the work. 
In this city they have a capital boarding-school for boys 
and girls. There are in all eleven stations with a staff 
of about thirty -five workers. In the deplorable riot 



I 



THE PEOVmCE OF KIANGSI 135 

of February 1906, brought about through disagreement 
between the Eoman Catholics and the officials, Mr. and 
Mrs. Kingham and their little daughter Gracie were 
massacred. 

In the extreme south the Basel Mission has a station 
worked from the Kwantung province, and to the south-east 
the English Presbyterian Mission of Swatow has some work 
in the charge of Chinese helpers. 

The British and Foreign Bible Society has for some 
years had a sub -agency at Kiukiang, and recently the 
American Bible Society has opened an office there. 

The China Inland Mission was the second Protestant 
Mission to enter this province, and commenced its work 
there in 1869, when Mr. Cardwell reached Kiukiang, as 
has been already mentioned. During the years 1871-72 
Mr. Cardwell made three long journeys, visiting the capital, 
the Kan river as far south as Wanan Hsien, the cities 
and towns around the Poyang Lake, up the Fuchow river 
as far as the Fu city, the Kwangsin river as far as 
Anren, the Eaochow river, etc.; reaching in all some 102 
places. In 1873 he opened Takutang on the Poyang Lake, 
and five years later secured a site there where he built 
a house for his headquarters. Later on he located Chinese 
workers in the cities of Kweichi and Hokow. 

Before proceeding further with an account of the later 
developments, it may be well to state that the work of the 
China Inland Mission in this province developed along 
three lines, under which it will be briefly reviewed. 

1. The Kwangsin river district, to the north-east. 

2. The Kan river district, in the north, west, and south. 

3. The Fu river district, in the south-east. 

1. The Kwangsin river district. — The late Dr. Douth- 
waite visited from Chekiang the upper part of the 
Kwangsin river in 1877, renting premises at Yuhshan 
Hsien. In 1886 Mr. Hudson Taylor, accompanied by the 
Misses Murray and others, made a tour of this district and 
baptized the first convert at Kweichi. As a result of this 
journey he decided upon a new departure, viz. to locate 



136 THE CHINESE EMPIRE 

ladies in the cities along the river, who should work in 
conjunction with native pastors and evangelists. Shortly 
afterwards Miss M'Intosh took up residence in Yuhshan, 
Miss Gibson at Hokow, and the Misses Webb and Gray at 
Kweichi. As time passed other stations were opened, 
until at present in this north-east portion, including Rao- 
chow, there are 10 stations with over 40 out-stations. 

This work has been marked by gradual and steady 
growth, and the districts have been systematically evan- 
gelised through the constant itinerations of both foreign 
workers and Chinese helpers. Although much yet remains 
to be done, the people generally understand the reason 
for the missionaries' presence among them, and are able 
to discriminate between the Protestants and the Roman 
Catholics. 

With the increased number of Church members came 
the need for more chapel accommodation. The first large 
building erected with native gifts was in Yangkow, which 
building seats 400 persons. In 1904 a comparatively fine 
chapel to seat 600 was built and opened at Kweichi, half 
the cost being defrayed by the native contributions, the 
poorest members of the Church giving their labour. At 
lyang another commodious place of worship is in course of 
construction, to which the Chinese Christians are giving 
liberally, some having subscribed ten, twenty, and thirty 
dollars each. 

With the growth of the Churches it became necessary to 
provide Christian education for the children, and to meet 
this need two large boarding-schools for girls were opened 
at Yuhshan and Kweichi. At first it was necessary to 
make these schools free, as the parents were not sufficiently 
interested in the education of their girls, but gradually 
charges have been introduced. Day schools for boys have 
been more numerous, and one large boys' school has been 
opened at Kweichi. 

Dr. and Mrs. F. Judd, who had been in Raochow Eu 
since it was opened in 1898, have given much valuable 
help to the workers along the Kwangsin river, and have 



THE PROVINCE OF KIANGSI 137 

ministered to the bodily needs of the many Chinese in the 
north-east district. The important pottery centre of 
Kingteh Chen, referred to earlier in this article, was 
opened by Mr. C. H. Judd, jun., at the close of 1905. 

For the tirst five years the Eev. J. McCarthy super- 
intended this work on the Kwangsin river, from which 
time until 1900 it was under the care of the writer. Since 
1900 the Rev. E. Pearse has been responsible for the 
oversight of this district, the writer still being in charge 
of the work in the north, centre, and south of the 
province. 

Although Mr. Cardwell had in the early days made 
Takutang his headquarters, it was found necessary in 1888 
to place a local secretary at Kiukiang, in connection with 
which centre some native work has been carried on side by 
side with the business department. 

2. The Kan river district. — In 1889 six brethren were 
set aside for itineration in the practically untouched centre, 
south and west. This proved a far harder field to open 
than the north-east, which fact may be partly accounted for 
by there being less political suspicion connected with the 
ladies taking up work in the north-east district than was 
the case with the men. No attempt was made at first to 
rent premises, so as to avoid possible trouble. Three cities 
— Changshu, Chian, and Kanchow — were chosen as centres 
from which to work, and although the hardship of living 
in Chinese inns was fully weighed, it was considered wise 
to get the people accustomed to the presence of the foreigner 
before any attempt was made to settle down. Many trying 
experiences were connected with this effort, the brethren 
being not only turned out of the inns sometimes, but the 
landlords themselves being beaten for having sheltered 
them. In 1891, although houses had been obtained, their 
tenure was very precarious. The Chino-Japanese war of 
1894-95 was used of God to forward matters, and since that 
time there has been less unfriendly feeling as well as better 
opportunities for work. During recent years great changes 
have come over this district, and several of those who 



138 THE CHINESE EMPIRE 

endured the hardships of the early days are now seeing the 
fruits of their labours. 

In addition to the three stations mentioned above, there 
are now three others occupied with fourteen out-stations. 
In 1903 it was arranged that the German-Swiss workers 
from St. Chrischona, who work in connection with the 
China Inland Mission, should occupy the Linkiang pre- 
fecture. 

In the west a new field was opened in 1899 at Yung- 
hsiu Hsien, where the ladies of the Finnish Mission are 
labouring. They have two out-stations, and despite many 
trials have much to encourage them. A remarkable work 
has opened up Yuanchow Fu around Pinghsiang Hsien, 
the afore-mentioned coal district. Here there are five out- 
stations and a large number of persons attending the 
services. Nanchang Fu, the capital, was occupied by the 
China Inland Mission in 1898. Though the city work is 
difficult, there are encouragements in the country. 

Boarding-schools for girls have been started in Kan- 
chow and Chian, also day schools for boys in several places. 
The securing of a small sanatorium on the hills near Kan- 
chow and Yunghsin has been a great boon to the workers 
in the south and west. 

3. The Fu river district. — This district was allotted to 
the German-China Alliance Associates of the China Inland 
Mission as an extension of their field in Chekiang. Fuchow 
Fu was first occupied in 1899, since which time three 
other stations have been opened. 

Altogether, the China Inland Mission has in the 
province 26 stations with 66 out-stations, over 30 of which 
are in walled cities. There are 91 chapels and 92 foreign 
workers, including wives, with 131 Chinese helpers. The 
communica,nts have doubled during the last five years, and 
now number 1618, while probably some 4000 persons 
regularly attend the services. 



THE PROVINCE OF ANHWEI 

By the Rev. J. J. Coulthard, China Inland Mission 

The province of Anhwei receives its name by a combina- 
tion of the first half of two of its most important cities, 
viz. Anking, the capital, and Hweichow, a city in the 
extreme south of the province. In the same way the 
provinces of Kiangsu, Kansu, and Kweichow obtain their 
designation. 

The province is in form an irregular oval. Its area is 
54,810 square miles, which is considerably larger than the 
State of New York, and slightly in advance of the area of 
England if the principality of Wales be not included. Its 
population is given by The Statesman's Year -Book as 
23,670,314, or the same as that of Austria. The province 
is unevenly divided by the river Yangtse ; two-thirds of 
its area lying to the north and one-third to the south of 
that mighty river. This natural division is somewhat 
remarkable, for it also marks the distinction between the 
nature of the country and the condition of its people. 
The northern portion is comprised of a plain, with produc- 
tions akin to those of Honan, and supports a people more 
brusque and simple than their more polished neighbours 
who occupy the mountainous district to the south of the 
river, where the country is as beautiful as it is fertile. 

Geography. — The major portion of the province is 
drained by two rivers — the Yangtse, with its tributaries, 
and the Hwai. In the extreme south there is another river 
which crosses the borders of the province into Chekiang, 

139 



140 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

35 miles below the city Hweichow, and, joining the 
Tsientang river, empties itself into the Hangchow Bay. 
The Yangtse is too well known to need description ; suffice 
it to say that among the important cities which it passes 
as it travels in a north-easterly direction towards the sea 
are Anking, the capital of the province, Chihchow (which 
is about two miles from the river's bank), Tatung, Wuhu, 
and Taiping. 

The river Hwai is historically famous, as being one of 
those waterways regulated by Yu, a statesman who lived in 
the reign of Yao, 2357-2255 B.C. At that time the 
Empire was so devastated by flood, which was the result of 
bad drainage, that agriculture was well -nigh impossible. 
Yu was employed by the Emperor Yao " to bring order out 
of chaos," and so earnestly did he devote himself to his 
task, that it is said that though he passed his own door 
three times during the eight years in which he was engaged 
in this enterprise, he never entered his home. The waters 
of the Sha, flowing from Honan, join the Hwai near to 
Chengyangkwan, and passing through the north of the 
province enter the Hongtse Lake, and flow thus into the 
Grand Canal near Tsiugkiangpu. 

There are a number of lakes in the province, the largest 
of which are the Hongtse in the north-east, and the 
Chao in the centre of the province. The lakes near 
Taiping abound in water-fowl, and are the winter home 
of the wild geese which forsake the north of China in the 
late autumn. During the summer, when the Yangtse is 
at its highest, many marshes and low-lying lands become 
flooded, giving the appearance of large lakes. 

The city Chihchow (Chih meaning a lagoon) takes its 
name from the aspect of the country at such a time, for 
during high water the whole land is inundated for miles, 
right up to the walls of the city. 

Eeference has already been made to the diversified 
nature of the province north and south of the river. In 
the north a large plain of alluvial soil covers the country, 
which soil has in some districts been greatly impoverished 



THE PEOVINCE OF ANHWEI 141 

by the sandy deposits precipitated by the muddy waters of 
the Yellow Kiver, which have at times flooded these parts 
of the country. In the mountainous and well -wooded 
districts, which are chiefly to the south of the province, the 
scenery is most beautiful, especially in the spring, when the 
mountains are covered with azaleas of every hue, and in 
the autumn, when the tints on the trees — notably the 
Candle Tree — are most lovely and variegated. The 
inhabitants of the northern portion are much poorer than 
those of the south, and often find it most difficult to 
support life at all. In years of scarcity many tramp the 
country from place to place begging, or form banditti to 
rob their more prosperous countrymen. 

Before the great Taiping Eebellion the province was 
reputed to have a population of 39,000,000 people; but 
the inhabitants were so decimated, both by the rebels and 
imperialists, that it is reported that not more than 
9,000,000 people survived. Since that time, however, 
the country has somewhat recovered, and has been largely 
repeopled by immigrants from the provinces of Honan and 
Hupeh, so that the estimate of 23,000,000 as the popula- 
tion of to-day may be regarded as fairly correct. 

2%e natural productions are tea — that grown at Hwei- 
chow and Luan Chow being far-famed — rice, wheat, barley, 
millet, buckwheat, sorghum, cotton, hemp, tobacco, varnish 
(from a tree), colsa oil (from a plant), ground nuts, beans, 
turnips, mulberry trees, camphor (from the camphor tree), 
opium, and dates. The camphor trees when fully grown 
attain to a great size. Eice is extensively grown in the 
neighbourhood of Wuhu, which is the great emporium for 
this grain. Although the tea trade at Hweichow was 
almost paralysed for a time by the foreign competition, 
especially that of Ceylon, it more recently has revived 
somewhat, though it cannot in any way compare with the 
prosperous condition of former days. The black tea is sent 
to the Hankow market and the green to Shanghai. 

Owing to the superstitions of the people little has been 
attempted in the way of mining. Surface coal is, however, 



142 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

obtained, and as superstition dies and ignorance is over- 
come, the rich resources of the earth will doubtless be 
developed. 

Salt is an important article of commerce and yields the 
Government a large revenue. The official article, however, 
is so coarse, and mixed with so much earth and other 
adulterating mediums, that it is scarcely edible. The 
consequent temptation to procure the contraband article, 
which is far superior, is too great to be resisted, and the 
coolies who return from Kiangsi, whither they have carried 
rice, do not fail to smuggle salt. As many of the smugglers 
on the Yangtse are most daring, the officials find prudence 
the better part of valour, and submit to the inevitable for 
a financial consideration. 

From a foreign standpoint the manufactures are not 
very important, if ink (erroneously called " Indian " ink) be 
excepted. This ink is made in the prefecture of Hweichow, 
and forms an important industry, which is known far and 
wide. Sun and moon dials are also made in the same 
district, some of which are quite ingenious and elaborate. 
Lacquer ware is also another of the manufactures of this 
province, and paper of a tough nature is made in Fengyang. 

The city of Hweichow is also famed for its bankers, 
many of whom travel throughout the country in pursuit of 
their calling, a custom which has given rise to the saying, 
" It is impossible to do business without a Hweichow man," 
Before the rebellion this city was fabulously rich. It is 
said that at one village with 200 families there were 100 
families each of which was worth a million. Hence the 
local saying, " Everybody millionaires," or " As rich as 
Croesus." 

This was in striking contrast to the poorer classes in 
the north, where the inferior soil was often quite insufficient 
to support its population, who seldom knew what it was to 
satisfy their hunger. In this province, as in London and 
other great cities, extremes meet. 

Protestant missionary/ tvork was commenced in this 



THE PKOVINCE OF ANHWEI 143 

province in 1869. As soon as the China Inland Mission 
had established itself in the province of Chekiang and 
Kiangsu, Mr. Hudson Taylor decided to commence work in 
Anhwei, and this was the second of the eleven then un- 
evangelised provinces to be opened to the Gospel. Mr. 
Meadows, who had had six years experience in other parts 
of China, was appointed to undertake this pioneer effort. 
He was accompanied by Mr. Williamson, and the story 
of their hardships and difficulties, which in Anking 
culminated in a riot, have been told elsewhere. Patient 
and persevering effort, however, gradually won the day, and 
a settlement was eventually obtained in the capital, Anking, 
other stations being subsequently opened both by members 
of the Mission and its Chinese helpers. 

For the first sixteen years the China Inland Mission 
was the only Society at work in the province, and hard, 
uphill work it was. At the close of that time, however, it 
was possible to report that there were 5 stations, with 6 
out-stations, worked by 14 missionaries, assisted by 8 
native helpers, while there were 170 communicants. From 
that time other Societies entered the province, and the 
work entered upon new stages of development. 

Summarising the work of the China Inland Mission up 
to date (1906), there are 12 stations, 29 out-stations, and 
4 6 missionaries, assisted by 6 8 Chinese helpers, while 1108 
persons have been baptized from the commencement. It is 
worthy of note that while the number of missionaries has 
trebled, the number of native helpers has octupled, and the 
Christians sextupled. The work in this province has always 
been regarded as one of the most difficult and humanly 
discouraging ; so much so, that the province has earned for 
itself the sobriquet of " dark Anhwei." 

Ee vie wing the stations of the China Inland Mission in 
the chronological order of opening : Anking was opened in 
1869, but the work in this city was handicapped for some 
years by the frequent though inevitable changes in the 
personnel of the workers. The present outlook, however, is 
full of hope and encouragement. In this city is situated 



144 THE CHINESE EMPIKE 

the China Inland Mission Training Home for its newly- 
arrived male workers from the homelands. 

At the out-station of Tatung there are many inquirers, 
while at another centre, where the work is self-supporting, 
an old ancestral hall is used as the chapel. 

In the Ankiug district there are three organised 
Churches, while 178 persons have been baptized from the 
commencement. 

At Wuhu work was commenced by the China Inland 
Mission in 1874, and was, until 1894, in charge of Chinese 
helpers, at which date a resident missionary was appointed. 
The Church at this centre, as has been the case with 
Anking, has supplied both helpers and servants to other 
stations and other missions. 

At Chihchow missionary work was commenced by the 
China Inland Mission in 1874, but the results have been 
most discouraging. 

Ningkuo Fu was opened by the China Inland Mission 
in 1874. At this centre the work has passed through 
varying seasons of re\dval and prosperity, with times of 
trial. At the present time the prospects are most encourag- 
ing. There are ten chapels, aU built by local Chinese 
subscriptions, in the country districts around this centre. 
In all there are nine organised Churches, while over 300 
persons have been baptized from the commencement. Kwang- 
teh Chow was originally opened in 1872, but had no resident 
missionary until 1890. For ten years the work was hard 
and unfruitful, but more recently careful individual atten- 
tion, rather than general preaching, has given encouraging 
results. 

Hweichow was opened in 1875, and was for ten years 
in the charge of Chinese helpers. Although much persistent 
ploughing and sowing have been attempted, the results have 
been somewhat disappointing. Chengyangkwan, the large 
and important port on the Hwai river, was opened in 1887. 
This centre has a large floating population, and it can 
hardly be expected that the work done among a people who 
are constantly coming and going should be able to show 



THE PKOVINCE OF ANHWEI 145 

the statistical results connected with labour among a 
more settled people. It is perhaps the hardest station 
of the whole province on this account, but dogged and 
persistent work has been carried on for now nearly twenty- 
years. 

Laian was opened in 1889. The work in this district 
was formerly carried on from Kucheng, a day's journey 
distant, at which centre, in 1882, the first converts, who 
were of a most promising character, were baptized. The 
unsettled state of the country made it desirable, however, 
that the workers should reside in the city, Laian, whence 
they moved in 1889. At this station nearly 200 persons 
have been baptized since the commencement. 

The work at Luan was commenced in 1880 by 
Mr. John Keid, who also opened Chengyangkwan. Many 
years of faithful labour were given to this centre by Mr. 
and Mrs. John Darroch. 

Kienping was made a separate station in 1884, though 
it had been for a time associated with Ningkuo Fu. The 
attitude of the Eoman Catholics and the litigious spirit of 
the people have made work very difficult. 

Taiho was opened in 1892, in which city and three 
other places evangelistic work is continually carried on. In 
one of the out-stations a Christian teacher takes charge of 
the work at his own expense, 

Yingchow was opened in 1897, and has one central and 
two country preaching places. At one centre the property 
was given to the Mission by the Chinese Christians. 

Eeviewing the work of other societies in chronological 
order, we begin first with the American Methodist Episcopal 
Mission, which commenced work in the province in 1885. 
Its present workers are resident at Wuhu. Unfortunately 
we have not received any report from this Society, so cannot 
give details. Dr. Hart's work is well known and highly 
appreciated by both foreigners and natives. He has a well- 
fitted hospital, and is fully occupied with his medical work 
all the year round. 

The Foreign Christian Missionary Society of the U.S.A. 

L 



146 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

(Disciples of Christ) began work in the province in 1888, 
and now has (1906) four stations and five out-stations, in 
connection with which there are nearly 300 communicants. 
The evangelistic work is carried on in eight chapels, and 
the educational work, with five day schools. There are also 
three hospitals and four dispensaries, under the care of two 
foreign physicians and five helpers. The central stations 
are Liichow, Chuchow, and Wuhu. The Native Church 
Extension Fund has greatly aided new centres in securing 
property, and a " farm colony " with land and house in 
Kwanwei, Central Anhwei, is worked. The Chuchow church 
has sent its own native missionary to the city of Pochow, 
in the north of the province. 

The next Society to enter the province was the Christian 
Missionary Alliance, which began work in 1890. It has 
five stations and one out -station. There are 116 com- 
municants and six street chapels, in which daily preaching 
of the Gospel is carried on. Its educational work is conducted 
in four day schools, one girls' boarding-school, and one 
women's Bible training school. For some years the work 
of this Mission was severely handicapped through lack of 
workers. Now, being under the helpful supervision of Dr. 
K H. Glover, the outlook is more promising. Its central 
stations are Wuhu, Wanchi, Nanling, and Tatung. 

The next Society to enter the province was the American 
Presbyterian Mission. It commenced work at Hwaiyuen, 
which was opened as an out -station of Nanking about 
1895-96. This Mission has as yet no organised 
churches in the province, the work being connected with 
the churches in Nanking, Kiangsu. There are two 
out-stations where regular work is carried on, and some 
eight or ten cities and large market towns which are 
frequently visited. Thirteen persons have been baptized 
from the commencement. In the province this Mission has 
one hospital and one dispensary, under the charge of a 
foreign doctor and two native assistants. Its educational 
work is conducted by three day schools, two for boys and 
one for girls, and a training- school for women. So far the 



THE PEOVINCE OF ANHWEI 147 

work of this Mission in the province has got little beyond 
the laying of a good foundation. 

The American Church Mission commenced work in the 
city of Anking in the year 1895, at which centre it has 
three out-stations. There are two organised churches, with 
128 baptized members. There is also one boys' school, of 
middle grade, where English and other branches of Western 
education are taught. Other schools of a primary nature 
are to be started this year (1906), two for boys and one 
for girls. 

This Mission commenced its medical work in the province 
with a small dispensary in 1895, but erected a hospital 
at a cost of $5000 in 1901. This hospital contained 30 
beds, and has had an average of about 365 patients a year. 
In the dispensary some 5000 new cases and 6000 return 
cases are treated annually. The medical staff includes 
2 physicians, 1 missionary trained nurse, 3 trained 
and 7 untrained native assistants. A new hospital for 
men and women, with 100 beds, is in course of erection, 
and will be one of the largest and best-equipped Mission 
hospitals in China, the total cost being estimated at about 
$50,000, Mexican, including equipment. The hospital has 
in the past been in a large measure self-supporting. 

The American Advent Christian Mission commenced 
work in the province in 1900, when the Rev. Charles 
Beals, formerly connected with the Christian Missionary 
Alliance, returned to China. The work of this Mission is 
principally north of the Yangtse, where they have one 
station and five out-stations, with 215 church members, 6 
native pastors, and 4 other helpers. Its educational work 
is carried on by six schools, one of which is a Bible school. 

At Wuhu the Misses Oviatt are engaged in an inde- 
pendent work among the women and children, in which they 
are most ably assisted by a Chinese helper, who is one 
among a thousand. He has won golden opinions, and is 
a most valuable gift from God to the work of these two 
ladies. 



148 



THE CHINESE EMPIKE 





Photo by 



Memorial Tablet to Fu Hsl 

One of tlie Memorial Tablets erected to Fu Hsi, the mythical ancestor of man, the reputed author of music, 
writing, marriage, etc. At the Temple at Chenchow, Honau— the T'ai Hao-lins (see illustration on page 159)— a 
great festival in his honour is held every spring when thousands of people come from long distances to worship 
at his shrine. It is called the " T'ai Hao-ling festival." At this season over 70,000 women enter the guest-hall 



i-ling i 
of the China Inland Mission premises, and an equal number of men. 



To face jmge 149. 



THE PROVINCE OF HONAN 

By G. Whitfield Guinness, B.A., M.B., China Inland Mission. 

The area of Hon an is 67,940 square miles, and its popula- 
tion 35,316,800, with an average of 520 persons per 
square mile. Its longitude extends from 110° 20' to 116° 
60' east of Greenwich, while its latitude is about the same 
as North Africa, Palestine, South California, and the north 
of Florida. 

Populous, accessible, fertile, and with a good climate, the 
province of Honan forms an important sphere for missionary 
labour. 

"With one -fourth the area, it surpasses the collective 
populations of the three northern provinces of China — 
Kansu, Shensi, and Shansi. 

The density of population in Kansu averages 82 persons 
to the square mile ; in Shensi and Shansi it is 111 and 
149 respectively; while in Honan it rises to 520 persons 
in a similar area. The most populous district in Europe is 
Belgium, " the small country of large cities," which crowds 
6,000,000 people into its 11,373 square miles, giving an 
average of 5 5 to the mile, only just surpassing the density 
which Honan maintains over a vastly larger area. 

Honan is larger than England and Wales, its 67,940 
square miles being somewhat in excess of the united area of 
England and Switzerland. It is irregularly triangular in 
shape, the vertical base of the triangle being placed to the 
east. The north-west and south-west sides of this triangle 
are mountainous, the remainder of the province being a 

149 



150 THE CHINESE EMPIRE 

remarkably flat plain crossed by rivers running at right 
angles to the mountain ranges as they pursue their easterly 
course to the Grand Canal or Yellow Sea. 

From north to south the province is about 460 English 
miles in length, from east to west 430 miles. 

Previous to the construction of the Ching-han railway, 
HoNAN had three connections of commercial importance. 

(1) South-east from the mart of Chowkiakow there is a 
continuous waterway vid the Sha and Hwai rivers, the 
Hungtse lakes, and Grand Canal to Chinkiang on the 
Yangtse. 

(2) South-west from the mart of Shae-k'i-tien there is 
water connection vid the T'ang river, which unites with the 
Peh Ho and flows into the Han, thus bringing the province 
into connection with Hankow and the Yangtse valley. 
The T'ang and Peh rivers are navigable for small boats all 
the year round. 

(3) North of the Yellow Eiver the important mart of 
Taokow is connected with Tientsin by means of the "Wei 
river. Taokow is 400 miles (1200 li) distant from 
Tientsin. 

The importance of these water communications will be 
appreciated when the cost of freight by land and water is 
compared, that by land being from " twenty to forty times 
as high as the usual standard on those rivers which are 
easily navigable." ^ 

Eoads from these three centres cross the province and 
unite at Honan Eu to form the main trunk road to the 
north-western provinces of China, which main road is pass- 
able for carts at least as far as Suchow Eu, far in the north 
of Kansu, 11*70 miles (3500 li) distant from Honan Eu. 

Baron Eichthofen called Honan Fu " the Gate to the 
North- Western Provinces and Central Asia," and he pointed 
out the importance of railway communication at such a 
spot. A railway is now under process of construction from 
Kaifeng Fu to Honan Fu, crossing the main Hankow- 
Pekin (Ching-han) line at Chengchow, thus bringing this 
^ Baron Richthofen. 



THE PEOVINCE OF HONAN 151 

" Gate to Central Asia " into immediate connection with 
the Yangtse valley on the one hand, and with Tientsin and 
the sea on the other. 

Conceive a vast plain bordered by mountains on its 
western side, and crossed by streams running at right angles 
to these mountain ranges ; a plain unrelieved by undulating 
hill, green in the season of growing harvest, but brown for 
the rest of the year, the central part buried in sand and 
loess deposit brought down by the Yellow Eiver ; conceive 
this plain dotted over with cities, towns, and villages, and 
crossed in every direction with brown earth roads, wide in 
the north and centre, and narrow and paved in the south, 
teeming with a hardy farming population, and you have a 
picture of Honan south of the Yellow Eiver. 

North of the Hwang-ho the scenery is more beautiful. 
The region of H walking Fu and Chinghwa Chen has 
been described as one of the most beautiful spots in the 
plains of China. "A perfect garden, rendered park -like 
by numerous plantations of trees and shrubs. The soil is 
very fertile. The luxurious growth of the cereals recalls to 
mind the richest agricultural countries in Europe. Numer- 
ous clear streams descend from the Tai-hang Shan, and the 
inhabitants make the amplest use of them for irrigation." ^ 

Eight provinces border on Honan : — 

On the north, Shansi and Chihli ; on the south, Hupeh ; 
on the east. Shantung, Kiangsu, and Anhwei ; on the west, 
Shensi and Szechwan. 

There are eight principal rivers : — 

1. The Chang river, from Shensi, follows a long course, 
to empty itself into the Grand Canal not far from Tientsin 
in Chihli. 

2. The "Wei river, which gives the name to Weihwei 
Fu. On the banks of one of its tributaries stands the pre- 
fectural city of Changte Fu. It flows into the Grand Canal. 

3. The Tsin river, flowing south from Shansi, crosses 
the border above Hwaiking Fu, which stands on its banks. 
It flows south-east into the Yellow Eiver. 

1 Baron Richthofen. 



152 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

4. The Hwang Ho/ or Yellow Eiver, nearly 2500 miles 
in length, draining an area of 47,500 square miles, forms 
the boundary between Shensi and Shansi. It turns abruptly 
eastward at its point of junction with the Wei, and after 
passing 7 miles to the north of Kaifeng Fu it flows east 
and north-east through Chihli into Shantung and the Gulf 
of Pechihli. It is very difficult of navigation. Vast sums 
of money have been spent to construct powerful dykes, and 
the treacherous banks in some places have been stone-faced 
to prevent them giving way and thus flooding the adjacent 
country. This work, which was formerly in the hands of 
the Ho-Tao or Governor of the Eiver, is now entrusted to 
the Provincial Governor. 

5. The Lo river, from the mountains bordering on 
Shensi and Houan, flows in a north-easterly direction past 
Honan Eu into the Yellow Eiver. 

6. The Sha river collects the water flowing from the 
mountains in the west centre of the province. It flows 
eastward past Hiangcheng Hsien, Yencheng, Chowkiakow, 
Yingchow Fu to unite with the Hwai river at Chenyang- 
kwan. From thence it passes vid the Great Lakes into 
the Grand Canal. 

7. The Hwai river drains the south-eastern part of the 
province, the neighbourhood of Kwangchow. It flows in 
a north-easterly direction to join the Sha. 

8. The Peh and T'ang rivers flow southward, to join the 
Han river in the south-west of the province. 

1 "200 li east of Honan Fu the Yellow River is IJ mile wide. The 
southern shore is steep, the northern is flat and indistinct. The river is 
navigable i'rom Lung-nien-k'eo (90 li north-east of Kaifeng Fu) to Meng- 
tsin Hsien, a city 40 li north-east of Honan Fu, a distance of 125 miles. 
The navigation is difficult on account of shoals and the swiftness of the 
current. The embankments of the river being made of fine sand are difficult 
to keep in repair, and disastrous floods have been caused by the water break- 
ing through at some weak point. 

" In 1848 it broke through at Laoyang Hsien. In 1868 a rupture occurred 
near Chengchow, 150 li from Kaifeng Fu. In 1869 it recurred and sub- 
merged a region 200 li square, comprising Chengchow, Chong-mu Hsien, 
Wei-chuan Hsien, T'ung-hsii Hsien, and ClVi Hsien. 

"Lasting damage was done, as the inundated country was covered with 
sand and rendered unfit for cultivation of grain. The damaged embankment 
has been repaired by the Government at a cost of two million taels. It is 
the region composing the right bank of the river, a few miles below Si-shui 
Hsien, which is chiefly exposed to danger." — Baron Richthofen. 



THE PEOVINCE OF HONAN 153 

North of the Yellow Eiver an apparent range of 
mountains extends for 400 miles (1200 li), which is 
known as the Hang-shan. In reality it is not a range 
of mountains at all, but is the descent of the uplands of 
Shansi to the plain of Honan. A belt of low hills inter- 
venes between the foot of these uplands and the plain. 
These hills form the site of important coal mines, and 
produce "excellent anthracite, clean, lustrous, and solid." 
The Chinese mines are cylinders of five feet diameter 
running down to depths varying from 120 feet to 
400 feet. 

The Sung Shan, one of the " Five Sacred Mountains " 
of China, is situated to the north of Kuchow in the 
west. It is about 7000 feet in height. The region of 
Euchow, Honan Fu, and Hwaiking Fu is rich in agri- 
cultural and mineral produce. South of Honan Fu is the 
famous Long-Men or Dragon Gate. Here the Yi-ho flows 
northward to join the Lo river. The mountains, which 
form the sides of the Gateway, contain numerous caves 
which have been hewn out of the solid rock. Thousands 
of Buddhas, large and small, line the interior of these caves, 
and a gigantic figure is cut into the mountain side without. 
Temples abound amidst beautiful scenery. Hot springs 
also add to the interest of this neighbourhood. 

The Fu-niu-shan is another important range of mountains, 
being the eastern termination of the great Kwen-luen range 
of Central Asia. 

In the south-east of the province there are numerous 
ranges of hills and mountains extending from west to east. 
Amongst them the Shwang-ho Shan is of interest. The 
inhabitants of this district — the Kwangchow district — 
believe that the souls of the departed dwell there. Hence 
they have built hundreds of rooms at considerable cost to 
provide a suitable dwelling for the souls of departed friends. 

Though situated in the same latitude as North Africa 
and the Southern States of North America, Honan has a 
cold and bracing winter, the thermometer at times register- 
ing 7° below zero. December and January are the coldest 



154 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

months. The summer is hot, the temperature rising to 
over 100° Fahrenheit in the shade. The rainy season falls 
in July.^ For the rest of the year there is comparatively 
little rain ; brilliant sunshine and blue skies recall the 
Eiviera and South Italy. 

HoNAN produces an abundance of food of all kinds. In 
the time of wheat harvest, the plain presents the appearance 
of a sea of colour extending to the horizon in every direction. 
Wheat, barley, peas, beans, rape seed, and sweet potatoes 
constitute the first crop ; cotton, Indian corn, millet, 
kaoliang, beans, and hemp the second. Apples, pears, 
peaches, plums, persimmon, and grapes of poor quality are 
found. With the exception of the persimmon, the fruit is 
somewhat hard and tasteless. The willow tree is a very 
marked feature of the plain. The elm, the mulberry, and 
oak and small fir trees are found in various districts. In 
the neighbourhood of Lushan Hsien is found an oak tree 
whose leaves supply food for the silk-worm. Lushan is 
largely known for its trade in " wild silk." The thread is 
sold at a little less than a tael per catty (3 s. for 1-^ lbs.). 

Salt is plentiful in the neighbourhood of the Yellow 
River. Amongst the manufactures, silks and satins occupy 
a prominent position ; drugs, felt, paper, ox glue, leather, 
catgut, string, iron and brass work, silver, steel, pottery, 
and other industries are carried on. 

In HoNAN the people state that the use of opium 
commenced sixty years ago. The cultivation of the poppy 
began thirteen years after the introduction of the drug. 
The progress in this cultivation has been considerably 
extended, and native opium is now largely used. 

The quality of opium varies. The best is known as 
" Kwangtung " opium. This comes from India ; the second 
quality is supplied by Kansu ; the third by Shensi ; the 
fourth by Honan and Shansi ; and the fifth by Szechwan 

^ " Rain is very scarce and unevenly distributed. It is quite common 
to go six and eight months without rain. The heavy rainfalls take place in 
June and July ; but there is not, properly speaking, ' a wet season,' such as 
is common in other parts of China, where the air is heavy with moisture 
and it is impossible to keep clothing dry." — Slimmon". 



THE PROVINCE OF HONAN 155 

and Kweichow. Szechwan opium, being the cheapest, is 
widely used. Its price varies from 400 to 500 cash per 
ounce. The Honan drug is from 500 to 600 cash; Shensi, 
800; Kansu, 900 cash to 1000 cash per ounce. Foreign 
opium costs as much as from 800 to 1600 cash for a 
similar quantity. 

The coalfield of Lushan and Euchow forms a plateau 
a few hundred feet high and twenty-three miles broad. It 
separates the vaUeys of the Sha and Eu rivers. Very little 
lump coal is produced in this field, but it is a " caking and 
coking coal of tolerable purity." The greatest depth at 
which the Chinese work is 400 feet. North of Honan Fu 
is a considerable coalfield which supplies the railway. 

Flooding of the mines had rendered this work dif&cult. 
Two thin seams of coal have been passed, but the main 
seam still remains to be worked, 50 feet below the 500 
feet depth already reached. There are Chinese- worked 
mines in the neighbourhood of Kong Hsien, Mih Hsien, 
and Pao Hsien, with an output of 20 tons per mine every 
ten days. 

The peoples of China exhibit considerable variation of 
character. The Canton merchant and Shansi banker are 
found far beyond the limits of their own provinces in many 
of the important cities of the Empire. The Honanese, on 
the other hand, do not care for travel.^ Their view of the 
world is limited by their own horizon. The majority are 
farmers — somewhat rude and uncouth in manner, easily 
roused to anger, quick to take offence. They are of an 
independent turn of mind, and will not brook reproof; 
very conservative, they do not welcome foreign innovation. 
In certain districts the anti-foreign feeling runs high, and 
the people would rejoice if all " barbarians " were expelled. 
In other districts they are very friendly, and welcome the 
stranger in their midst. They are distinctly intelligent, 
and are often marked by strong individuality. 

Poverty and squalor prevail ; the people are indifferent 

^ Many of the craftsmen, however, in Shansi are Honanese. — Ed. 



156 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

to discomfort and dirt, and apparently lack the enterprise 
necessary to ameliorate their own condition. The cold of 
winter is met without any warming apparatus. They add 
warm clothing, but as their garments are rarely washed 
their condition at the end of winter can be better imagined 
than described. A common proverb runs : " A Hupeh man 
unless he has cleansed his feet does not sleep at night ; a 
Honan man unless he fords a river never washes his feet." 

This principle runs through everything : roads, houses, 
people, animals, all suffer from neglect. The land is well 
tilled, however, and the harvests are good. The people 
generally ascribe the blessings of harvest to God. " Trust 
in Heaven for food " is an everyday proverb. In this 
respect they contrast favourably with their neighbours in 
the north. They are not devoted to idolatry, and temples 
are everywhere falling into disrepair. 

Though opium-smoking is general in the cities, the 
farming population is comparatively free from the vice. 
Hence they are a strong race of men, and being inured 
to hardship, they make good soldiers. Simplicity and 
reliability form good soil for " the seed of the Kingdom," 
and rich fruit may be expected in days to come. 

In spite of the conservative nature of the people of 
Honan, development is apparent in many directions. In 
Kaifeng Fu, the capital of the province (a former capital 
of the Empire), schools for Western learning are established. 
The " Kao-teng-hsioh-t'ang," or college, was opened in 1902. 
It affords accommodation for 180 students, who are kept at 
Government expense. Only those who are selected by the 
educational authorities can enter. The course embraces 
both Chinese and foreign subjects. Mathematics, geography, 
grammar, and languages (English, French, and Japanese) are 
taught. There are in addition the intermediate (Chong- 
hsioh-t'ang) and the junior (Siao-hsioh-t'ang) schools, and 
recently other schools for selected candidates have been 
established. The best students from the College are sent 
to Peking to complete their studies. 



THE PEOVmCE OF HONAN 157 

The Imperial Chinese Post is rapidly extending through- 
out the Empire. It now carries the Government mails. 
The branch at Kaifeng Fu controls 72 offices and 35 
box offices. There are also thirteen telegraph stations in 
the province : at Kaifeng Fu, Yencheng Hsien, Chow- 
kiakow, Sinyang Chow, Chengchow, Honan Fu, Shan- 
chow, Chinghwa, Weihwei Fu, Taokow, Changte Fu, 
Nanyang Fu, Kingtzekwan. The cost of messages between 
the above places is 20 cents (about 4d.) a word. From 
Honan to Shantung, Hupeh, Chihli, Shensi, costs 26 cents 
a word ; from Honan to Canton, Kweichow, Kwangsi, Che- 
kiang, Anhuei, 38 cents a word; from Honan to Kiangsi, 
Kiangsu, Shansi, Szechwan, 3 2 cents a word ; and from 
Honan to Yunnan and Fukien, 44 cents a word. 

The military encampment at the capital comprises 8000 
foreign drilled troops, 250 cavalry and an artillery corps. 
The German manual of drill is used ; all arms are modern, 
the troops being supplied with the Mauser rifle. A 
Military School has been built near the railway station. 

The mint has now been in operation for more than a 
year. In 1905 a large building was erected with three or 
more presses. The daily output of copper coins amounted 
to 400,000. A foreign manager is in charge of the work. 

The Compagnie Imperiale des Chemins de Fer Chinois 
built the line known as the Ching-han Eailway, running 
from Peking to Hankow, a distance of 1215 kilometres or 
755 miles; this line crosses the province of Honan from 
north to south. The Yellow Eiver is spanned by a bridge 
two miles in length. Owing to the treacherous nature of 
the bed of the river, the engineering difficulties encountered 
in the course of construction were very great. The 
Chinese looked upon it as a battle between the " Eiver God " 
and the foreigner, and really prophesied that the bridge 
would be destroyed. The difficulties have been surmounted, 
however, and the " Yellow Eiver Bridge " is an accomplished 
fact. 

Work on the bridge commenced in April 1904. It was 



158 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

completed in December 1905. The first train crossed in 
June 1905. The length of bridge is 3010 metres or 2 
miles. The weight of metal used was 11,347 metric tons 
or 11,168 English long tons. 

The length of the tunnel on south embankment is 320 
metres or 350 yards. In the course of construction the 
following were used: — 940 steel tubes filled with concrete; 
103 piers containing 7510 tons of cast steel, and trusses 
containing 3760 tons of wrought steeL The total cost 
was two million taels of silver. The express journey 
northward from Hankow to Peking takes about 36 hours 
for the 754 miles. In a short time it is hoped that daily 
trains will be run in this time. There is one express train 
run every week. The bridge is situated 334 miles from 
Hankow and 420 miles from Peking. 

Cross lines are being constructed : one from Kaifeng 
Fu to Honan Fu, crossing the main line at Chengchow. 
The Kaifeng-Chengchow portion is to be opened immediately. 
The Honan Fu line will take a year or two to complete, 
owing to the mountainous nature of the country traversed. 

The Peking Syndicate line is situated about 40 miles 
to the north of the Yellow Kiver. It runs westward from 
Taokow on the "Wei river to Pehshan near Tsinghwa 
Chen, the region of the coalfields. Taokow is the mart 
for Tientsin, 400 miles distant, with which it is connected 
by water. This line is 92 miles in length. 

Historically the province of Honan is interesting, it 
having been the seat of the Imperial Government more 
frequently than any other province, as will be seen by the 
following table : — 

2180 B.C. Hsia dynasty. Capital Taikang. 

1766 B.C. Shang dynasty. „ Kweiteh Fu. 

781 B.C. Cliou dynasty. ,, Honan Fu. 

25 A.D. Eastern Han dynasty. „ Honan Fu. 

280 A.D. Tsin dynasty. „ Honan Fu. 

904 A.D. T'ang dynasty. ,, Honan Fu. 

960 A.D. Sung dynasty. „ Kaifeng Fu. 



THE PEOVINCE OF HONAN 159 

Fu Hsi, the first of the " Five Eulers," whose date, 
according to Chinese records, goes back to 2953 B.C., is 
supposed to be buried at Chenchow Fu. His dynastic 
appellation was T'ai Hao, and every year a festival is held in 
his honour, known as the T'ai-Hao-ling — the word " ling " 
meaning imperial mound or tomb. From far and near 
people crowd to the reputed site of his grave. 

From him the Chinese date the ceremony of marriage, 
the slaying of animals to make clothing, writing, and the 
commencement of learning, also music. He is reputed to 
be the author of the " Pa-kua," or Geomantic Diagrams. 

A circular raised platform has* been erected close to the 
T'ai-Hao-ling, on which the signs of the Pa-kua are 
inscribed in stone. In the centre is placed the Long-ma, 
or dragon horse, on which has been marked the sign of the 
elemental principles according to Chinese theory — the 
T'ai-ki-t'u. The dragon horse is supposed to have emerged 
from the water, and the figure of the T'ai-ki was found on 
its back. 

Pien-lien-ch'eng (Kaifeng Fu) has been the scene of 
prolonged sieges and of desolating floods. Its former wealth 
and extent are gone, but to-day it is a city 1 Chinese miles 
across (3^ English miles). 

The story of the Jewish Community, with its centre in 
this city, is of great interest and is not fully told yet. 

Much interest was aroused when the existence of a 
community of Jews in Kaifeng Fu, the capital of Honan, 
was first made known. An admirable pamphlet on the 
subject has been published. It is entitled, "A Lecture 
delivered by Marcus N. Adler, M.A.,^ at the Jews' College 
Literary Society, Queen Square House, London, 1900." 

The history of Protestant Missions in Honan begins with 
the itinerations of two members of the China Inland 
Mission, Henry Taylor and George Clarke, in the year 
1875. They even succeeded in renting premises in Eu- 
ning Fu, but subsequently were compelled to leave. 

^ See Appendix. 



160 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

It was not till nine years (1884) later that a permanent 
footing was obtained, when Mr. Sambrook secured premises 
in Chowkiakow, an important trade centre connected by- 
water with Chinkiang and the Yangtse. The first converts 
were baptized there in 1887, and to-day there are twelve 
out-stations in connection with this centre. In 1886 a 
similar station was opened by Mr. Slimmon in the mart of 
Shae-ki-tien, in the south-west of the province, a town of 
considerable commercial importance, connected by water 
with Hankow. The names of Johnstone, Mills, Slimmon, 
Gracie, King, all of the China Inland Mission, and Lund are 
associated with early attempts to enter important cities 
north and south of the Yellow Eiver, but they were driven 
forth from Hwaiking, and ejected from Chuhsien Chen. 

In 1891 Mr. Slimmon succeeded in opening Hiang- 
cheng Hsien to the Gospel. 

The year 1894 saw the establishment of the work 
of the Canadian Presbyterian Mission in the prefectural 
city of Changte Fu. Their first workers had come out 
in 1888 (four men and one lady). Finding it impracticable 
to enter the " Fu " cities at once, Mission stations were 
established in Chuwang and Hsinchen, and these places 
continued to be occupied till 1900 — the year of the Boxer 
uprising — when both were given up. 

In 1902 Weihwei Fu and Hwaiking Fu were occupied, 
and together with Changte Fu these form the centres 
around which the work of the Canadian Presbyterian 
Mission has grown. With 31 foreign workers, 4 hospitals, 
6 schools, 406 communicants, and 647 under instruction, 
their work is rapidly increasing. 

In 1895 Dr. Howard Taylor and some fellow-workers of 
the China Inland Mission opened Chengchow Fu and Taikang 
Hsien, in both of which places there have been encouraging 
results. 

During 1897 Mr. F. M. Ptoyal of the Gospel Mission, 
Shantung, paid visits to Kweite Fu in East Honan. 
Mr. L. L. Blalock has since had the principal charge of 
the work in that city and in Yungcheng Hsien and Luyi 



THE PEOVINCE OF HONAN 161 

Hsien. In 1902 Mr. Bostick commenced work in Anhwei. 
The aim of this Mission has been to put responsibility on 
the Chinese Christians as early as possible. iVb jpaid 
heljpers are employed. The Christians have their own places 
of worship, leased in Kweite Fu and bought in Luyi Hsien, 
and they look forward to having one in Po Chow before 
long. 

In December 1898 the American Norwegian Lutheran 
Mission commenced work in the Euning Fu district, South 
HoNAN. Stations have been opened in Euning, Sinyang 
Chow, and Kioshan. In the latter place is situated a 
hospital. One hundred and thirty boys in three schools and 
forty-eight girls in two schools give promise for the future. 

The year 1899 saw the opening of the district of 
Kwangchow. Mr. Argento of the China Inland Mission, 
who has laboured there since that date, writes of widespread 
interest. Already 11 out-stations have been opened, and 
1 rmpaid helpers and 5 paid assistants are employed. Two 
hundred and sixty-five have been baptized in this district. 

During the same year the Swedish Mission in China, 
associated with the China Inland Mission, commenced work 
in Sinan, a city in the north-west of the province, a day's 
journey west of Honan Fu. The difficulties met with in 
this neighbourhood have been great, nevertheless 4 stations 
have been opened, 114 persons have been baptized, and 2 
boarding-schools established with 29 pupils. Honan Fu 
was occupied in 1904. 

To Mr. E. A. Powell of the China Inland Mission 
belongs the privilege of being the first to rent premises in 
the anti- foreign provincial capital of Kaifeng Fu, He 
had visited the city in 1899, but it was not till 1902 that 
he succeeded in securing premises. Since then medical 
work has commenced with the advent of Drs. Carr and 
Guinness. A hospital is in process of construction and 
should be completed before long. Evangelistic work is 
being carried on in the city. Already 10 persons have 
been baptized. 

The same year saw the occupation of Hsi Hsien by Mr. 

M 



162 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

Boen of the Independent Lutheran Mission, and Yencheng 
Hsien was opened by Mr. Lack of the China Inland Mission. 
The following year, 1903, the Hauge's Synod entered Hsinye 
Hsien. The hospitals and schools of this Mission are at 
Fancheng, in Hupeh. For ten years the province had been 
visited by colporteurs of the Mission. Eev. Th. Himle is 
in charge of this work. There are 5 out-stations from 
Hsinye Hsien, and 7 schools with an average attendance 
of 20 pupils each. Five evangelists are employed and 
19 persons have been baptized. 

In September 1904 Chengchow was opened by the 
American Baptists (South). This city is likely to become 
a treaty port. Being on the railway it is likely to become 
an important centre. The Mission has of foreign workers, 
4 men (one a doctor) and 3 ladies ; of Chinese assistants, 2 
evangelistic and 1 medical. 

At the close of the year 1904 the Free Methodist 
Mission arrived at the same city. They have 6 workers 
and are expecting further reinforcements. 

The Seventh Day Adventists are working in the south 
centre of this province. The Augustana Synod hopes to 
take up work in the near future in a field yet to be 
determined. The South Chihli Mission has just entered 
Kaifeng Fu. 

The Eussian Greek Church are inquiring for premises in 
Kaifencr Fu also. 



[Table 



THE PEOVINCE OF HONAN 



163 



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Hauge's Synod 

American Baptist (South) 

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THE PKOVINCE OF HUNAN 



By Mr. A. H. Harris, late Acting Commissioner of Customs at 
Changsha. 



Hunan of the present day formed part of that territory 
known in ancient times as the San Miao Kuo or Kingdom 
of the Three Aboriginal Tribes. Its early history is full of 
the reputed deeds of the primitive rulers of China. We 
find the Emperors Yao, Shun, and Yii celebrated in its 
annals. Did not the great Shun die while on an expedition 
against the aborigines of the south, and temples to his 
honour exist in the province. Is not the grave of his two 
consorts, the daughters of Yao, to be seen on the isle of 
Chlinshan in the Tungtiiig Lake ; coming south to nurse 
him in his illness and receiving news of his death, they 
committed suicide in the waters of the lake near to this 
lovely spot. Does not Hunan's mountain peak, the Nan 
Yo, possess the ancient and celebrated Tablet recording the 
pacification of the waters by the Emperor Yii — the Kulou 
Pei or Deluge Stone, famous throughout China ; and an 
Imperial Commissioner annually proceed to worship before 
his reputed tomb in the south of the province ! 

Coming to later times, we find that Hunan formed 
part of the State of Ch'u, no mean kingdom, under the 
Chou dynasty {circa 1122-255 B.C.). The celebrated 
Dragon Festival, observed with the greatest Mat on 
the fifth of the fifth month throughout China, owes its 
origin to the suicide by drowning near Changsha of an 
early statesman and poet, Ch'u Yuan, author of the 

164 



THE PEOVINCE OF HUNAN 165 

interesting elegy the Li Sao {circa 340 B.C.). Under the 
Ch'in dynasty we find the name Changsha, or " Long 
Sand," applied to a large part of the province which was 
then, circa 130 B.C., subject to the Emperor of China. 
Echoes, historical and legendary, of the wars of the " Three 
Kingdoms," the San Kuo, are to be heard around Yochow. 
Still later, in the interests of the last of the Ming Emperors, 
severe fighting took place at Yochow and in the northern 
parts of the province. Everywhere, indeed, there is a rich 
field for antiquarian research. Of its aboriginal populations 
it is estimated that one-tenth still survive in the hilly 
districts of the centre, the south-west, and the north- 
west ; extermination, expulsion, and assimilation for 
hundreds of years have caused the disappearance of the 
vast majority. 

In more recent times the province suffered from the 
Taiping rebels {circa 1854). Entering from the south, they 
swarmed up the Siang valley, spreading both east and west. 
Changsha was invested, and for successfully enduring an 
eighty days' siege it earned the title of " The City of the 
Iron Gates." When official rule was in general abeyance 
the Hunan gentry, encouraged by an able Governor, came 
to the rescue ; forces were organised, the Likin taxation 
system, to defray military expenditure, was initiated, and 
reorganisation of civil rule took rise. Hence it comes to 
pass that in every branch of public life we now see a 
representative, or a committee, of the gentry acting with 
Government officials, and very powerful is their influence. 
A local saying, indeed, has it that the Governor's power as 
compared with that of the gentry is as four is to six. 
Without the province, in the final defeat of the rebels, 
Hunanese leaders and soldiers were the backbone of the 
Government forces. Of the Hunan youth 70 per cent 
were recruited for the war, and the reputation then acquired 
has stood by them. In all parts of the Empire Hunan 
" braves " have been employed. Hardy but tui-bulent, and 
yielding submission to none but their own officers, they 
were the cause of constant broils and were everywhere 



166 THE CHINESE EMPIRE 

dreaded. A change is now coming over them : better 
methods of recruiting, of drill, and higher pay are producing 
their effect, and the old attitude of turbulent boastfulness is 
giving place to pride in efficiency. Given good officers, no 
better fighting material exists in China. As in the military, 
so in civil life, Hunanese are found in high office through- 
out the Empire ; so much so that at one time of seven 
Viceroys six were Hunanese. The rise of Hunan to 
its present commanding position in China and in the 
eyes of the Western world dates from this, the Taiping 
period. 

The province as it now is would seem to have been 
demarcated early in the thirteenth century. The term 
Hukuang, applying to the whole of the region around the 
formerly great Tungting Lake, dates from the Ming dynasty, 
and the term Liang Hu, designating the divided provinces 
of Hunan and Hupeh (north of the lake and south of the 
lake provinces), dates from the times of Kanghsi of the 
present dynasty. Both terms are used of the Viceroyalty 
with its seat at Wuch§,ng in Hupeh. The immediate chief 
of Hunan is a Governor resident at Changsha, and with 
him are the usual official hierarchy. The Grain Taotai-ship 
was abolished in 1905 and its duties vested in the Salt 
Toatai, who is the Superintendent of Customs at the new 
treaty port of Changsha. 

Geogra])hy. — Hunan is a beautiful province : it abounds 
in the picturesque. The natives graphically describe it as 
containing three parts upland and seven parts water. A 
more accurate division sometimes heard is three-tenths 
hill, six-tenths water, and one-tenth plain. Its area has 
been estimated at from 74,000 to 90,000 square miles, and 
its population has been variously given as from 9 to 23 
millions ; 1 8 millions at the present day will be found a 
generous figure. 

Situated on the northern slope of the Nanling range, 
which forms the watershed between the Yangtse and the 
West river systems, the south and west of the province are 
very mountainous. Its centre contains much open, undu- 



THE PKOVINCE OF HUNAN 167 

lating country, and the northern parts are chiefly occupied 
by the Tungting and low-lying alluvial land extending to 
the Yangtse, which forms its northern boundary. In brief, 
its most interesting and natural features are the Tungting 
Lake, the sacred Nan Yo or Hengshan Mountain, its three 
chief waterways, and its mountainous and wooded nature 
generally. Of its products the chief are timber, tea, and 
rice. It abounds in minerals, among which coal and iron 
predominate. 

The Tungting Lake, now estimated to cover in summer 
or high- water season a surface of 5000 to 6000 square 
miles, is but a fraction of its former size. In winter its 
bed is only a series of mud flats with a few channels 
wandering between — the home of countless thousands of 
wild-fowl, swan, geese, and duck of all varieties. Owing 
to the continual silting up of the lake, particularly of the 
whole western and northern portion, where the many 
mouths of the Yuan and the Yangtse channels embouche 
into it, it has lost the importance as a waterway which at 
one time it had. The disorganisation of the Grain Trans- 
port Service and a reduced junk fleet must also be 
mentioned. An idea of this importance and of the 
amount of the traf&c which used to cross its surface may be 
gathered from the fact that in 1732 on an islet of the lake 
there was erected by Imperial order a lighthouse and tower, 
showing 260 feet above the water, at a cost of some £70,000. 
In 1740 we read that twenty -eight lifeboats had to be 
maintained at this station. Owing, however, to the silting 
process, we find that in 1841 the station, long fallen into 
disuse and ruin, was abolished. I have met many men 
who recall cross-lake navigation, and there is little doubt 
that it is owing to silt and not to fear of navigation that 
the route has fallen into disuse. The waters of the Yangtse 
also by various openings find their way into the lake, and 
its thick yellow stream is distinctly noticeable as it flows 
past Yochow. The lake should act as a reservoir for the 
rivers of the province and serve to reduce the severity of 
floods to which the province is liable. In summer its 



168 THE CHINESE EMPIRE 

waters often rise 30 to 40 or more feet, and the oft 
recurrence of floods in Hunan and the Yangtse Valley is 
distinctly traceable, as to one cause, to the raising of the 
lake bed, which thus absorbs less than formerly of overflow 
water. 

Of waterways, the three chief are the Siang, the Tzu, 
and the Yuan ; a fourth, the Li, in the northern part, flows 
east and south into the lake. The most serviceable river 
is the Siang, which, rising in Kwangsi and flowing the 
length of Hunan, discharges into the Yangtse by Yochow. 
This river is, as a rule, navigable for some nine months to 
steamers drawing six feet as far as to Siangtan, 30 miles 
above Changsha. A check to navigation may, however, be 
experienced for a few days once or twice in the season ; in 
some winter or low-water seasons as little as 12 to 18 
inches of water is met with in a few places. The fall 
between Changsha and Yochow is only 80 feet in 120 
miles. The authorities are discussing plans to deepen the 
waterway, and there is no doubt that in time great improve- 
ment will be effected both in river and lake. The silt 
if dredged could well be utilised for dams and embank- 
ments, and the value of crops raised in these reclaimed areas 
would be likely to more than repay the cost of reclamation 
and deepening improvements. Eeclamation, in fact, on a 
small scale of this nature, aided by the silting-up process 
above referred to, is being continually carried on by the 
peasants, and acres of rice land are now found where formerly 
was water. Communication by means of a canal and haul- 
over into Kwangsi exists near to Chiianchow over the border, 
but no great use is made of it. 

The Tzu river, rising in the mountainous borderland of 
Kweichow and Hunan, is navigable by small boats from 
Paoking to lyang, where it enters the lake. It is a very 
circuitous river and full of rapids ; a local name is the Tan 
kiang or River of Rapids. A peculiarity to be noticed on 
this river is that the coal produced in the region is con- 
veyed to destination (Hankow) in boats constructed to last 
the voyage down and to be then broken up and their planks. 



THE PEOVINCE OF HUNAN 169 

etc., to be sold. Twenty per cent at least of boats are 
wrecked on this river before lyang is reached. 

The Yuen river rises in Kweichow and discharges below 
Changteh through many mouths into the lake, forming an 
intricate delta, and while there is a cross-lake stream, its 
main channel would seem to skirt the southern shore of the 
lake, and traffic chiefly passes by branches near Lungyang, 
Yuenkoug, and thence into the Siang at Lintsekow near 
Siangyiu. Speaking generally, the Yuen and its approaches 
are not so well suited for steamer traffic as is the Siang. 
Steam navigation of the lake and into the Yuen has been 
as yet little attempted — this is still the day of small things 
in Hunan, — but steamers could in the high-water season 
ply for probably six months in the year to Changteh. 
Above Changteh there is navigation for boats drawing two 
feet for ten months in the year to Hungkiang; there are, 
however, some dangerous rapids to be met with. 

Most of the cities of Hunan can be reached by water, 
and to this end the varieties of junks are numerous, each 
adapted to the particular need of its own locality, from 
whence too it often takes its name. It is difficult to 
estimate the size of this junk fleet ; of vessels with a 
carrying capacity of four tons and upward there are at 
least 20,000, and of smaller craft more than double 
that number. A careful Japanese estimate gives 30,000 
as the number of Hunan junks which enter at Hankow, 
125 miles below Yochow, in the course of a year. Steam 
navigation is in its infancy: four small 600-ton steamers 
ply between Hankow, Changsha, and Siangtan ; and there 
are also perhaps a score of launches plying in and out of the 
province. 

Mountain peaks are numerous ; the most noted in 
history are the sacred Nan Yo or Hengshan Mountain, and 
the Yo Lu Hill opposite Changsha. The Nan Yo is one of 
China's five sacred mountains; it rises to a height of 3000 
feet, its sides are covered with temples, well wooded, and 
it is a place of regular and crowded pilgrimage, villages 
subscribing to send representatives to burn incense at its 



170 THE CHINESE EMPIRE 

shrines. The Yo Lu Hill, rising some 800 feet on the opposite 
bank to Changsha, is prettily wooded, and is much frequented 
by inhabitants and visitors. It contains an ancient tablet 
in the tadpole character, a copy of the Deluge tablet on 
Nan Yo and dating probably from the Tang dynasty. A 
college at its foot, founded full nine hundred years ago, is 
celebrated in literary circles and was the home for a short 
period of Chu Futze, the great Confucian commentator. 
Adjoining this ancient academy there now rises a hand- 
some brick structure with fine class and living rooms, the 
Changsha High School. 

Of cities brief mention may be made of the following : — 
Changsha is the most important, being the capital ; in 
trade it takes a third, or perhaps a fourth, place, but its 
business has been on the rise, and since it has been 
constituted a treaty port the upward tendency will increase. 
The city is handsome and densely populated ; its streets 
are paved and well kept, and fine large private residences 
abound. Of temples and memorial halls it is full, and 
they are kept in good repair, as indeed is the case in most 
of the better-class Hunan cities. Noted leaders of the 
Taiping Eebellion period — the Tsengs, Tso, P'eng, and others 
— are commemorated in splendid halls, where their tablets 
repose, in some cases in lonely grandeur, as primi inter 
pares. Fine halls these for conversion into modern schools (!), 
the more so in cities where, as in Changsha, land is so 
difficult to obtain. Large and substantial business houses 
and banks are numerous. 

Siangtan is the second largest mart in Hunan and a 
great transhipment centre ; formerly all trade with Kwang- 
tung and the foreigner centred here. Then the great trade 
route to the south — traversed for fully two thousand years, 
— vid the Lei river and Chenchow by boat, over the 
watershed by the Cheling Pass with pack animal and carrier 
to Neechang (Ichang), and thence by water into the 
Kwangtung delta, was alive with traffic; but with the 
opening in 1861 of the Yangtse and Hankow to inter- 
national trade its importance began to diminish. The 



THE PROVINCE OF HUNAN 171 

Cheling portage of 3 miles over the pass at an elevation of 
1000 feet was a fine roadway paved with 1 5 feet flagstones 
and lined with shops and inns, now, however, all fallen into 
disrepair. The stones worn into grooves by the constant 
traffic bear eloquent testimony to its long-continued use; 
but we now learn that the trvie pass lies 3 miles to the 
east and is 1 5 feet lower ! Representatives of eight provinces 
take their place in the Siangtan Exchange, and banks and 
business firms, particularly commission houses, abound. 

Changteh, to the west of the lake, is generally admitted 
to be the largest trading mart in Hunan. As is the case 
with the other two cities, shipping and shops line the river 
bank above and below the town. At Changteh centres the 
trade from the west (from Yunnan, Kweichow, and parts of 
Szechwan), as well as from the north of the province. 
Kiangsi men hold a strong position in Changteh, and good 
business houses and banks abound. A very large trade in 
yarn exists, and a once important cotton cloth industry 
centred here. Changteh and Yochow are celebrated for 
their homespuns ; but nowadays foreign yarn has ousted the 
native, and the purely home-made article is scarce ; these 
cloths are strong, the patterns are up to date and not 
unpleasing, and they are in great demand in and out of the 
province. 

Trade Routes and Produce, etc. — For convenience we 
will adopt the Chinese classification in speaking of these 
routes. 

(1) The Western route vid the Yuan river. — This route 
taps the produce of three provinces and much of Hunan 
itself. The noted marts are Hungkiang (a great crude 
opium portage and taxation centre), Shenchow, and Changteh. 
Its produce is chiefly timber of all kinds, tea, hides, oils 
(tea, wood, sesamum, and Hsiu-yu), nutgals, indigo, tallow, 
wax, varnish, green alum, cinnabar, cloth, and paper. 

(2) The Central route vid the Tzu river. — The principal 
marts are Paoking, Hsinhua, Anhua, lyang, and Yuenkong. 
Its products are coal, iron, steel, tea, bamboos, hemp, smaller 
timber, rice, hides, fans, and paper. 



172 THE CHINESE EMPIRE 

(3) The Southern route vid the Siang river. — Its marts 
are Yungchow, Ch'iyang, Chenchow, Hengchow, Siangtan, 
and Changsha (inchiding Liuyang for grass -cloth). Its 
chief products are rice, tea, coal, borax, grass -cloth of 
several varieties and grades, hemp, paper, pewterware, 
medicines, fire-crackers, horns, tobacco leaf, fans, lotus nuts, 
steel, iron pig and iron ware, and a good building stone. 

In exchange for all these products junks chiefly bring 
back from Hankow yarn, piece goods, kerosene oil, salt, 
sugar, matches, soap, window-glass, seaweed, and general 
sundries. 

A few notes on some of the products may be interesting. 
Timber, which is floated down the rivers on rafts, consists 
chiefly of pine (the red and white varieties), oak, cedar, 
camphor, and cypress. The largest trade is done in pine- 
wood, of which the value has been estimated at one and 
three-quarter millions sterling a year. Bamboos are very 
abundant. 

Concerning rice, the Hunanese say that with a full harvest 
Hunan can supply the whole kingdom. There are gener- 
ally three reapings a year. The best lands, their district 
constituting the granary of the province, are around the 
Tungting Lake, and next in productiveness comes the valley 
of the Siang. The most prized rice comes from near Siangtan, 
but is of limited quantity. The province also produces in 
small quantities wheat, maize, haoliang, peas, and beans. 
The sweet potato was introduced some fifty years ago by 
a Cantonese magistrate and with much success ; large crops 
for local consumption are now a common feature and have 
proved a great boon. 

Hunan teas have been known to have been forwarded 
to the Court as tribute as far back as a.d. 700. Near 
Yochow is the Isle of Chiinshan, where is carefully cultivated 
a small plantation producing the finest green leaf for the 
Court. Until this crop and one from Anhwa are ready 
to be forwarded no export is supposed to take place, and for 
the following pretty reason : the first characters of each 
district placed together form a couplet which translates 



THE PEOVINCE OF HUNAN 173 

'•' Emperor, Hail ! " The Yochow district supplies a much- 
prized leaf, the Peikong tea. A box of Chiinshan or 
Peikong tea is a most acceptable present to make an official 
or a friend. Of black teas, we all have heard of the Oonams, 
the Oanfas, and the Seangtams ; the value of their output 
has fallen very heavily of late years, and is now only some 
three-quarters of a million sterling. 

Cotton locally grown is insufficient for home needs, and 
both it and yarn are largely imported, as we have before 
seen. Tobacco leaf, a prized article, is grown around 
Chenchow in the south. But little poppy is locally grown 
and only in a few districts. For Yunnan and Kweichow 
opium the great taxation centre is Hungkiang, and Chang- 
teh is the market ; only a small quantity comes overland to 
Changsha. Fishing, by net, line, and cormorants is busily 
pursued everywhere. 

3finerals. — Hunan abounds in minerals, but little is 
worked. Its coal-fields are believed to be more extensive 
than those in Europe, including England, covering, as is 
estimated, an area of 21,000 square miles. Of this mineral 
an engineer of repute has written : " Of bituminous there 
are coals, both coking and non-coking, fit for steel-making 
or steam uses. Of the anthracite there are those adapted 
for domestic use, with enough volatile matter to ignite 
easily, and others sufficiently hard to bear the action of 
a blast furnace, and yet so low in phosphorus, sulphur, 
and volatile substances as to render them available for the 
manufactiu-e of Bessemer pig." The Hengchow district, 
Leishan, supplies the best anthracite for grates I have ever 
seen, but the Hengchow, Paoking, and Chenchow districts 
abound in the mineral. A Government mine near Lilincf 
(Pingsiang) turns out about 1000 tons per diem of coke and 
coal for the Hankow and Wuchang works, and large plant is 
also being laid down here for working iron and steel. From 
provincial native workings, surface and tunnel, some four 
to five million tons, chiefly anthracite, are exported for 
Hupeh annually. 

Iron is freely mined, chiefly in the Paoking and Hengchow 



174 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

prefectures, and an excellent steel is turned out for export. 
Coal and iron are, in general, worked by local owners ; no 
restriction seems to have been placed by the rulers on the 
working of these two useful metals. It is otherwise, 
however, with other ores. 

Zinc, lead, and antimony have been mined and exported 
to a limited extent under contract with Hankow firms. 
Sulphur, tin, copper, and silver are plentiful ; gold has 
been found about Pingchiang and Shenchow, also nickel, 
and alluvial gold can be collected from river beds, but is 
sparse in quantity. With the exception of three mining 
localities worked by the provincial government, the rest of 
the province has been apportioned between three influential 
gentry companies. Small owners (gentry, retired ofiicials, 
and farmers) are ready to negotiate for the introduction 
of Western methods, but the non-promulgation of the 
long-promised mining regulations blocks all negotiations. 

Hallways. — A short line from the mines near Liling to 
the Siang river is completed. Surveys for the Canton- 
Hankow trunk line were commenced in 1903-4, and the 
work would have gone through had the undertaking remained 
a hona-Jide American one. The scare connected with the 
attempted Belgian control of this line effectually roused the 
Hunan gentry, led to the cancellation of the contract at 
a large premium by the Chinese, and has contributed greatly 
to the impasse now common to all such undertakings in all 
the provinces. Until the ill-feeling aroused by that event 
and a certain ill-defined but not imaginary fear of foreign 
ownership and of consular intervention has died down or 
been overcome, no successful negotiations for railways or 
mines are likely to be concluded in Hunan by foreigners. 
Further, the sanction of the Throne was obtained a few 
years ago to the building of several important branch lines 
by an influential gentry administration. Native capital 
and native skill are, however, unequal to the demands 
which are thus made upon them, and a fruitful field for 
foreign capital and experience will, though later I fear 
rather than sooner, present itself. 



THE PEOVINCE OF HUNAN 175 

Modern Movements. — From this brief sketch of the 
province itself we turn to its relations with the West, " As 
Lhassa to Thibet, so Hunan to China," is an apt simile 
portraying the attitude taken up by Hunan towards the 
foreigner over a long course of years. Prior to 1880 it is 
doubtful if a dozen foreigners had passed its frontiers ; of 
land travel there had been still less. The Chefoo Conven- 
tion of 1876 threw open the interior of China to foreign 
travel and residence; but Hunan remained closed and irrecon- 
cilable ; and for various causes, and in face of the opposition 
of the rulers, few steps were taken at that time to open up 
Hunan. With treaty provinces adjoining her borders and 
steamers passing her doors for half a century, Hunan re- 
mained proud in her isolation and until recently unconscious 
of her ignorance. " Ah," says the Hunanese boatman to 
the colporteur who boards his boat in Hankow, " you can 
come on board here, but you cannot come on board in 
Hunan." 

In the history of the province subsequent to this period 
we may trace three distinct but concurrent streams of in- 
fluence : that of the Christian missionary and the Gospel ; 
that of Christian literature and the Eeform movement ; 
that of international relationships, e.g. the China - Japan 
war, residence in Japan and the West, and others. These 
three are from without. What peaceful means had failed, 
however, or were all too slow to accomplish, a fourth factor 
working from within effected. In 1891 the blind, unreason- 
ing passion of some of the scholar and retired official class, 
long the backbone of anti-foreign and anti-Christian move- 
ments, overreached itself The party found a head in a 
Changsha graduate. The violence and unbridled licence of 
the " Chou Han writings" — I cannot abuse language by em- 
ploying the word " literature" — flooding the Yangtse Valley 
would have speedily brought about on a large scale what 
their author desired — a fierce crusade against the foreigner. 
The Powers, however, stepped in and insisted on the sup- 
pression of the writings and the punishment of authors and 
disseminators. Realising that the only remedy for the state 



176 THE CHINESE EMPIRE 

of affairs revealed by these writings lay in the opening of 
the province and the removal of barriers to intercourse, the 
British Government, after much representation, persuaded 
the Peking Government in 1899 to open Yochow to trade 
and residence. 

Yochow neither was nor is a trade centre, it is simply 
the door by which all traffic to and from Hunan passes. 
As an end in itself it would have been impossible to rest 
satisfied with this alone. Eailway and mining projects, 
trade and steamer communications with Hunan, however, 
received an impetus, and missionaries essayed to live in the 
interior. Speculation as to what further arrangements might 
have ensued is needless ; the effect of the Boxer upheaval of 
1900 was that Hunan was no longer able, even if it desired, 
to remain in isolation, and the merchant and the missionary 
began to freely reside in the province. Of the outer world, 
the Japanese were at this time, openly or in guise, among 
the first to probe the possibilities of successful trade. 

The British Treaty of 1902 had stipulated for the open- 
ing of the capital city, Changsha, as a treaty port at a future 
date ; but its present status is one of the results of the 
Japanese Treaty of the succeeding year. The opening, July 
1904, long anticipated, had therefore been in a measure 
discounted ; locally it fell " flat." Thus a countryman in 
1903 asked a foreigner in the city, " When were the foreign 
devils coming to open the new Custom-house ? " And how 
was the new foreign element received ? For the presence 
of a Commissioner of Customs, followed later by the Consul, 
constituted the real opening of Hunan ; it marked the point 
of departure between new and old. 

Very gladly do I here bear testimony to the pleasantness 
of three years' intercourse with the Hunanese of all classes, 
both prior and subsequent to the opening of Changsha. 
The attitude of the leading officials and gentry was most 
friendly, and the common people were both friendly and 
interested. Governor Chao Erh-hsuan, progressive, active, 
and well-meaning, gave the cue, the others followed. Take 
a small but striking instance of the change in the local 



THE PEOVINCE OF HUNAN 177 

attitude. Changsha is proud of its walls and gates ; their 
repulse of the Taipings is not forgotten. Its seven gates 
are daily closed at dusk and the keys actually deposited 
with the Colonel of the city. On the opening of the port the 
Governor sanctioned the issue of instructions that the main 
west or river gate was to be thereafter left open up to 10 
P.M. for the convenience of the public : a boon which residents 
in the East can fully appreciate. The Trade Report for 
1905 shows that commercial progress is continuous if not 
rapid. That all its inhabitants are reconciled to the new 
order, and that no difficulties will occur in the developments 
of trade, are not in the nature of things ; but with friendly 
officials and gentry, with sympathetic consular and mercantile 
representatives, it is certain that a new era has opened for 
Hunan. 

We now turn to the other influences referred to above. 
The war with Japan and the loss of Formosa, 1894-96, 
supplied a forcible illustration of China's weakness and set 
her people thinking. In ever-increasing stream China's 
students flocked to Japan and the West. With increase of 
knowledge came the inevitable change in mind and attitude. 
As scholars and officials, proud of their past achievements, 
the Hunanese were quick to discern the significance of the 
new learning and the new conditions, and they took a lead- 
ing part in the march of thought manifested at Peking and 
elsewhere. 

Favoured at this time with a most enlightened Governor 
and a liberal and progressive Chancellor of Education, a 
school of new learning and a spirit of reform rapidly arose 
in Hunan, while a friendly attitude towards the West was 
apparent. Everything that the Christian Literature Society 
for China^ (locally known as the S.D.K. or the Society for 
the Diffusion of Christian and General Knowledge) and the 
Hankow Tract Society published was eagerly bought and 
read, and the former Society was asked to nominate a 
President for the new College of Eeform established at 

1 Formed in Glasgow in 1887. Present Secretary, A. Kenmure, Esq., 
c/o Foreign Missions Club, Highbury New Park, N.j 

N 



178 THE CHINESE EMPIRE 

Changsha in 1897. During this period the demand for 
books of Western learning was extraordinary ; the sale of 
Bibles doubled; translations and treatises of all kinds were 
poured forth by foreign and native scholars. The old 
publishing houses were unable to meet the demand and new 
printing houses sprang up ; in one year one firm alone 
ordered more than 15 tons of printing paper. Shanghai, 
the most central place for trade, could not alone cope with the 
work, and pirated editions, reprints of favourite works, were 
appearing in all the provinces. If it be borne in mind that 
only some tenth of the nation read, and that tenth intensely 
conservative, some idea in the change of attitude may be 
grasped. 

The reform party comprised, as may well be imagined, 
many elements, and not all of them good. The party with 
the broadest views centred in the Emperor and numbered 
many of the leading metropolitan and provincial officials. 
In response to Imperial instructions to Viceroys and 
Governors " to select men to advise in the new movement," 
an able band of zealous and intelligent men was gathered 
together. Among the most noted of these were nominees of 
Governor Ch'en of Hunan. " The more haste, the less speed," 
has never seen more tragic confirmation. Excellent edicts 
forecasting a moral and intellectual reform were issued. In 
their anxiety, however, to see a powerful and reorganised 
China, too little regard was paid to the existing state of 
thought and education ; over-haste and want of experience 
wrecked the movement. " But, alas, the Emperor's Eeform 
Cabinet advised the cashiering of some of the obstructionists 
and the change from Chinese to European dress, including 
the cutting off the queue. These were the last straws 
that made the burden too heavy for the anti-foreign party 
to endure." 

The coup d'dat of 1898 was a serious blow, grievous 
to all China's well-wishers. Among the numerous sufferers 
were both Governor Ch'en and Chancellor Kiang, also an 
ex- Ambassador to America, T'an, a young Hunanese (the 
son of a Governor), with many others. T'an before his 



THE PEOVINCE OF HUNAN 179 

execution said that he knew the first reformers in all lands 
were liable to death, and that if his death would help his 
country he did not regret it. The pendulum now swung to 
the opposite extreme, and the Boxer movement of 1900 with 
all its horrors was the result.^ The anti-foreign spirit in 
Hunan rose high, but happily few foreigners were in the 
province to suffer at its hands ; the destruction of property 
was, however, most thorough. 

The failure of this resort to arms revived recourse to 
the power of the pen ; another move for reform arose, but on 
a lower plane to that of the pre-1898 period. Booklets 
and articles published by the young China party, in which 
Hunanese took a leading part, appeared. Many of them 
were of a fiercely patriotic, inciting, and even revolutionary 
spirit, from which space prevents interesting quotations, and 
the cry of " China for the Chinese " and under the leadership 
of Hunan was raised. The manifest danger to the dynasty 
and to international relationships which such writings in- 
volved, led to their being frowned upon or suppressed, but 
they effected a purpose. The sympathetic attitude towards 
reform now evidenced, alike by modern educational move- 
ments, by the recent mission to Europe, by military 
reorganisations in the provinces, and in the changes 
freely discussed or promised in the capital, are a witness 
to the inherent reforming, nay, revolutionary, power of 
liberal ideas.^ The proto-martyrs of reform — Hunanese, 
Szechwanese, and others — have not lived and died in vain ; 
history has justified their aims, and the edicts and move- 
ments of later years are exactly those sanctioned or con- 
templated in 1898. • 

' Boman Catholic Missions. — There remains to sketch the 
relationship of the missionary to Hunan. The earliest 
Christian work in the province was that connected with 
the Roman Catholic Church. In 1690 the province of 

1 Other factors, e.g. the prosecution of "purely commercial interests" by 
some of the Powers, contributed, but cannot be here specified. 

^ See also "A new Hunan Sheet Tract," in Nineteenth Century, Oct. 1906. 



180 THE CHINESE EMPIKE 

Hunan with Hupeh was included in the Nanking Diocese 
(the other two China Sees being those of Peking and 
Macao). Working up from Kwangtung by the trade route, 
the city of Hengchow was the scene of successful labours 
by the Franciscans prior to the fierce persecutions of the 
seventeenth century. When Bishop Eizzolati took up his 
work early in the last century he found some traces of 
the early church, but I cannot learn that any Fathers 
were in residence. 

In 1856 Hunan was created a separate See, and in 
1879 the province was episcopally divided into two Sees — 
a southern and a northern. The Southern Vicariate, with 
headquarters at Hengchow, was worked as of old by the 
Italian Friars Minor ; the Northern Vicariate, with head- 
quarters at Shihmen-hsien, was a new work under the 
Spanish Augustinians. Strong opposition was encountered 
whenever forward efforts were made, and the continuity of 
work through a long period of years at Hengchow can only 
be ascribed to the silence and obscurity in which the 
devoted workers maintained their post. In 1905 the 
Franciscans were working at Hengchow, Siangtan, and 
Changsha as centres, and their strength was as follows : — 

Bishop 1, priests 15 (7 Chinese), catechists 40, converts 
5926, stations 10 chief and 85 secondary, churches 13, 
chapels 35, seminary 1, boys' schools 4 with 68 pupils, 
girls' schools 3 with 40 pupils, orphanages 3 with 240 
girls. Native Friars Minor 9, Women of the Third Order 
120. 

In the Northern See the work has been established 
at Lichow, Changteh, Shenchow, Yochow, and Shihmen as 
centres, and progress has been found slow and difficult. 
The strength of the Mission was — 

Bishop 1, priests 8 (2 Chinese), converts 245, stations 
5 chief and 2 secondary, chapels 5, boys' schools 5, and 1 
girls' school. Churches are in process of erection at two if 
not three centres. 

Protestant Missions date from 1875, when two members 



THE PROVINCE OF HUNAN 181 

of the China Inland Mission secured a house at Yochow 
and thought to settle down to peaceful work. Opposi- 
tion was, however, soon aroused by interested parties, 
and the place had to be relinquished. After the Chefoo 
Convention of 1876 had opened the interior to travel and 
residence, several journeys, leisurely pursued, were made 
through the northern part of the province en route to 
Kweichow. Respectful and interested hearing was con- 
tinually given and friendships made, but no settled work 
was allowed. Evidence came to hand so early as this 
period that the gentry and officials had banded together to 
resist any foreign residence and propaganda. 

The decade 1880-90 saw persistent efforts put forth 
by this Mission to evangelise Hunan. A noble pioneer, 
Adam Dorward,^ dedicated his life to this work, and until 
his death in 1888 he was incessant in travel and labours, 
with " the patient importunity of St. Paul ; beaten, ship- 
wrecked, robbed, sick unto death, counting not life dear 
if but souls were won." Too often in utter loneliness, 
felt but unavoidable, so few were the workers and so many 
the calls from all provinces, he visited once and again nearly 
every city of any size, with the interlying hamlets, in the 
province. In some of these districts and cities even at the 
present time the foreigner is unknown. Twice a foothold 
was obtained at Hungkiang in the west and residence 
taken up, for in all eight months, during 1882 and 1883 ; 
a foothold was also obtained at Chingshih, and native 
evangelists resided there for about a year. 

Two border stations were likewise occupied as vantage 
posts for aggressive work, and in these, although rioted and 
driven out, permanent foothold was retained, which had 
not been possible with the intra-provincial cities. 

In 1886 we find Dorward with three colleagues. One 
of these, Mr Dick, in the course of a long journey spent 
nineteen days in Hengchow and actually succeeded in 
entering Changsha — only, however, to leave it shortly 
after under official escort. This is the first recorded entry 

^ See Pioneer Work in Hunan, Morgan and Scott, 2s. net. 



182 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

of a foreigner into the capital, a visit not repeated for 
another long decade. The outbreak of the Yangtse riots in 
1891 and the dearth of workers interrupted all efforts in 
Hunan until 1896, when work from the north was recom- 
menced, and several baptisms, the result of earlier labours, 
cheered the Mission. In 1897 property was leased in 
Changteh, and the following year a missionary entered on 
residence till 1901, when a move was made to within the 
city. In 1902 a severe outbreak of cholera at Shenchow 
led to a riot in which two members of the Mission lost 
their lives ; but with this exception, the work in Dorward's 
old circuit of northern and Westeen Hunan has since 1897 
gone steadily and happily forward. 

In the east of the province, again in 1897, a successful 
attempt by a lady missionary was made to open up work 
within the borders near dialing -chow, which city was 
subsequently occupied by Dr. Keller in 1898 ; and thus 
from two sides was continuous and settled labour recom- 
menced in Hunan. Driven out in the Boxer year. Dr. 
Keller returned in 1901 to occupy the capital as the first 
of its resident missionaries ; good premises were secured 
within the city, and now was commenced a well-organised 
work in which he has been remarkably owned and blessed 
of God. 

And here too, in June 1905, the saintly Hudson Taylor 
peacefully ended his earthly life. While, therefore, but 
little outward success was seen by Dorward, the encouraging 
position now held by the Inland Mission in Hunan is the 
final answer of God to those lonely and strenuous years. 
The Mission now occupies 5 head stations and 5 out-stations ; 
there are 2 5 foreign workers, of whom 1 4 are men ; the 
native helpers number 1 7, and converts -^ 166; there is 
also 1 elementary school, with 12 scholars. 

While the China Inland Mission were prosecuting their 
work in Hunan, other Missions were by no means idle. 
After Dorward, few men knew Hunan better, nor has any 

.^ In all cases "converts " = communicants. Adherents number many 
more. 



THE PROVINCE OF HUNAN 183 

one done in person or by his colporteurs more to disseminate 
the truth than the Agent of the National Bible Society 
of Scotland, Mr. Archibald. From 1880 to 1896 long jour- 
neys — not unattended with risk — with a large circulation 
of Gospels and tracts, are his record ; while all the time his 
printing-press at Hankow was at work,- turning out by the 
tens of thousands those Scriptures and tracts that have been 
so indispensable to all Missions. To the labours of the 
Scottish Society's colporteurs must be added in later years 
those of the American Bible Society. 

We now turn to the history of the London Missionary 
Society in Hunan. No finer centre for evangelistic work 
exists in all China than Hankow. To this mart come the 
natives of all provinces, and in the providence of God not 
a few Hunanese have in its chapels heard and embraced the 
truth ; the Hankow Church may in fact be rightly called 
the parent church of Hunan. During 1892 some twelve 
Hunanese were baptized at Hankow by Dr. John, some of 
whom returned to their homes, one to Hengchow, others to 
Changsha. From Changsha hostility soon drove them. 

Among these converts was one, a native of Changsha 
named P'eng, who, from being the wildest and worst of 
characters, had been transformed and become in God's hands 
a very Paul among his brethren. So remarkable was his 
conversion and the fruits of it, that from his native city 
one of the leading publishers of the vile pamphlets of 1891 
came to Hankow, expressly to see Dr. John and to learn 
what it was that produced the change in his quondam friend. 
On behalf of the Church, P'eng, together with a colleague, 
was sent into Hunan on a missionary journey ; varied 
experiences were their lot, but they returned once and again 
to the work, and in 1896 Mr. Archibald in the course of a 
journey found an earnest band of inquirers at Hengchow, 
premises secured, and a good work in progress. The local 
leader was the son of an ex-ofiicial, one of the 1892 converts. 

A hearty invitation led Dr. John to visit them early in 
the following year, when he found a band of some twenty 
to thirty waiting to receive him. These demanded baptism, 



184 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

saying, "We have waited long and we cannot allow you to 
return without baptizing us ; we are not afraid of the con- 
sequences." The extent of the Bible knowledge of the 
whole party was a revelation and a joy to the missionary, 
and after careful examination thirteen were openly baptized. 
Mr. P'eng was left to direct the infant church. In 
1899 a further visit found would-be adherents numbering 
hundreds, and 192 were baptized. " Many of these reminded 
us not so much of the neophyte as of the long-tried and 
experienced Christian," and their fearlessness, warmth, and 
generosity struck Dr. John and his companion as remarkable.-^ 
Of this visit Dr. John wrote that, although his fourth into 
Hunan, it was the first in which he felt his life was safe, 
and when, owing to the changed attitude of the officials, 
he was free to enjoy his work without drawback and with- 
out reserve. 

Progress was now rapid throughout the prefecture and 
the adjoining one ; property was secured at Hengchow, 
Siangtan, and Changsha, so that when the riots of 1900 
broke out, over 30 chapels and other property attached to 
this one centre were destroyed. Eeconstruction, however, 
proceeded apace, and before the end of 1902 there were 48 
chapels, 42 of which were the gift of the converts them- 
selves, who had also provided two semi-foreign houses at 
Hengchow and secured ground for a hospital ; the value of 
these gifts was not less than £1200. This and much 
other work was almost entirely due to native teaching, and 
rested, generally speaking, on no visible foreign support ; 
it was self-supporting and nearly self-governing. Work 
among the women was likewise noteworthy : one convert 
alone, who had lost her all in 1900 and barely escaped with 
her life, was found to be the spiritual mother of some 
hundred would-be converts. 

Yochow had been occupied by the Society at its opening 
in 1899 ; but the promising field and changed conditions 

^ The policy which thus baptizes converts in such circumstances, alike 
removed from foreign supervision and instruction, is of course open to criti- 
cism, but this paper is a brief statement of fact, not a critique. — A. H. H. 



THE PKOVINCE OF HUNAN 185 

at Hengchow led to a transference thither in the end of 
1901. Notwithstanding the earnest entreaties of Dr. 
John, the L.M.S. was unable to meet the urgent needs 
of their Hunan Mission to the extent that the scope and 
importance of the work demanded and required ; but at the 
present date a small advance has been made, and there are 
2 married missionaries at Hengchow, 1 at Changsha, and 1 
single worker at Siangtan. Out-stations number 29, native 
helpers 45, and converts 710. 

We next turn to the English "Wesleyan Mission, After 
the riots of 1891, in which the Mission suffered both in life 
and property, the Churches stirred themselves afresh to 
the needs of Hunan, and two evangelists were appointed 
and maintained to itinerate in the province. Between 
1893 and 1897 many visits were paid and friendships 
formed, but no openings for settled work presented them- 
selves, and it was not till early in 1902 that work in 
Hunan was definitely entered upon. Once entered upon, 
however, it has been prosecuted with an earnestness and 
appreciation of the importance of the task which augurs 
well for its stability and growth. The Mission now 
numbers 14 foreign missionaries, of whom 5 are ladies, 
residing in 5 head stations with 7 out-stations ; native 
helpers 19, converts 117; there are two centres of medical 
work. 

To a member of the Christian and Missionary Alliance, 
Mr. Alexander, the first continuous work in the capital is 
credited. Eesiding in his boat outside the city, Mr. 
Alexander daily patrolled its streets and suburbs, selling 
books and preaching the Gospel. From 1898 to June 
1900 this persistent worker faced all opposition, and no one 
was better known far and wide than was " Pastor Ah." In 
1897 work was commenced at Changteh, and property with- 
in the walls was acquired in 1901. The two head stations are 
Changsha and Changteh. 

A vigorous and well-founded work is carried on by the 
Norwegian State Church Mission. Its first representative in 
Changsha, in 1901, was the Rev. J. A. Gotteberg, and in 



186 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

Mrs. Gotteberg the Mission has a qualified doctor with a 
most encouraging hospital work. The number of mission- 
aries is 14, the stations in occupation 4, with converts 50. 

The Eeformed Church in the U.S.A. commenced its 
China work at Yochow in 1901 ; its leader is a well- 
known worker from Japan, who lays great stress upon 
education. At Yochow a well-developed central mission 
exists, and extension was recently made to Shenchow. 
The workers number 16, of whom 7 are women; native 
helpers 8, converts 105. There is a boarding-school for 
boys with 44 pupils, and one for girls with 23 in residence. 

The American United Evangelical Mission has a growing 
work in Changsha, located in large premises in the very 
centre of the city, dating from 1901, with branches at 
Siangtan and Liling. It numbers 10 workers, including 4 
women; native helpers 9, converts 50. A boarding-school 
for girls is being arranged for. 

The American Presbyterian Mission made its first entry 
from Kwangtung in 1897, and Siangtan has been the scene 
of a successful work — evangelistic, medical, and educational. 
Its workers now occupy 5 stations, with 1 1 out-stations ; 
there are 1 8 missionaries, of whom 8 are women ; native 
helpers 15, converts 223. 

The Church Missionary Society has a small work at Yung- 
chow, whither its workers from Kwangsi were led with a 
view to join hands with the American Church Mission in 
the Yangtse Valley. The work is quite new, and the staff 
consists of 1 married and 1 single missionary ; native helpers 
2, converts 6. 

The American Episcopal Mission, strongly established 
in the Yangtse Valley, has a representative in Changsha, 
an ordained Chinese clergyman. A good foundation has 
been laid and many of the student class gathered in, and 
so soon as a foreigner can be spared to develop the work 
extension should be easy. Meanwhile, with wise restraint, 
the Mission is marking time and preparing suitable premises 
on one of the main business streets. Converts number 8, 
and there is 1 out-station. 



THE PEOVmCE OF HUNAN 187 

The Evangelical Association of North America is an 
entirely new mission just commencing work at Shenchow 
with 4 married members. 

The Cmnberland Presbyterian Mission has stations at 
Changteh and Taoyuan with 8 workers ; the Finland Mis- 
sionary Society at Tsinshih and Yuinting with 6 workers ; 
and the Denver Baptist Church Mission at Changsha with 
3 workers. 

In brief, evangelistic work is everywhere making good 
progress ; of medical work small beginnings exist in some six 
centres, boarding-schools in three, and small elementary 
schools are found in several places ; but, generally speaking, 
educational, medical, industrial, and other important branches 
have yet to be actively prosecuted. 

A few points of interest in the history of Missions in 
Hunan are : the value of the native Christian as an evangel- 
istic agent ; the necessity, particularly in the early stages 
of all new work, of close supervision, and this of the best ; 
and thirdly, that, alike from the early beginnings of the 
work and from the character of the people, the problem of 
self-government will be early brought forward. Eestiveness 
under control and an unwillingness to accept the direction of 
the foreign pastor have been already observed. By as much 
as preachers and property are supported and owned by the 
Churches, by so much will the question of local government 
be hastened. The movement has its good features and com- 
mands sympathy ; but arising too soon, it will require care- 
ful handling to keep the Church clear of disaster ; it will 
test the patience and resource alike of the native and the 
foreigner. 

The " New Learning " movement has taken great hold in 
Hunan. Changsha has now for some years possessed many 
large and flourishing schools — elementary, secondary, high 
school, and technical — both governmental and private ; and 
the same holds good for other towns. In the capital and 
elsewhere the services of Japanese teachers, some female, 
are largely availed of. At Changsha a Buddhist school 
has been opened by Japanese. Military reorganisation has 



188 THE CHINESE EMPIKE 

been already referred to, and no visitor to Hunan can fail 
to be struck with the many changes now taking place. In 
my last year at Changsha the first athletic meeting on 
European lines for military and civil students was held in 
presence of the Governor. 

To meet the growing demand and to give a Christian 
character to the education of the rising generation, Yale 
University, inspired by the Eev. H. P. Beach, has sent out 
representatives, and intends to support a first-class and 
complete educational (undenominational) work in the pro- 
vince. The missionary societies at work in Hunan have, 
I believe, agreed to entrust secondary and higher education 
to the Yale Mission, a decision that augurs well for the 
success of a most important branch of work. The staff 
at present consists of three professors with their families, 
and others are in training at home. Great difficulties 
have been experienced in obtaining suitable ground, and for 
the time being a hired house will be used. Progress is 
likely to be slow, as time will be needed to overcome con- 
servatism and prejudice, but the quality and prospects of 
the people are worth the best efforts Yale can put forth. 

From the above brief sketch it will have been seen that 
the Hunanese are full of character. Probably they re- 
present, and have profited from a considerable admixture 
with, the warlike and independent aborigines still surviving 
in the province. They are noted for their pride, opulence, 
strength of mind, tenacity of purpose, and their administra- 
tive ability. To all who seek to enter into close relation- 
ships with them, sympathy and appreciation are essential. 
Intelligent, and possessing a manly, independent bearing, 
the Hunanese will certainly show themselves to be leaders 
in the new and reformed China now in process of creation. 



THE PROVINCE OF KANSU 

By tlie Editor. 

The province of Kansu derives its name from the first 
characters of two of its leading cities, Kanchow Fu and 
Suchow. It is situated at the extreme north-west of 
China proper, if Sinkiang be excepted, and is bounded 
on the north by Mongolia, on the west by Sinkiang and 
Tibet, on the south by Szechwan, and on the east by Shensi. 
Its area is 125,450 square miles, which is slightly larger 
than Norway, while its population is estimated at 
10,385,376, or twice as many as Sweden. As this gives 
only 82 persons to the square mile, it is the most sparsely 
populated of any province in China, with the exception 
of Kwangsi, which has 67 to the square mile, Yunnan 
coming next with 84. 

In former times the province of Kansu was included 
in the province of Shensi, though the latter province was 
even then known by the two names of I-si, the western 
portion (now Kansu), and I-tong, the eastern portion 
(now Shensi). At that time the Viceroy of modern 
Kansu, Shensi, and Szechwan resided at Sian Fu, while 
Lanchow Fu, the present capital of Kansu, was only 
a second-rank city and dependent upon Kingyang Fu. 
Now Lanchow Fu is the seat of the Viceroy of both 
Kansu and Shensi. 

More recently the unwieldy north-west portion of 
Kansu was for administrative purposes divided from that 
province and made into the new province of Sinkiang, or 

189 



190 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

New Dominion. The date of this division is differently- 
given. The Far East says 1877, it being the result of 
Tso Tsong-tang's great campaign against the successors 
of Yakob Beg. The Jesuits' recent work, Geographie 
de r Empire de Chine, gives it as 1882, while others say 
1884. 

As a rough indication of the vast tracts of country 
covered by Kansu and Sinkiang, it may be mentioned 
that it is about seventy-two days' journey from Hankow to 
Lanchow Fu, and the same again from Lanchow Fu to 
Urumtsi, the capital of Sinkiang. In the latter province 
it is the common thing for the traveller to travel by night, 
so as to avoid thirst, as the water-supply is very scarce. 
With the exception of the few trade routes which traverse 
the province, the means of communication are few. 
Along these main routes wheel traffic is possible, but as 
on the other routes it is often difficult for animals to 
be employed, the goods are carried by men. The Yellow 
Eiver is not properly navigable, though it is used for 
rafts. 

The principal routes are from Sian Fu in Shensi to 
Lanchow Fu, following along the valley of the King Eiver. 
This route also leads on past Lanchow to Sining and on 
to Tibet. There is also a more difficult road from Sian 
Fu to Lanchow, which passes by Tsin Chow in the south. 
Another road leads from Ningsia Fu into Sinkiang, passing 
Liangchow Fu, Kanchow Fu, and Suchow. Among places 
of special interest in this province should be mentioned 
Gumbum, which lies to the south-west of Sining Fu. Here 
there is an important lamasery — with a living Buddha — 
which is visited by many pilgrims. 

The climate of the province is very dry and cold in the 
north, though naturally less so towards the south. The 
weather is generally very fine, but the dust, which, on 
account of the dryness of the atmosphere and the lightness 
of the soil, covers the roads to a great depth, is very 
trying. The province is on the whole mountainous, inter- 
spersed with a few wide fertile valleys. The east of the 



THE PKOVINCE OF KANSU 191 

province is a desolate region, sadly short of water, and 
supporting only a handful of people, mostly Mohammedans. 
The altitude of the province intensifies the cold ; Tsin- 
chow is 3300 feet above sea-level ; Lanchow Fu, 5000 feet ; 
and Sining Fu, 8000 feet ; while the country continues 
to rise in a north-westerly direction away into Tibet, a 
mountain on the north bank of the Ko-ko Nor being said 
to be 14,000 feet in height. 

Certain parts of the province can be irrigated with water 
from the Yellow and other rivers. Around Ningsia Fu 
there is a tract of country about 100 miles in diameter 
thus watered, which has given rise to the local proverb : 
" The people of Ningsia don't depend upon heaven (rain) 
for food, but upon the Yellow Eiver." 

The chief mountains in the north are the Nan-shan 
range, which is a prolongation of the Kuen-luen. The 
three main chains of this range are the Chan-tan, the 
Eichthofen mountains, and the Ta-tong mountains. In 
the south are the two ranges of Si-king and Min-shan, in 
the west the Si-king Shan, and in the east the Niu-tu 
Shan and the Ala Shan. 

The chief river is the Yellow Eiver, which flows through 
the province in a north - easterly direction. Its most 
important tributaries are the Sining and Ta-tong rivers, 
which enter the Yellow Eiver on its northern bank before 
it reaches Lanchow ; and the Tao river, which enters it 
from the south, not far from the same point. The Wei 
river, which flows through Shensi, being joined by the 
King and other rivers, empties itself into the Yellow 
Eiver at Tungkwan, while the Kialing passes south 
through Szechwan, joining the Yangtse at Chungking. 

The food-supply of the province is exceedingly good. 
Beef and mutton and some game can be obtained ; oats, 
barley, wheat, millet, and rice are sown, and most of the 
best -known fruits can be bought. Du Halde, in his 
quaint way, says of Pingliang Fu that " it stands on a 
branch of the river Kin-ho, and abounds with everything" 
a statement which reminds one of the report of the spies 



192 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

sent by the children of Dan concerning Laish, "A place 
where there is no want of anything that is in the earth." 
Tigers, leopards, bears, wild boars, wolves, eagles, and 
vultures are also found in considerable numbers. Small 
game also abounds. The pine, birch, and beech cover the 
sides of the hills in parts, with the rhododendron higher 
up. Formerly rhubarb was much cultivated, but that is 
not so now. The poppy and various kinds of melon are 
grown, the ground being frequently covered with stones 
and pebbles to keep the soil damp, the stones preventing 
evaporation by the sun's heat. 

The chief exports of the province are opium, tobacco, furs, 
musk, medicinal plants, and salt, also sheep's wool, of which 
commodity the province has been well tapped for export to 
Germany. It is sent down the Yellow Eiver on rafts as 
far as Paot'eo in Shansi, where a German agent has at 
times resided. In some parts a woollen home-spun is 
manufactured, and the city of Tsinchow is famous for its 
beautifully carved walnut woodwork. The Lanchow opium 
and tobacco are noted all over the Empire. The Lanchow 
soil is considered too good for the cultivation of the ordinary 
grains, so that that city has to be supplied with these from 
Sining Fu. 

The people themselves are remarkable for their apathetic 
disposition and lack of curiosity. A large proportion of 
them are opium-smokers, probably 80 per cent of the men 
and 60 per cent of the women, though the people them- 
selves say with a grim humour that " eleven out of every 
ten smoke the drug." The inhabitants are composed of 
Chinese, Tibetans, Manchus, Mongols, Turks, aboriginal 
tribes, and immigrants from all the other provinces. They 
are not a religious people, except on the Tibetan border. 
This is probably accounted for by the fact that so many 
have left their ancestral homes, and the same careless spirit 
which so frequently affects those who leave our own home- 
land is present there also. 

A large proportion of the population are Mohammedan. 
It is said .that nine -tenths of the Mohammedans in 



THE PROVINCE OF KANSU 193 

China reside in the three provinces of Kansu, Shensi, 
and Yunnan, and it is estimated that Kansu possesses 
more than twice as many as either of those two provinces. 
In this, as in all statistical questions concerning China, 
it is impossible to obtain accurate or even consistent 
figures. The Encyclo'pcedia of Missions states that there 
are as many as thirty millions of Mohammedans in China, 
while an official statement gives it as from twenty to 
twenty -live millions. Kansu is estimated to have from 
eight to nine millions, Yunnan nearly four, and Shensi three 
and a half It will be at once seen that these figures do not 
agree, but if they should be an approximation to the truth, 
then the proportion of Mohammedans in Kansu must be 
very great, seeing that the total population is only given as 
between ten and eleven millions. 

Mohammedan rebellions have been of frequent occurrence, 
and as the Mohammedans have been unwisely treated in 
the past by their rulers, they still form an unreliable, if 
not menacing, part of the population. Beside many minor 
outbreaks, there have been no fewer than five widespread 
rebellions during the last forty years. One of these 
extended into the neighbouring province of Shensi. These 
times of terrible suffering cannot easily be described, but 
one of the consequences is that no Mohammedan is allowed 
to reside within the cities. 

During the Mohammedan rebellion of 1895, Mr. and 
Mrs. Ridley, with Mr. J. C. Hall, all of the China Inland 
Mission, were shut up in the besieged city of Sining for 
four or five months. The helpful service rendered by them 
at that time to the sick and wounded afterwards received 
official recognition. 

The chief cities of the province are Lanchow Eu the 
capital, Sining Eu, Ningsia Eu, Liangchow Eu, Kanchow 
Eu, Suchow, and Kingyang Eu. Lanchow Eu is the second 
in size of the five northern capitals, and is situated immedi- 
ately on the right bank of the Yellow River, which is 
crossed by a bridge of boats in summer and by thick ice in 
winter. South of the city is a wide valley devoted to the 





194 THE CHINESE EMPIRE 

growing of tobacco. In this city the Viceroy of Shenkan 
resides. The population has been variously estimated. It 
is given by some as high as half a million, and has been 
placed as low as 70,000. Mr. Mason, after a residence of 
some twelve years, places it somewhere between 150,000 
and 200,000. Though more expensive than in smaller 
places, this city has a plentiful supply of all that is good 
in the way of meats, vegetables, and fruits, but it is only 
in winter that fish can be obtained, when frozen fish is 
brought in great quantities from the Ko-ko Nor. The 
Yellow River, which washes the city walls, has too swift a 
current, and is moreover too full of a sandy deposit to 
supply fish worth eating. The oiSicials in this city have 
been friendly disposed towards the resident missionaries, 
especially the late Viceroy T'ao, who was an upright and 
conscientious gentleman. It was he who in 1900 stood 
behind Governor Tuan Fang in Sian Fu, where he had 
been delayed when en route to Peking. It is doubted by 
some who were on the spot at the time as to whether 
H.E. Tuan Pang would have been able to restrain the 
officials and the people but for the help of this Viceroy. 
He has some acquaintance with the main outlines of 
Christian teaching, and has conversed with some of the 
missionaries on the doctrines of the Resurrection and the 
Lord's second advent. Excellent premises have recently 
been obtained in Lanchow for the future development of 
Mission work. 

The city of Sining Fu is a somewhat important centre 
for commerce with Tibet, and the Governor -General of 
Ko-ko Nor resides there. Ningsia Fu was ruined by the 
Mohammedan rebellion, and although the city had been 
regaining its lost estate, it was unfortunately inundated by 
the overtiowing of the Yellow River in 1904. Liangchow 
Fu comes next to Lanchow Fu in population, but Tsinchow 
is the most important market next to the capital. The 
south-west of the province, of which Tsinchow is the 
centre, is the most productive and consequently the better 
populated part of the province. The long narrow neck of 



THE PEOVINCE OF KANSU 195 

land stretching north-west from Lanchow to the Kia-yii 
Pass is in many parts very desolate, though fairly well 
peopled in the principal cities. In Tsinchow is a temple 
known as the Fu Hsi temple, though the naked image 
with its apron of leaves is described as Pan Ku, the divider 
of heaven and earth. 

One marked feature of the province is the number of 
devastated villages. The people, through fear, have deserted 
them and gone to live in the cities. Consequently there 
is a minimum of farming done, so that in the event of a 
few bad seasons famine would be certain. Where the 
people still continue to live in the villages, they have so 
securely walled them that they are exceedingly difficult of 
access. Shut in within their own villages, the clan spirit 
has become strong, and the fear of intruders correspondingly 
great. Should some friendly villager extend an invitation 
to the missionary, the other villagers will frequently not 
admit the stranger. The fierce dogs which are kept by 
the people also add to the difficulty and even danger of 
attempting to visit the people in their homes. Further, 
should entry be obtained, the people are so unwilling to 
leave their warm kangs that village work is not a little 
difficult. 

Protestant Mission work in this province was commenced 
by Messrs. Easton and Parker of the China Inland Mission. 
These two workers entered the province on December 29, 
1876, and reached the capital, Lanchow Fu, on January 
29, 1877. In 1878 the first station was opened, this 
being Tsinchow, which city is still the centre of the most 
encouraging work in the province. Lanchow Fu was 
opened in 1885 ; Sining, to the west, and Niugsia, to the 
north-east, were occupied the same year in the hope of 
reaching Tibetans and Mongols as well as Chinese. Liang- 
chow followed in 1888, while Miss Annie Taylor went to 
reside in Taochow in 1891, and remained there until she 
took her adventurous journey into Tibet in 1892-93. 
Mr. and Mrs. Cecil Polhill also spent much time and 



196 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

suffered considerable hardship in their labours among the 
Tibetans. 

During the early days extensive journeys were made by 
the pioneers of the China Inland Mission. Some of these 
journeys extended over a period of three or four months at 
a time, when thousands of miles were traversed. The 
records of these journeys are of the greatest interest, and 
bear eloquent testimony to the fact that the " work of an 
evangelist" was done in no half-hearted manner. The 
following summary of one or two of these journeys will 
help to substantiate the above statement : — 

"Two journeys of seventy-eight days each, when 2000 
miles were covered and 6645 portions of Scriptures were 
sold in as many as six different languages. 

" One journey of fifty-six days, when 900 English miles 
were covered and 2683 Chinese Scriptures sold ; 113 in 
Arabic, Persian, and Turkish ; 25 7 in Tibetan and Mongolian." 

Not only was every important place in the province 
visited, and the Scriptures circulated in six languages, but 
Mr. Parker's longest journey extended far beyond the 
borders of the province, when Kulja was reached. The 
two following extracts from Mr. Parker's diary reveal the 
hardships and the joys of these itinerations : — 

" Passed through a frightful country, utterly waterless ; 
the soil is something like paste, quite porous. 

" A young Mullah from Sining on business strongly 
coveted my last Arabic Bible, and tried everywhere to get 
the money to pay for it. He had only sufficient to pay his 
expenses back to Sining. I promised to reserve the book 
until I reached Sining, but when I had left the street he 
changed his silver and ran himself out of breath to catch 
me before I could reach the ferry boat with the desired 
treasure. 

" It is a great treat to sell the Scriptures to the 
Mohammedans. Some of them go off with the treasure 
more like schoolboys who have received a prize than like 
grave men." 

There was, however, the other side to that experience. 



THE PROVINCE OF KANSU 197 

such, for instance, as when he had a tract handed back to 
him with the following remark, " I don't want a tract with 
pigs in it." The tract was on the story of the Prodigal Son. 

In addition to the China Inland Mission, the Scandi- 
navian China Alliance, in association with the China Inland 
Mission, and the Christian and Missionary Alliance, are at 
work in the province. The Scandinavian Alliance have 
occupied the cities along the high-road from Sian Fu in 
Shensi to Lanchow Fu, and have a school for the children 
of its missionaries at Pingliang Fu ; while the Christian 
and Missionary Alliance have settled in the west of the 
province. The missionaries are separated by long distances, 
the character of the country not allowing of any close chain 
of stations. 

In connection with the China Inland Mission, including 
the associated work of the Scandinavian Alliance, there 
are 10 stations with 1 out -station, 11 chapels, and 42 
foreign workers, including wives. There are also 1 9 Chinese 
helpers, while 223 persons have been baptized from the 
commencement. There are also 2 boarding and 4 day 
schools, 1 hospital, 4 dispensaries, and 2 opium refuges. 

On the whole, indifference rather than open hostility has 
been the attitude of the people towards the Gospel, but 
since 1900 there has been a more eager and respectful 
attention to the things taught. 



THE PROVINCE OF SHENSI 

By the Editor 

The province of Shensi has an area of 75,270 square 
miles, which is nearly equal to the area of England and 
Wales combined, or of the State of Nebraska. Its 
population is estimated at 8,450,182, which is nearly 
the same as that of Scotland and Ireland together. It 
derives its name Shensi, or " West of the Passes," from 
the fact that it is situated to the west of the famous pass 
of Tungkwan, near the bend of the Yellow Eiver where the 
three provinces of Shensi, Shansi, and Honan adjoin. 

As will be seen under the article on Kansu, this 
province formerly included Kansu, the Viceroy of the 
whole of that territory then residing at Sian Eu, whereas 
he now resides at Lanchow, the Governor alone residing 
at Sian Fu. 

Geographically, the province naturally divides itself into 
three districts, the two southern districts being the valleys 
of the two rivers Han and Wei, and the northern high table- 
land forming the other. 

1. The Valley of the Han Eiver. — This valley is 
separated from the neighbouring province of Szechwan by 
the Kiutiao mountains on the south, and from the Sian 
plain on the north by the Tsinling range, which attains 
an altitude of 11,000 feet. The western portion of the 
valley widens out into an oval plain about 90 miles long 
by about 25 miles across at its widest part. The 
remainder of the valley is very narrow, the mountains 

198 



THE PEOVINCE OF SHENSI 199 

reaching to the banks of the river on either side right 
away into the province of Hupeh. North of the Han 
valley lies a mass of mountains which need a week's hard 
travelling if one would cross into the Sian plain. This 
formidable barrier has not unnaturally led to the result 
that the people of the Han valley are more akin to the 
Szechwanese than to the northerners of their own province. 
This mass of mountains to the north is generally known 
as the Tsingling, but it is really composed of many ranges, 
and Tsingling is the name of one range at the foot of the 
Taipeh near to Fuping. There are some four passes by 
which this range can be crossed, but the most accessible is 
the pass over the Fengling at Feng Hsien, on the main 
road from Szechwan to Sian Fu. This mountainous 
country is, with but little exception, unproductive, and is 
in consequence but sparsely populated. 

2. The Sian Plain or the Valley of the Wei Eiver. — 
Passing north from these mountains the traveller comes to 
the lower part of the Sian plain on the right bank of the 
river Wei, which crosses the province longitudinally. This 
is a populous and (dependent on the rainfall) most fertile 
district. The part to the west is narrow, but widens 
further east, while the many streams from the mountains 
enable the people to irrigate their fields and grow rice. 
Upon the Sian plain, which is estimated to be about 
4000 square miles in area, are crowded together the 
provincial capital, Sian Fu, four Chow cities, and thirty 
Hsien cities, with an average of one market town to every 
square mile, in addition to numberless villages. 

3. The Northern portion of the Province. — Looking 
north across the river Wei, a long line of hills appears to 
face the traveller, but when the river is crossed and the 
hills ascended the country is found to be a high, flat table- 
land, which extends away to the north for some 70 or 80 
miles. The loess soil is porous and dependent upon the 
frequent rains ; the population is not excessive, and when 
the rainfall is sufficient the supply of food is abundant and 
cheap, but failure in the rain means famine. This elevated 



200 THE CHINESE EMPIRE 

plain slopes down to the banks of the Wei and Yellow 
rivers in the east, while away to the north is another mass 
of mountains stretching to the northern limits of the 
province, in which region the population is very thin and 
poor. 

" The population is practically representative of the big 
half of China, for there are immigrants from Shansi, Shan- 
tung, Honan, Hupeh, Szechwan, and Yunnan. We have 
the man of business in the Shansi merchant, whose care for 
gain absorbs his whole energies and time ; the opium-sot, 
sodden, demoralised, in the aboriginal type ; the Honanese — 
real sons of Han — neither good nor bad, who seem to live in 
an Epicurean Paradise, indifferent to everything save daily 
food ; the Shantung man, stalwart, fearless, unceremonious, 
resolute, proud of his province, even of his poverty ; the 
Hupeh immigrant, vicious, mean, superstitious, cowardly, a 
worshipper of everything in the heaven above and earth 
beneath — a dweller in caves, his heart, like his hamlet, is 
low. All are comparatively poor — even the natives, because 
of their opium — and dependent upon the produce of the 
soil." ' 

The province has been the victim of what the inhabitants 
term " four rebellions." First of these was the Taiping 
Eebellion ; then, about 1874, the great Mohammedan 
rebellion, when the province suffered severely. During 
this rebellion practically all the Mohammedans who had 
taken part were put to death, which measure is estimated 
to have swept away about half of the people. Then 
followed the " Eebellion of Nature," in the shape of the 
famine of 1877-78 ; and finally the rebellion of wolves, which 
were brought down from their mountain haunts by stress 
of hunger. The desolation thus caused led the Government 
to encourage immigration, about which more will be said 
later on. 

With regard to the products of this province, what has 
been said of Kausu largely applies here, though, generally 
speaking, Shensi is hotter and more fertile than Kansu. 

^ Dr. Moir Duncan in B.M.S. Report. 



THE PEOVINCE OF SHENSI 201 

The province is said to be rich in minerals, which have not 
yet, however, been worked. Iron, salt of an inferior quality, 
gold, nickel, and magnesia are found in the province. The 
industries of the province are few, the most noted being 
ironwork at Tuugkwan, straw -plaiting at Hwayinmiao, 
incense sticks and bamboo furniture at Chihshui, and coal 
at Weinan Hsien. 

Shensi is regarded as the cradle of the Chinese race, 
from which centre the people spread eastward toward 
Shantung, south towards the Yangtse, and west towards 
Szechwan. "While very early history is shrouded in mystery 
and myth, early reliable records give many facts of interest 
concerning the province. The city of Sian Fu, which is 
the largest city in that part of North China, is second to 
none for historical interest. Not far to the west lived the 
famous founders of the Chau dynasty. Wen Wang and 
Wu Wang. Sian Fu itself was founded by Wu Wang, 
the Martial King, in the twelfth century B.C., or about 
the time of Samuel. In some respects this city surpasses 
Peking in historical interest and in its records. At this 
city the Emperors of the first Han dynasty reigned for 
about two hundred years, 206-24 B.C. It was also the 
capital of the great T'ang dynasty, a.d. 618-905. 

It was to this city that the Nestorian missionaries made 
their way in a.d. 635, and it was here they suffered severely 
under the usurping Empress -Dowager Wu, a woman re- 
markably like the present Empress -Dowager for power. 
Sian Fu was also the city of refuge for the Chinese Court 
during its flight from Peking in 1900. "The southern 
half of the city is entirely Chinese, but the northern is a 
mixture, the Tartar city occupying the entire north-east 
segment and containing a rather large Tartar population, 
perhaps 50,000. In the north-west is the Mohammedan 
quarter, which, although not separated by walls from the 
Chinese, is very distinctly Mohammedan. They have, if 
I remember rightly, eight mosques in the city, seven of the 
eight being in the north-west." 

" Sian Fu was the starting-point of all those religious 



202 THE CHINESE EMPIRE 

movements which have influenced in any degree the 
immobility of the Chinese nation. Here Mohammedanism 
found its entrance, first successes, and permanent hold. 
Here a colony of the sons of Israel came to their perpetual 
banishment among the sons of Han. Here Buddhism, 
under royal patronage, first established its real sway. Here 
six hundred years later, when the Greek Emperor Theo- 
dosius, the Princes of Central Asia, and the Rulers of India 
and Persia were sending their envoys with presents to the 
Imperial Court in Sian Fu, came the Apostle of Nestorian- 
ism to propagate the Christian Creed." ^ 

The Nestorian Tablet, which stands not far from the 
west gate of the city, was erected a.d. 781, and was 
discovered in a.d. 1625. It is almost the only proof of 
the early preaching of the leading doctrines of Christianity 
in China. Its contents are threefold : — 

" Doctrinal, Historical, and Eulogistic. The first part 
gives a brief outline of the teachings of the religion and of 
the ways and practices of its ministers ; the second part 
tells of its first entrance into China, and of the patronage 
extended to it for the most part for nearly one hundred and 
fifty years by various Emperors ; in the third part, to which, 
though it be the shortest, the two other are introductory, 
the Christians express, in verse, their praise of God and 
their religion, and also of the Emperors whose protection 
and favour they had enjoyed." 

Another most interesting and less known record is an 
ancient Arabic manuscript written in the year of the Hegira 
569, or A.D. 1173, in which are given some most interesting 
accounts of some early Arab travellers in China, dated a.d. 
851 and 878 respectively.^ 

Mission work in this province was commenced by the 
China Inland Mission in 1876, the first party of mission- 
aries, Messrs. F. W, Bailer and George King, reaching 
Hingan Fu in September of that year, while the capital 
was reached by another party, Messrs. King, Budd Easton, 

^ Dr. Moir Duncan. ^ See Appendix. 




Montagu Bvauchantp. 



The Nestorian Tablet. 



This famous Tablet, discovered at Sian Fu, the capital of Shensi, records the arrival at that city, then the 
capital of the Empire, of the Nestorian Priest Olopun from Syria with tlie true sacred books, iu a.d. ti35. It 
-states the main points of Nestorian teaching, and that the sacred books were translated in the Imperial 
library. The Tablet was erected a.d. 781, and gives a brief summary of the Nestorian Christians in China from 
A.D. 63.J to that date, nearly l.'iO years. The inscription is in Chinese and the Estrangelo Syrian characters. 

To face page 202. 



THE PEOVINCE OF SHENSI 203 

and Parker, on 21st December, a few months later. The 
first journey had been made by water from Hankow, the 
latter part of the second jomrney over rough mountain 
roads, of which Mr. King wrote : " After very rough 
journeyings over roads which, I should think, would have 
broken Mr. Macadam's heart, we arrived at the capital 
of Shensi." Messrs. Easton and Parker proceeded almost 
at once to the further province of Kansu, while the other 
two commenced extensive itinerations in Shensi. Other 
journeys into the province followed, and during the great 
famine of 1877-78 Messrs. Bailer and Markwick visited the 
province, hoping to render some assistance, but this the 
officials absolutely refused. 

In 1879 the first station in the Han valley, where 
work was opened up in a most providential way, was 
founded. Mr. King having reached Hanchung, sent his 
card to the Mandarin, who at once said, " I wonder if it is 
my old friend Mr. King whom I knew in Sian some time 
ago ? " Upon inquiry he found it was so, whereupon he 
invited Mr. King to go round the city and see which house 
he would like. Mr. King did so, and the agreement was 
arranged and the work established with unexpected ease. 
Eeferring to this, Mr. Easton, now Superintendent of the 
China Inland Mission work in the province, has said : "There 
was immediate blessing in the work in Hanchung. The 
first converts were brought in by Mr. King (since Dr. 
King, deceased 1904), who was a constant, earnest, and 
able preacher. Many of these converts are standing to-day 
and have become our best Christians ; some of them are 
the elders and deacons of the church now." Subsequently 
for many years a large hospital work was carried on in 
this city by Dr. William Wilson. 

In 1887 Mr. Pearse of the China Inland Mission opened 
Chengku, where from the beginning there has been marked 
blessing. In several other cities of the Han valley like 
success was granted, and in connection with these centres 
there are out -stations possessing their own little chapels, 
which are conducted on self-supporting principles. 



204 THE CHINESE EMPIRE 

The Sian plain, however, proved a more difficult centre 
than the Han valley, for although Sian Eu was reached in 
1876, it was not until 1893 that permanent premises 
were secured in that city by Mr. Holman of the China 
Inland Mission. As early as 1882, however, the first 
house had been rented in the city, but it was taken from 
the Mission by the officials. Three other houses were rented, 
one of which was on the main street and was occupied 
for six months, when the occupants were expelled, and the 
owner — a respectable elderly gentleman — was publicly 
abused in a shameful way and eventually died in prison, 
his wife committing suicide, while the family were ruined. 

It has been erroneously concluded by some that the 
missionary was wanting in tact, and that the Sian Fu 
people were very anti-foreign ; neither of which surmises 
is correct. The missionary was one of the most able and 
devoted of men that ever set foot in the province, and was 
much respected by the people of the city, who long 
remembered him. The people of Sian were never anti- 
foreign ; they were friendly and willing to listen to the 
Gospel and to rent houses to the missionary, and even to 
lend furniture and money if necessary. It was the 
Hunanese element that openly tried to turn the city 
against the foreigner, though with little success. The oppo- 
sition came from one family named Chao. The old father 
was a man of seventy years of age, and had an inveterate 
hatred of foreigners. This old man lived in the country, 
but his son, who was the active centre of the opposition, 
was a deputy official in the Pao-kiah-kiih. The opposition 
was official, and this man was either the tool or the terror 
of his superiors, probably the latter. From the time of the 
death of these two men there was no opposition worthy 
of mention. Had the China Inland Mission had the men 
and the means it would have been possible to have started 
settled work in the city any time after 1889. This state- 
ment is upon the authority of Mr. Easton, who was among 
the pioneers to enter the province in 1876, and who is still 
labouring there. 



THE PKOVINCE OF SHENSI 205 

During the intervening years between the first arrival 
at Sian Fu and the permanent settlement in 1893 much 
patient itineration was carried on in the Sian plain. 
Referring to this, Mr. Botham said : " Often we found it 
advisable to flee to another city rather frequently. We 
obeyed the Lord's command and fled, but we were careful 
to flee in a circle, and coming to the same place again 
occasionally, the people grew accustomed to see us and the 
opposition died away." 

As early as 1882, however, it was possible to report 
that, " We rejoice to think that now there is no city in the 
entire province which has not been visited by our (China 
Inland Mission) missionaries," In this work Dr. Cameron 
— one of the greatest travellers China ever had, if not the 
greatest — had taken no small part. Eeferring to one county, 
Mr, Bland said in 1892, "At length the Gospel has been 
proclaimed in every town and village in the Pinchow 
district where markets are held." 

It was in 1888 that Mr. Folke of the Swedish Mission, 
associated with the China Inland Mission, succeeded in 
renting premises in Weinan Hsien, a city a little to the 
east of the capital, Sian Fu, while Messrs. Botham and 
Bland, who had been making it a matter of special prayer 
that they might obtain a house that year, obtained an 
answer to their prayers in the deeds for a house at Feng- 
siang Fu, some distance to the west of Sian, being drawn 
up on December 31, 1888, and actual possession obtained 
by breakfast time on the following morning. New Year's 
day. 

Up to 1891 the China Inland Mission, with its associ- 
ate missions, the Swedish Mission in China and the 
Scandinavian Alliance, had been the only Society at 
work in the province. During that year the Baptist 
Missionary Society entered, as will be seen later, when their 
work is spoken of. Without therefore overlooking their 
part in the opening of the Sian plain subsequent to that 
date, some further details concerning the China Inland 
Mission's efforts may be given. Although repeated efibrts 



206 THE CHINESE EMPIKE 

had failed, the steady itinerant work from 1888 to 1892 
(following on the earlier pioneer work) was not in vain. 
It finally resulted in stations being opened up in all 
directions. In one month — May 1893 — houses were 
rented in five places, Sian Fu included. 

One amusing incident connected with this opening of 
the last -mentioned city may be given. Mr. Holman, 
though warned to leave the city, refused, and when the 
mob came to destroy the premises he pretended to mis- 
interpret their motive in coming and called out to his 
servant in a loud voice : " Prepare tea ; be quick ; there are 
crowds of guests." Calling for seats for the gathering 
crowds, to their amazement he took his guitar and com- 
menced to sing to them both Chinese and foreign hymns ! 
This continued for about three hours until the crowd finally 
dispersed. The soft answer had turned away the wrath. 
The Scandinavian Alliance Associates, who are still working 
in Sian, have had a large share in the opening up of that 
district. 

Shortly after the Boxer crisis the province was smitten 
with a very severe famine, and although, according to 
report, some five million taels (£700,000) of Government 
relief — including £12,000 from The Christian Herald of 
New York — were distributed, about 30 per cent of the 
population are said to have died of starvation. Mr. 
Triidinger reported that in the Kienchow, Pinchow, and 
Yungshan districts the death-rate was about 70 per cent. 
Altogether about fifty-three of the Hsien cities were in- 
volved in this famine. The special Commissioner of The 
New York Christian Herald, who was sent to investigate 
the conditions of the famine -stricken districts, reported 
about two and a half millions as the probable death-roll. 
North of the Wei river he rode for four days through the 
villages and saw barely 200 persons. 

The entry of the Baptist Missionary Society into this 
field is connected with an interesting migration of native 
Christians from the province of Shantung. For some time, 
as has been mentioned in an earlier part of this article, the 



THE PROVINCE OF SHENSI 207 

Chinese Government had been encouraging immigration 
into Shensi, the people being offered land at a nominal 
price with exemption from taxes for three years. Among 
those who entered the province were some six or eight 
thousand families from the province of Shantung, which 
would mean about forty thousand persons. Among these 
were eighty -seven Christians, members of the Baptist 
Missionary Society's work in Shantung. The journey 
was 800 miles by road. After careful consideration 
it was decided that this circumstance warranted the 
Baptist Missionary Society in appointing certain of its 
missionaries to follow these converts and care for their 
state. Consequently Messrs. Shorrock and Moir Duncan 
were designated to that province in 1891-92. The Eev. 
A. G. Shorrock has been labouring at Sian and the surround- 
ing country ever since, while the Eev. Moir Duncan subse- 
quently retired to take over the charge of the Taiyuan Eu 
University, which position he held until his death. 

These immigrants settled in villages, and thus estab- 
lished their own communities and escaped the imposition of 
Temple taxes. One village is called " The Gospel Village." 

By 1893 the Baptist Missionary Society had centres 
for their work in Sian Fu and Sanyuan, the China Inland 
Mission subsequently retiring from the latter city in their 
favour. Sanyuan is the most important commercial and 
literary centre of all the sixteen district cities governed by 
Sian Fu. It is densely populated, and visited by large 
numbers of business men and students. "Writing in 1894, 
Mr. Duncan said : " Speaking quantitatively, our work is 
now extended over a large area, embracing eight counties 
radiating from the provincial capital Sian Fu and the 
important town of Sanyuan. In the spring there were 
twenty -five fairly organised churches, with about one 
thousand worshippers " ; but the famine, which has ruined 
many of the immigrants, has reduced the stations to eleven 
and the worshippers to about five hundred. In the same 
report he said : " Little more than a foothold has been 
secured. The Book-shop has been opened for about nine 



208 THE CHINESE EMPIRE 

months " in Sian Eu. In the following year he reported 
that " a house has been rented in Siau Fu and peaceably 
occupied." The sales of the Book-shop during twenty-one 
months had amounted to £321. At this time the Eev. E. 
Morgan joined the workers. In 1898 Dr. Creasey Smith 
entered Shensi to open up medical work. In consequence 
of various necessary changes, the Baptist Missionary Society 
has not been able to keep a strong staff in this field. In 
1902 Dr. Moir Duncan removed to the Taiyuan Fu 
University and Mr. Morgan was transferred to Shansi, so 
that Mr. and Mrs. Shorrock have been compelled to labour 
practically alone, for Mr. Cheesman, who was appointed to 
join them, soon died. In one of the last reports of the 
Baptist Missionary Society, however, it was stated that, 
"The little band of thirty (87 ? see p. 207) Christians who 
emigrated from Shantung and settled in Shensi some 
fourteen years ago has now grown into a Church of 618 
members and 1200 learners, with over 400 scholars. This 
community embraces people from four different provinces." 

The only other Society having any workers in this 
province is the British and Foreign Bible Society, which 
has an agent at Sian Fu. 



THE PROVINCE OF SHANSI 

By Mr. Albert Lutley, China Inland Mission. 

The province of Shansi lies between Shensi and Chihli, 
and north of Honan. The Yellow Eiver bounds it on the 
west and partly on the south. A long range of mountains 
divides it from the provinces of Shantung and Chihli on 
the east, thus giving it the name of Shansi (" West of the 
Mountains "). The north is traversed by two arms of the 
Great Wall, though at a considerable distance from its pre- 
sent frontier. 

The eastern and western portions of the province consist 
of high, undulating tablelands, which in many places rise 
into mountain ranges varying from 4000 feet to 8000 feet 
above the sea. 

The western part is, generally speaking, poor, and the 
hills are almost devoid of trees ; but the eastern portion 
abounds in mineral wealth, and in not a few districts the 
hills are well covered with pines or firs. It is thought by 
European experts that this is one of the largest and richest 
coalfields in the world. Baron Eichthofen estimated that 
there are some 13,500 square miles of anthracite coal- 
fields with seams varying from 20 to 30 feet in thickness. 

Between these tablelands there are several rich, fertile 
plains. The provincial capital, Taiyuan {i.e. " The Great 
Plain "), is situated on the northern border of the largest of 
these, and derives its name from it. This plain contains 
about 2000 square miles, and is nearly 100 miles from 
north to south. It is thickly populated, containing eleven 

209 P 



210 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

cities besides the capital, and many hundred walled villages 
and market towns. Several of these cities are of great 
wealth, and one of them, Pingyao, is regarded as the 
banking centre of China. The merchants of this plain 
may be found in every province of the Empire, and on 
account of their keen business ability, and the fact that 
such a large proportion of the banks and pawnshops are in 
their hands, they have been called " the Jews of China." 

The southern extremity of this plain is intersected by 
an arm of the Ho-shan range. Crossing this range by the 
difficult and often tedious Lingshih pass, we reach the 
city of Hwochow, and after wending our way another 12 
miles through the deep loess gullies, we get a view of the 
large Pingyang Eu plain. This was the ancient seat of 
the Chinese people, and may be called the cradle of their 
nation. It was near the present city of Pingyang that 
the famous Emperor Yao lived and ruled over the " black- 
haired race," about 2300 years before Christ. 

One of the mountain peaks west of this plain is pointed 
out as the "Ararat " of China, and is commonly called Een- 
tsu-shan {i.e. " Mountain of the Ancestors of Man "), and the 
story is told that when the whole race were destroyed by a 
great flood, two persons saved their lives by jumping on 
the backs of two mighty lions, and were carried by them 
to the topmost ledge of this mountain, and thus saved from 
the general destruction. These two afterwards became the 
parents of the whole human race. 

On the top of this mountain is a very old temple, 
erected, not to Een-tsu, as commonly reported, but to 
Wen-tsu {i.e. " Ancestor of Literature "), generally con- 
sidered to be Fuh-hsi, the supposed inventor of the " Pah- 
kua," or " Eight Diagrams," which are regarded as the 
foundation and origin of all writing. According to Chinese 
history, Fuh-hsi lived about the time of the Flood, and 
some Europeans think that probably Noah is really the 
character referred to. However that may be, a very 
interesting and curious thing about these diagrams is that 
they represent father, mother, three sons, and three 



THE PEOVmCE OF SHANSI 211 

daughters, thus exactly coinciding with the number and 
relationships of the family of Noah. 

The most noted and best known of the mountains of 
Shansi is the Wu-t'ai-shan (i.e. " The Five Peaks "), the 
famous sacred Buddhist retreat, situated about 80 miles 
north of Taiyuan. Almost the whole year round this 
mountain is visited by a constant stream of pilgrims from 
Mongolia and Tibet and other parts of the Chinese Empire. 

The people of Shansi pride themselves on being the 
most law-abiding and peaceable of the whole kingdom, and 
believe the " Son of Heaven " (i.e. Emperor) regards them 
with special favour on this account. Whether they are 
justified in this belief or not, they are no doubt a quiet, 
industrious people, wholly given to farming and mercantile 
pursuits. 

The soil is very productive and easily worked ; much 
of the irrigated land produces two good crops every year. 
The principal grains are wheat, Indian corn, various kinds 
of millet, beans, barley, and oats. There is also a large 
variety of vegetables and fruit, such as peaches, apricots, 
pears, apples, dates, grapes, and persimmons. On account, 
however, of the porous nature of the soil and the uncertain 
and insufficient rain supply — probably due to the lack of 
trees — and the fact that a large portion of the best land is 
given up to the growth of the opium poppy, there has been 
a succession of serious famines, which have carried off large 
numbers of the population. The province therefore, as a 
whole, is poor and thinly populated, compared with many 
other parts of the Empire. 

Missions. — It was just before the terrible famine of 
1878-79 that the first Protestant missionaries, with a view 
to settled work, reached the province.^ Messrs. Turner and 
James of the China Inland Mission, after a long overland 
journey from Nanking, arrived at the south-east border of 

^ Previous to this, Dr. Alexander Williamson and the Rev. Jonathan 
Lees had made a journey through part of the province. Also as early as 
1869, Mr. Wellman, a colporteur working under Mr. Wylie, had paid a some- 
what lengthy visit to the province. See Chinese Recorder, 1871, p. 212. 



212 THE CHINESE EMPIRE 

Shansi on November 15,1876. They passed through several 
cities of the Tsehchow prefecture, and the last Sunday in 
November found them at Pingyang Fu. 

They visited seven walled cities and many other smaller 
places, and had good opportunities for preaching and selling 
books. They returned to Hankow in January 1877. 

About a month later, on February 10, they set out 
on a second journey to the province. 

Passing through Pingyang and fifteen other cities, they 
at length reached Taiyuan Fu, the provincial capital, where 
they made their headquarters for several months, visiting 
many of the cities and towns of the plain as far south as 
Fenchow Fu, preaching and selling scriptures and tracts 
with considerable freedom. 

The iron grip of famine was, however, already resting 
heavily upon the people. They themselves had suffered 
severely, and at last Mr. James became so prostrate that it 
was absolutely necessary for him to return to the coast, 
and being too weak to travel alone, Mr. Turner was obliged 
to accompany him. Thus the province was again left 
without a single Protestant missionary. 

It was not to be so for long, however, for, unknown to 
them, Mr. Timothy Eichard of the Baptist Missionary 
Society was already on his way to Shansi with funds for 
distribution among the famine sufferers, and he reached 
Taiyuan about the end of November 1877, just two days 
after these brethren had left. 

Early the following year Mr. Turner again returned, 
accompanied by Mr. Whiting, an American missionary, and 
Mr. David Hill of the Wesleyan Mission, Hankow, who 
had also been commissioned with relief funds. 

After several months spent in famine relief, more definite 
missionary work was commenced in the capital, both by the 
China Inland Mission and the Baptist Missionary Society. 
Schools were opened for the orphan girls gathered during 
the famine, and medical work was soon after commenced 
by Dr. Schofield of the China Inland Mission. 

In the summer of the year 1878 Messrs. David Hill 



THE PEOVINCE OF SHANSI 213 

and Turner visited the southern prefecture of Pingyang 
to distribute famine relief. They had a very favourable 
reception both from the officials and people ; part of a large 
temple was set apart for their use. The Prefect and other 
officials entered heartily into their plans, and many lives 
were saved. 

Mr. Hill after a few months was compelled to hurry 
back to his work at Hankow ; he did not leave, however, 
before he had been used of God to the conversion of Mr. 
Hsi, who became one of the most remarkable men of God 
the Church in China has yet produced. 

It is impossible in the limits of this article to give even 
a brief account of Mr. Hsi's^ conversion and subsequent life. 
Suffice it to say that, having before his conversion bitterly 
suffered from opium-smoking, he threw his whole energy 
and strength into seeking to deliver the slaves of this drug. 

With the help of a band of earnest men like-minded 
with himself, he succeeded in opening a chain of Opium 
Kefuges throughout the southern and central parts of the 
province, and also in the adjoining provinces of Shensi 
and Honan. In these refuges not only were the patients 
helped to get free from the bondage of opium, but morning 
and evening the Gospel was faithfully preached to them, and 
they were pointed to Christ as the only deliverer from sin. 

Since the commencement of this work, probably not less 
than 30,000 men and women have passed through these 
refuges, and although a large majority of these have 
eventually gone back to their opium, the work has not 
only been the means of removing prejudice and preparing 
the way for the Gospel, but has itself been one of the most 
efficient methods of spreading an intelligent knowledge of 
the truth, and probably more than 1000 converts have 
been admitted into the Church by baptism who first 
became interested in the Gospel through these refuges. 

On Mr. Hill's departure from Pingyang, Mr. Turner 
remained and commenced permanent missionary work 

^ See Pastor Hsi, Confucian Scholar and Christian, by Mrs. Howard 
Taylor. Jlorgan and Scott, 3s. 6d. 



214 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

throughout the district, being joined by Mr. Drake. About 
this time several other men of force of character were 
converted, who have exercised a great influence on the 
development of the Church in the south of the province. 

About the autumn of 1881 a visit was paid by one of 
the missionaries to the district west of the Fen Kiver, going 
as far as Sichow and Taning. A copy of Mark's Gospel 
distributed on this journey was taken to a temple outside 
the west gate of Taning. Here it was found by Mr. Chang 
Chi-pen, the head Buddhist priest of the county. Being 
attracted by the strange title, Ma-ko Fuh-in (i.e. The Happy 
Sound of Mark), he carried the book to his home, 1 2 miles 
distant; but being unable to understand it, he invited a 
teacher, Mr. Ch'ii, to read it with him, and daily these two 
men in that heathen temple might have been seen ponder- 
ing over the Word of Life. Gradually the Light began to 
shine into their hearts, very dimly at first, and in their 
ignorance they burnt incense, first to the book and after- 
wards to Jesus and the twelve disciples. Soon after, to 
their great joy, they obtained a copy of the New Testament, 
and their knowledge rapidly increased, and they began to 
worship the one true God and His Son Jesus Christ. 

All idolatry was now abolished, and Mr. Chang gave 
up his lucrative position as head priest, much against the 
wish of the chief official, who had formerly been his friend. 
This official soon after became his bitter enemy, and had 
Mr. Chang so cruelly beaten that he became unconscious. 
Mr. Ch'ii was also soon called upon to suffer for Christ's 
sake, and three times was publicly beaten because he would 
not take part in idolatrous ceremonies. 

About three years after receiving the copy of Mark's 
Gospel, they heard that there was a missionary at Ping- 
yang Fu, and at once decided to travel the three days' 
journey to inquire more fully about the Truth. On 
arriving there they met Mr. Drake, and, to their great joy, 
several of their own countrymen who were also believers in 
Jesus. After a short stay they returned to their homes, 
and began more zealously than ever to tell others of the 



THE PEOVINCE OF SHANSI 215 

Saviour, even going as far as Hsiaoyi, five long days' journey 
across the mountains, to carry the " glad tidings " to some 
of their former co-reHgionists. At this place, on their 
first visit, eight families destroyed their idols and turned 
to the Lord. Three of those who put away idols at that 
time afterwards became deacons of the church which sprang 
up in that district. 

Thus far we have been endeavouring to trace the 
beginnings of the work ; we will now seek to take up the 
different parts of the field in order, and briefly state what 
has been accomplished and the present position. Let us 
first take the district 

North of the Great Wall. 

This field is now occupied by the Scandinavian 
Missionary Alliance, working in association with the China 
Inland Mission. Mission work was first commenced in 
this district by Messrs. Geo. W. Clarke and Beynon of the 
China Inland Mission, who occupied the cities of Kweihwa 
Ch'eng and Paoteo about the year 1886. Much itinerant 
work was done throughout the whole district, and a few 
converts gathered. 

In the year 1893 the Christian Missionary Alliance 
sent a large band of workers to this district, and the China 
Inland Mission set apart its two stations as Training 
Homes for them until they had obtained some knowledge 
of the language and people. Later, these two stations were 
handed over to their care, and the whole area outside the 
northern arm of the Great Wall was allotted to this 
Mission. During the following years a number of other 
cities were opened and much itinerant work done. The 
Mission suffered very severely during the Boxer rising, and 
lost so many workers that it has not been able to reoccupy 
the field since. Several of their former workers have joined 
the Scandinavian Alliance Mission, and are doing their 
utmost to reoccupy the district. Stations have been re- 
opened at Kweihwa Ch'eng, Fengchen, Salahtse, and Pao- 



216 THE CHINESE EMPIRE 

teo, and also Suanhwa in Chihli. There are about 46 
members in connection with the churches, and 7 6 recognised 
inquirers. 

District hetweeii the Tivo Arms of the Great Wall 

The work of this district was first commenced by the 
China Inland Mission about 1885, and the city of Tatong 
occupied the following year by Mr. Thomas King. A few 
years later Mr. and Mrs. Stewart M'Kee took charge of the 
work, and assisted by Mr. and Mrs. I'Anson and several lady 
missionaries, much evangelistic work was done throughout 
the prefecture. They had the joy of seeing a small church 
gathering around them. The work was seriously hindered 
through the murder of all the foreign workers and many of 
the Christians in 1900. Since 1902 the station has been 
occupied by Mr, and Mrs. Nystrom until the spring of 
1906, when the China Inland Mission arranged to hand 
over the station and church to the Swedish Holiness Union, 
who now occupy the whole field between the north and 
south arms of the Great Wall. Mr. Karlson, the leader of 
that Mission, has been joined during the past few years by 
an earnest band of young workers. The cities of Soping, 
Huenyuen, Tsoyun, and Yingchow have been occupied, 
much itinerant work done, and in several districts they 
have had the joy of gathering in the first-fruits. In 
Huenyuen district especially, a remarkable work of the 
Spirit has been going forward at the village of Chuang-wo, 
and there are signs of blessing in several other parts of the 
district. There are 133 members and about 60 recognised 
inquirers connected with the Mission. Schools for boys 
and girls, in addition to evangelistic and opium refuge work, 
are being carried on at nearly all the stations. 

District South of the Great Wall to Taiyuan Fu. 
The Baptist Missionary Society District. 

Mission work in this district was commenced in the 
year 1877 by the China Inland Mission, and a little later 



THE PROVINCE OF SHANSl 217 

by the Baptist Missionary Society. For about eighteen 
years the two Missions carried on work side by side in the 
city of Taiyuan and the surrounding country. In 1896 
the China Inland Mission withdrew from Taiyuan, hand- 
ing its property, medical and church work, over to the 
Sheoyang Mission, which for several years carried on 
many forms of aggressive work both in the capital and at 
Sheoyang. After 1900 Dr. and Mrs. Edwards, the only 
surviving members of this Mission, decided to unite with 
the Baptist Missionary Society, and the work is now carried 
on as one. A new hospital has recently been erected and 
the medical staff strengthened. The Shansi Imperial Uni- 
versity, under the guidance of Dr. Timothy Eichard, is also 
located in this city. There is also a station at Hsinchow., 
about 5 miles north of Taiyuan, also out-stations at Sheo- 
yang, Shihtieh, Kiaocheng, and several other centres. Their 
churches suffered severely in the Boxer persecutions, several 
being practically wiped out. The work is, however, again 
taking root, and there are about 100 members now con- 
nected with the various churches. The Mission is in great 
need of reinforcements if this large district is to be at -all 
adequately worked. 

Taiku and Fencliou\ American Board District 

The American Board commenced work in this province 
about the year 1877, when Messrs. Simpson and Clapp 
occupied the cities of Fenchow and Taiku respectively. 
Evangelistic, medical, and educational work were pushed 
forward with vigour, and small churches were gathered. 
The Mission suffered, however, severely through the loss of 
several valued workers through death and ill-health. This, 
together with the fact that in 1900 all the remaining 
foreign workers, with several efficient native leaders and 
many of the Church members, were massacred, and the 
stations left for several years without a resident missionary, 
has seriously interfered with the development and extension 
of the work. A most interesting work has, however, been 



218 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

going on in the Tsingyuen district as the result of the 
labours of Messrs. Lu and Chao, two men who were led 
to the Lord in connection with Pastor Hsi's Opium Piefuge 
work, and afterwards united themselves with the American 
Board. In the village where they are working the whole 
community a few years ago destroyed their temple idols, 
and many have professed faith in Christ, and regularly 
attend Christian worship. 

China Inland Mission District 

The China Inland Mission is carrying on work in the 
eastern and southern parts of the Fenchow prefecture, and 
also in the Pingyang and Luan prefectures, and the Hwochow, 
Sichow, Yongning, Kiangchow, and Tsinchow departments. 

In the Fenchow prefecture the Mission has stations at 
Pingyao, Hsiaoyi, and Kiehsiu, in all of which permanent 
work was commenced about the year 1887, although in 
some cases not occupied by foreign missionaries until a year 
or two later. 

From these centres the work has spread into the 
surrounding counties, and out-stations have been opened 
at Hsukeo, Kihsien, Wenshui, Yushai, Tongning, and 
Lingshih, in all of which places converts have been 
gathered. In addition to widespread evangelistic work, 
schools have been opened and much Opium Eefuge work 
done by the Christians, which has borne not a little fruit. 

The work received a great set back in 1900, through 
the violence of the persecutions and the removal of all the 
foreign workers, from which in several places it has not 
recovered. There are about 190 members now in fellow- 
ship, about 100 of whom are connected with the Pingyao 
Church. 

Western Hill District 

The work of this district was commenced, as stated 
above, in the conversions of Mr. Chang, a Buddhist priest, 



THE PEOVINCE OF SHANSI 219 

and Mr. Ch'ii, a young teacher, through reading a copy of 
Mark's Gospel. 

In 1885 Messrs. Cassels (now Bishop Cassels) and 
Beauchamp, hearing of the work being carried on by them 
and of serious persecution having arisen, visited the district, 
accompanied by Mr. Bailer, and eventually settled, the 
former at Taning and the latter at Sichow. Later on, 
these brethren leaving to take up work in Szechwan, Mr. 
and Mrs. Wm. Key occupied Sichow, and Taning was 
carried on as a ladies' station. About this time Mr. Ch'ii, 
who had manifested considerable gifts as a preacher and 
was being much blessed over a wide area, was set apart as 
a general or travelling pastor over the whole Western Hill 
district, and this position he filled for about eighteen years, 
being welcomed and beloved wherever he went. 

The work in Taning was chiefly under the care of Mr. 
Chang, who proved a wise and skilful worker. In 1892 
he was definitely set apart as pastor of the Church, and 
from that time was largely supported by them. Under 
his care the work grew steadily, and he was much beloved 
by the whole Church and respected by the heathen. Both 
he and Pastor Ch'ii suffered severely from privation and 
exposure during the Boxer rising, and passed away within 
a year of one another a few years after. 

The work has extended into the adjoining counties of 
Shihleo, Yongho, Puhsien, Kihchow, and Hsiangning. 
From the commencement about 390 have been baptized, 
and there are 202 now in fellowship. 

A feature of the work in Taning which is full of 
promise is the large proportion of young men in the 
Church. 

Pingyang Fu Plain 

The work was commenced in 1878, and was carried on 
for several years from the one centre of Pingyang Fu. 
In 1885 several members of the " Cambridge Band " were 
designated to this district ; and after getting some know- 
ledge of the language, Mr. D. E. Hoste took up residence 



220 THE CHINESE EMPIRE 

at Ktiwo ; Mr. Stanley P. Smith went to reside at Hung- 
tung, in which district Mr. Hsi had been carrying on 
successful Opium Eefuge work for some time. Here he 
was soon after joined by Mr. C. T. Studd, and their united 
labours gave a great impetus to the work, which spread 
rapidly to other centres, out-stations being opened at Chao- 
cheng, Hwochow, Fenhsi, and other towns and villages. 
On Mr. Studd being called to work elsewhere, Mr. Hoste 
went to assist Mr. Smith, and later, when Mr. Smith left 
to open up work in Luan Fu, Mr. Hoste took charge of 
the large and growing work, and to his wise and prayerful 
guidance the after developments of the work are largely 
due. This district became the centre of Pastor Hsi's work 
and activity. About 2050 have been received into the 
Church throughout the plain, the majority of whom are 
the fruit of the work carried on by Pastor Hsi and his 
co-workers. 

Stations have been opened at Hwochow, Yohyang, 
Icheng, Kiangchow, and Hotsin. Evangelistic work has 
also been done, and converts gathered in the adjoining 
counties of Kihshan, Wenhsi, Kianghsien, Tsingshui, 
Eushan, Hsiangling, Chaocheng, Fenhsi, and Tsingyuen. 
The largest church is in the Hungtung district, which now 
has a membership of about 730 in fellowship. The total 
membership of all the churches is about 1120. 

At Hwochow a large school for Christian girls, and also 
Bible and Training Schools for women, are being conducted 
by Messrs. French and Cable, and the work there is full 
of promise. Medical work has been carried on at Ping- 
yang Fu, also a Bible School for native helpers. 

At Kiiwo there is a large girls' school, conducted by 
Misses Hoskyn and Stellman. The education of Christian 
lads throughout the district is being carried on in four 
stations and eleven village schools. 

Several of the churches do not appear to have recovered 
from the shock of 1900, and have made little progress 
since. In each case where the sujffering was greatest the 
work appears to have received the greatest check. In 



THE PEOVINCE OF SHANSI 221 

other districts the work has gone forward with greater 
rapidity and is full of promise. 

Liian Fu District 

In this district the China Inland Mission has three 
stations, i.e. Luan, Lucheng, and Yuwu, and also out-stations 
at Hsiangyuen and Licheng. The work was commenced 
by Pastor Hsi, who sent several men to open Refuges in 
the district. One of these, opened in Tuenlu Hsien by 
Mr. Hsii Pu-yiiin, immediately bore fruit in the conversion 
of several men who afterwards became deacons or elders of 
the Church. A most interesting work sprang up in this 
district, and in order to better look after it, a station was 
opened at Yuwu, where Mr. Burrows and Dr. Hewitt, and 
later Mr. and Mrs. Lawson, have done much faithful work. 

The first station was opened at Luan Fu by Mr. S. P. 
Smith in 1889. Soon after being joined by Mr. and Mrs. 
Studd, he opened the adjoining city of Lucheng. On Mr. 
and Mrs. Studd leaving the district, Mr. and Mrs. Smith 
again took up work in Luan, and Lucheng was occupied 
by Mr. and Mrs. Lawson. In these centres. Street Chapel, 
Guest Hall, and widespread evangelistic work have been 
done. Opium Eefuge work for men and women and 
schools for Christian boys and girls have been carried on. 
About 200 have been baptized from the commencement, 
and there are about 117 now in fellowship. 

PiLchow ChiehcJioiv District, tvorked hy the Swedish 
Mission in China 

This Mission commenced work at Yuncheng, a city 
situated near the Great Salt Lake, in the year 1888. Mr. 
Folke carried on the work single-handed for several years, 
till he was joined by others, and the work extended. 
Stations have been opened at Chiehchow, Yishih, and Pu- 
chow, and also in Shensi and North Honan. The work at 
Yuncheng has not been very encouraging ; at Yishih, Chieh- 
chow, and Puchow, however, aggressive churches are growing 



222 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

up. Since the commencement, about 230 persons have 
been baptized, and there are about 175 now in fellowship. 
Mr. Folke being obliged to return home on account of ill- 
health, Mr. A. Berg has been appointed leader of the 
Mission. 

Tselichotv Fu District 

In 1902 Mr. and Mrs. S. P. Smith commenced work in 
this district, and have carried on Evangelistic, Educational, 
and Opium Kefuge work in Tsehchow, and also opened an 
out-station at Kaoping. They have already received not 
a little encouragement, and have seen some fruit of their 
labours. 

General SumTnary 

From the above sketch it will be seen that each Mission 
occupies a definite part of the field, thus preventing over- 
lapping and friction, and avoiding waste of funds and 
strength. It will have been noticed that the China 
Inland Mission has retired several times from districts 
where it had expended considerable funds and much labour, 
and where in each case it was the first to occupy the field. 
It is largely due to this action that the present satisfactory 
division of the province prevails. 

A special characteristic of the work throughout the 
greater part of the province is the Local Church Con- 
ferences, when the Christians and inquirers gather together 
for two or three days' special meetings. These gatherings 
have been found to be a great stimulus and help to the 
work. 

A yearly conference at Pingyang, composed of mission- 
aries and delegates from all the China Inland Mission 
churches, has also proved of great value in providing a 
bond of union, an occasion of spiritual fellowship, and also 
an opportunity for exchange of thought on matters of 
general interest. One outcome of these conferences has 
been the acceptance by all the churches of a uniform basis 



THE PEOVINCE OF SHANSI 223 

of church government and discipline, and this in spite of 
the fact that the missionaries concerned represent nearly 
every section of the evangelical churches. 

As yet the work is largely confined to the farmer and 
labouring classes, the Gospel having won but few converts 
from among the merchants and scholars. 

The work received a serious check in the Boxer rising, 
from which in many districts it is recovering but slowly. 
On the other hand, there are distinct reasons for encourage- 
ment and hope in looking forward to the future. 

The work commenced by the late Pastor Hsi, and still 
being carried on by his co-workers, enables us to realise 
what God is able to do through our native brethren, if they 
but consecrate their gifts and lives to Him. Then the 
prominent place taken by the native leaders, and the large 
measure of self-support and self-government already attained 
in several of the larger churches, is full of promise for the 
future healthy development and extension of the work. 



THE PROVINCE OF SZECHWAN 

By Mr. Joshua Vale, China Inland Mission. 

Part I. General Description 

Geographical Position. — The province of SzECHWAN, which 
is situated in the west of China proper, is the largest of the 
provinces, and derives its name of " Four Streams " from 
the four rivers, Kialing, T'o, Min, and Yalong, flowing 
through the province from north to south into the great 
trade highway, the Yangtse. 

Geological. — Eastern Szechwan has been called the "Eed 
Basin," that is to say, a basin with a thick surface layer of 
red and grey or yellow sandstone. Underneath this layer 
are deposits of coal and lime, and the basin is surrounded 
by high mountain ranges through which the Yangtse has 
forced an eastern outlet, and in its course carved magnificent 
gorges which, beginning in the east of the province, continue 
for about 100 miles into Hupeh. With the exception of 
the plain of Chengtu, measuring some 90 miles by 40, there 
is very little level ground in this basin, whose valleys rise 
in many places to an altitude of over 1000 feet above sea- 
level ; while the basin itself has been broken up by foldings 
of the earth's crust, forming ranges of hills, and exposing 
numerous coal seams of various thicknesses and qualities ; 
but the fertility of the sandstone has enabled the inhabi- 
tants to till not only the river valleys, with their alluvial 
deposits, but also to bring the hills themselves under 
cultivation. 

224 



THE PEOVINCE OF SZECHWAN 225 

Area and Population. — The area of the province is 
estimated to be 218,480 geographical square miles; its 
population, according to the best authorities, at 68,724,890. 
The distribution of the population naturally follows in the 
line of soil-fertility, for, as elsewhere in China, the produc- 
tion of food stuffs is the greatest industry of the province. 
It may be said that in Szechwan, when, as sometimes 
happens, climatic conditions are unfavourable, dearth is 
keenly felt, for although the people generally are well-to- 
do, there is no immediate means or possibility of making 
good the deficiency, owing to its remoteness and to the 
difficulties and dangers which have to be encountered to 
reach it. The most populous part of the province is 
undoubtedly the Plain of Chengtu, which, owing to its 
system of artificial irrigation, is par excellence the garden 
of Szechwan. Colonel Manifold, speaking at a meeting of 
the Eoyal Geographical Society in 1904, mentioned that 
he estimated that the Chengtu Plain, a specially well- 
watered tract of country, had no fewer than 1700 persons 
to each square mile. In this garden, or on its borders, 
there are 17 cities, including the capital, but, speaking 
generally, the population is essentially rural. The whole 
of the province, apart from the high mountainous regions 
of the west, is dotted with farmhouses, hamlets, villages, 
and market towns, many of them larger and more important 
than cities, and, as markets are held in rotation at these 
towns every few days, there is no lack of facilities for the 
interchange of agricultural produce and local manufactures. 

Territorial Divisions. — There are 112 territorial districts 
(Hsien) ; 11 departments (San Chow); 8 independent 
departments (Chihli Chow) ; 1 sub-prefectures (T'ing) ; 2 
independent sub-prefectures (Chihli-t'ing) ; and 12 prefec- 
tures (Fu) ; but there are only 9 9 district cities (Hsien), 
for each prefectural city is also a district city, and Chengtu, 
the capital, is the seat of two district magistrates. As 
each department, independent department, sub-prefecture, 
is represented by a city with its seat of government, the 
total number of cities in Szechwan is 142, of which 109 lie 

Q 



226 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

to the east of the river Min, the balance of 33 being 
scattered over the west of the province. 

Early Inhabitants. — Information on the early history of 
SzECHWAN is somewhat meagre and unreliable. " There are 
evidences," says Mr. Hosie in his valuable report ^ on the 
province, " all over the Ked Basin of the existence in pre- 
historic times of a race of cave-dwellers. The Yangtse, 
Kialing, T'o, and Min have, in the course of ages, worn for 
themselves deep beds in the sandstone, and in the steep 
cliffs are rock -cut dwellings, with small doorways and 
occasional windows, and here and there a certain amount 
of rude mural sculpture inside and outside, vestiges of a 
bygone race. These empty dwellings are called by the 
Chinese Mantse tong — that is, Mantse caves ; Mantse being 
the generic name applied to all the tribes inhabiting the 
west of the province. 

" Coming to historical times, however, we find the 
SzECHWAN of to-day was, during the former and latter Han 
dynasties (206 B.C. to a.d. 230), divided into five princi- 
palities, one of which, called Yi-cheo Shu, and afterwards 
simply Shu, was usurped and ruled by the Minor Han 
dynasty (a.d. 221-263), with its capital where the city of 
Chengtu is now built, the whole kingdom being represented 
by the present prefecture of Chengtu." 

In the declining years of the Ming dynasty (a.d. 1368- 
1643) a rebellion broke out in Szechwan. It was headed 
by three men — Li Tsi-ch'eng, Chang Hsiang-chong, and 
Wang San-kuai. Much destruction of property and loss of 
life was caused by these men, especially by Chang and 
Wang. It is commonly believed that these two men 
almost depopulated the province. When order was restored 
by the Imperial Government, the province was repeopled 
by forced immigration from other provinces of the Empire. 
Even to the present day it is difficult, if not impossible, to 
get an inhabitant of the provinces to admit that he is a 
native of Szechwan. He will tell you that he belongs 
to Hupeh, Hunan, Shensi, Kiangsi, Chekiang, or even 
' China, No. 5 (1904), by Consul Hosie. 



THE PEOVINCE OF SZECHWAN 227 

Kwangtung, claiming as his province the home of his 
immigrant ancestor. 

Climate. — There are no extremes of climate in Szechwan. 
The temperature in summer rarely exceeds 100° Fah. in 
the shade, and 95° may be taken as a fair average maximum. 
In winter the mercury seldom falls below 35° ; frost is 
exceedingly rare, and half an inch of ice, which appeared 
for a day or two on stagnant pools in the capital in 1901, 
was looked upon as a great curiosity. This, of course, refers 
to the valleys and plains of the Eed Basin, for on the hill- 
tops in the basin, and on the surrounding mountains, snow 
lies for a time every winter, and huge icicles are to be met 
with in crossing mountain passes. Sunshine is rare in 
winter, for a bank of mist hangs over the land, preventing 
surface evaporation and consequent fall of temperature, 
which fact gives rise to the native proverb which says that 
in " Szechwan the dogs bark when they see the sun." 

Irrigation. — The writer of The Far East^ devotes a 
whole chapter of his book to the Chengtu plateau (Ch. 
VI., "The Middle Basin," Part III.). He says: "This 
unique area of level land in the wide, otherwise purely 
mountainous, region of Szechwan cannot be passed over in 
a general description of the province, but demands a short 
essay to itself, so important is its relation to the rest of the 
province, and so peculiar are its characteristics in China, 
and, we may confidently add, in the world at large." In 
this chapter Mr. Little quotes largely from the writer's paper 
on the " Irrigation of the Chengtu Plain " (China Branch, 
Royal Asiatic Society Journal, 1900, vol. xxxiii., No. 11), 
and " Irrigation of the Chengtu Plain and Beyond " (1905, 
vol. xxxvi.). Mr. Hosie, in his report on the products of 
Szechwan, also devotes considerable space to this subject. 
The subject is too great to be dealt with in a short article 
like the present. Those interested are invited to consult 
the authorities named above for further information. 

Products. — Mr. Hosie, in his carefully and thoroughly 
prepared report, devotes many pages to this interesting 

1 The Far East, by Mr. Archibald Little. 



228 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

subject. Those who wish further information will do well 
to study his report, where the products are arranged under 
the three main divisions of — 

(a) Agricviltui-al and horticultural products. 

(6) Animal products. 

(c) Minerals and mineral products. 

Communications. — SzECHWAN lies at the very back of 
China proper, but its remoteness would be of less con- 
sequence were it readily and easily accessible. Unfor- 
tunately it is not so. While it is true that Szechwan has 
magnificent waterways, and several of the larger rivers 
might have small light -draught steamers plying between 
the more important centres of trade, yet as long as the 
journey from Ichang to Chungking — a distance of a little 
more than 400 miles — remains an unsolved problem to 
the merchants of the west, and railways are only on paper, 
communication with the outside, and even between remote 
parts of the province itself, must continue to present grave 
difficulties to the trade and progress of the province. 



Part II. Missions. A Eeview 

Mission work in the province of Szechwan may be 
divided into five distinct periods as follows : — 



I. Prospecting Period 

11. Pioneer Period 

III. Progressive Period 

IV. Opposition Period . 

V. Popular Period 



1868-1877 

1877-1886 

1887-1895 

1895-1898-1900 

1901-1907 



I. Prospecting Period (1868-1877). — Previous to the 
year 1868 little or nothing was known by the Protestant 
Churches of Europe and America about this vast province 
of the west of China. The first Protestant missionaries to 
visit this province were the Eev. Dr. Griffith John of the 
London Missionary Society and Mr. Wylie of the British 
and Foreign Bible Society. These two workers, having 



THE PEOVINCE OF SZECHWAN 229 

travelled up the Yangtse, entered Szechwan, and visited 
many of the most important towns and markets, including 
the capital, returning to Hankow vid Shensi and down the 
Han river. This journey may be termed a " Prospecting 
Trip," for no attempt seems to have been made to settle in 
any of the many cities or towns visited. The report of 
this journey doubtless was instrumental in calling attention 
to this vast unopened field, and the London Mission, even 
at that early period, had serious thoughts of opening work 
in Szechwan. No other missionaries, as far as we know, 
visited this province again till the year 1877, when the 
Kev. John M'Carthy of the China Inland Mission, after 
landing at Wanhsien, travelled overland, vid Shuenking 
Fu to Chungking, which place he reached on 1st May of 
that year. 

II. Pioneer Period. — Settled Mission work dates from 
the year 1877, when premises were rented by the China 
Inland Mission in Chungking. After this we are told 
" there followed a period of widespread evangelistic journeys, 
in which Messrs. Cameron, Mcoll, Easton, Parker, Riley, 
S. R. Clarke, and Bailer, all of the China Inland Mission, 
with Mr. Leeman of the American Presbyterian Mission, 
and Mr. MoUman of the British and Foreign Bible Society, 
engaged." 

In the year 1881 the American Methodist Episcopal 
Mission joined the China Inland Mission in pioneer work 
in this province by renting premises at Chungking. In 
1881 the China Inland Mission opened the capital, Chengtu, 
for settled work. Paoning and Pacheo were, after con- 
siderable difficulty, occupied during the years 1886 and 
1887. 

During this period a very important step was taken by 
the China Inland Mission in Szechwan which needs a word 
of explanation here, viz. the dividing of the work of the 
Mission into two distinct parts, named respectively "Western 
Szechwan and Eastern Szechwan, a distinction which always 
appears in the Annual Report of that Mission, but which 
is not quite clearly understood by many. Briefly stated, 



230 THE CHINESE EMPIRE 

the distinction is this : — Taking the Kialing river, which 
enters the Yangtse opposite Chungking, as the boundary, 
all the cities, towns, and villages east of this belong to the 
" East Szechwan " branch of the Mission, which is worked 
on distinctively Church of England lines ; while all the 
districts west of the Kialing river belong to the " West 
Szechwan " branch of the China Inland Mission, and are, 
generally speaking, worked on Free Church lines. 

The one striking feature of this period (1877-1886) 
is the persistence and tenacity of the pioneers. Many 
difficulties and disappointments attended their efforts ; the 
people were either indifferent or hostile, and the results of 
their labours were very small indeed. Sickness and death 
were constantly occurring to hinder and even threaten the 
existence of the work, yet these pioneers were strong in 
faith, and believed in the ultimate success of their efforts 
to evangelise the teeming millions of this " Garden of the 
West." 

Much seed was sown during this period, but prejudice, 
ill-feeling, and suspicion presented serious hindrances to the 
work, and eventually the riot of 1886 at Chungking 
almost extinguished the little churches which had been 
gathered by the two Missions. 

III. Progressive Period. — After the settlement of the 
Chungking riots and the re-establishment of Mission work 
in that city, a period of unprecedented prosperity set in. 
The probable reasons for this season of prosperity seem to 
be threefold. First, the faithful and persistent work of the 
pioneers during the preceding period ; second, the widespread 
and systematic itinerations which followed the riot ; third, 
the semi-awakening of the people. As to the first — the 
faithful and persistent work of the pioneers — very little can 
be written, as records are somewhat meagre ; but workers now 
on the field who followed these pioneers are able to testify 
to the permanent work done by this faithful band. As 
regards the second — the widespread and systematic itinera- 
tions — the work done by two members of the China Inland 
Mission in the Kiating Fu district during this period may 



THE PEOVINCE OF SZECHWAN 231 

be given as a specimen. " After selling books till we could 
sell no more in the city (Kiating Eu), we took the villages 
and market towns — all within 5 miles, 1 miles, 2 miles — 
and gradually we spread over what we called the Kiating 
district, which consists of 8 walled cities and 350 market 
towns or villages. We continued this work for six years 
and a half, constantly travelling round these villages and 
towns. During that period we travelled not less than 
30,000 miles." 

The third reason given for the prosperity of this period 
— the semi-awakening of the people — demands a few words 
of explanation. During the last few decades the people of 
China have passed through several periods of awakening — 
times when her well-wishers hoped that at last she was 
entering upon a new life and seriously desirous of progress. 
Such a period was the one under review. After the wave 
of anti-foreign feeling which swept over Central China in 
1890 had subsided, there set in a more hopeful state of 
things, and this feeling having taken hold of Szechwan, the 
attitude of the people was decidedly more friendly towards 
missionaries and their work, and this may largely account 
for the unprecedented progress made. But there were other 
causes which doubtless contributed much. 

During this period no less than five additional 
missionary societies commenced new work in Szechwan. In 
1888 the London Missionary Society, whose representative. 
Dr. Griffith John, was the first to enter the province 
in 1868, took up permanent work in Chungking. In 
1890 the American Baptist Missionary Union also arrived 
and commenced work in the west of the province, having 
Suifu and Kiating as their chief centres. In the 
same year (1890) the English Friends' Mission also 
began work in Chungking. The year 1892 saw the 
Church Missionary Society, under the leadership of Mr. 
Horsburgh, commence a new work east of the province, 
which eventually led to the occupation of that region, 
which had hitherto been unreached by any other Mission. 
Then finally, in 1892, the Canadian Methodists opened up 



232 THE CHINESE EMPIKE 

work in the west, having Chengtu and Kiating as their 
headquarters. 

During this period the Methodist Episcopal Mission 
had extended its operations to the capital and other cities 
near Chungking, and on the Great East Eoad towards 
Chengtu. The China Inland Mission had also opened up 
no less than nine centres in various parts of the province 
east and west. 

Another important factor was the employment of native 
agents and the opening of out-stations. By the judicious 
use of native agents the missionaries, who were all too few 
to cope with the growing work in the larger centres, were 
enabled to open up new work in other cities and towns, 
and thus commenced a work which if persisted in will 
enable them to occupy all the more important towns and 
villages of the province, and thus secure the evangelisation 
of its scattered millions. 

The establishment of a Mission Press during this period 
must not be overlooked. Dr. Virgil Hart, who, by his 
book on Western China, was instrumental in directing the 
attention of the Canadian Methodist Mission to West 
China, also was the means of establishing the first Mission 
Press in those parts. Dr. Hart, perceiving that the almost 
insurmountable difficulties presented by the rapids and 
whirlpools of the Yangtse made it very difficult to 
get books, tracts, and other literature to the west in 
large enough quantities to supply the increasing demands, 
determined to start a press for West China, which would 
supply the literature so much needed in the evangelising 
of this vast and needy field. This press, after very many 
difficulties, was established at Kiating, and continued to 
do valuable work till, sharing the fate of the rest of Mission 
work during the riots of 1895, its work was brought to a 
close for the time being. 

IV. Opposition Period (1895-1898-1900 ). — The Yangtse 
Valley riots of 1890 threatened to spread to the west, and 
although no disturbances actually occurred, yet seeds of 
suspicion and ill-feeling were sown which eventually 



THE PEOVINCE OF SZECHWAN 233 

caused trouble and riot. The China -Japanese War was 
the culminating point. The news of China's utter defeat 
was the sign for much anti-foreign feeling, which led to 
the attack on Missions in the capital and other cities in 
the west of the province in 1895. After the settlement 
of these riots, and the re-establishment of the work in all 
the stations rioted, there appeared to be a return, for a 
while, to the calm and quiet of the preceding and pro- 
gressive period ; but this was only on the surface. Eumours 
of a bad nature were persistently circulated in the capital 
and other large cities which were intended to stir up the 
populace to attempt the destruction of Mission property 
and the expulsion of all foreigners ; but through the 
vigilance of the officials and the efforts of the better- 
intentioned of the people, actual riot and disorder were 
prevented. In 1898, however, riots suddenly broke out 
again, and got quite beyond the control of the local officials. 
The troubles were called the Yii-man-tse Eebellion, because 
one of the principal leaders was a man named Yii. This 
uprising was chiefly directed against the Eoman Catholic 
Church ; the Protestants not coming under the wrath of 
the rebels, though subject to persecution and petty annoy- 
ance from local rowdies. 

During the Yii-man-tse Eebellion a Protestant Con- 
ference (January 1899) was held at Chungking, the 
results of which have proved beneficial to many parts of 
the work. The fact that some eighty missionaries, re- 
presenting eight Missions and three Bible Societies, could 
meet in Chungking for a conference was in itself cause 
for much encouragement to the workers, especially those 
who as pioneers had seen the small beginnings and had 
experienced the many trials and troubles of the early days. 

Three permanent results of the Conference are worthy 
of notice : — 

1. The establishment of the West China Missionary 
News. 

2. The invigoration of the West China Tract Society. 

3. The formation of an Advisory Board for West China. 



234 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

From the settlement of the Yli-man-tse troubles of 
1898 to the Boxer rising in 1900 — a period of nearly 
two years — the work in Szechwan enjoyed a time of peace 
and quiet, which was brought to an abrupt end in the 
summer of 1900, when all missionaries of all societies were 
compelled to flee to the coast. 

V. Popular Period (1901-1907). — West China suffered 
very little from the Boxer Movement of 1900. On the 
return of the missionaries to their respective stations 
during the early part of 1901 they found in many places, 
especially in the western parts of Szechwan, what is now 
known as the Mass Movement in full swing. This move- 
ment may be traced back as far as 1895, when it really 
began, subsequent to the settlement of the riots which 
occurred at that time. This movement steadily grew till 
it was crushed by the Yli-man-tse Eebellion, but immediately 
after the settlement of those troubles it revived with fresh 
vigour and strength. During that time, however, it was 
almost entirely confined to the Eoman Catholic Church. 
But after the Boxer settlement, the Mass Movement not 
only revived amongst the Eoman Catholics, but also took 
hold of the Protestant Church as well. 

This movement was most perplexing, even to experienced 
missionaries. Deputations were constantly arriving from 
the surrounding districts with offers from the gentry and 
leading men to open Gospel halls, preaching stations, or 
schools, free of cost to the missionary societies. Long lists 
were presented with the names of those who were anxious 
to become " adherents " of the Church or " learners " of the 
truth. This movement appealed in different ways to 
different missionaries and missionary societies. Some of 
the more optimistic welcomed it as an answer to the 
prayers of past years and the plenteous sowing of the last 
decades. Others, who were not quite so enthusiastic, looked 
askance on the movement, and generally discouraged the 
establishment of stations under such conditions. Notwith- 
standing, all were of the opinion that this was an excellent 
opportunity to present the Gospel to the people, and every 



THE PEOVINCE OF SZECHWAN 235 

advantage was taken of this opening and the willingness 
of all classes to hear the Gospel. 

A recrudescence of Boxerism in 1902, which took place 
at the capital and the regions to the north, east, and south 
of that city, checked for the time being this movement 
towards the Church. But it spread to other parts of the 
province, so that nearly every part of the province has had 
its turn sooner or later. Missionaries who have been 
permitted to come in close contact with this movement 
have been struck with the wonderful organising powers of 
the leading men, and also by the ability shown by the 
people to support their own work. Hitherto the funds 
for carrying on any aggressive work have largely been 
furnished by the foreign society or the individual missionary, 
but in this movement there has been an abundant supply 
of money forthcoming from the Chinese themselves. The 
basis of their organisations was in most cases utterly 
opposed to the truths of the Gospel, and the methods 
adopted for raising the money such that they could not 
be tolerated by the Church ; yet the fact remains that 
wonderful powers of organisation and self-support have 
been revealed, which if rightly directed and controlled 
might greatly accelerate the evangelisation of the millions 
of SzECHWAN, and make the Church in that province to a 
large extent independent of both foreign teachers and 
money, an end to be greatly desired. 

During this period all missionaries have made great 
strides in the occupation of the various " spheres " allotted 
to them, and very many cities, towns, and villages have 
been opened as centres for preaching the Gospel or as out- 
stations, so that now there are a large number of " light 
centres " dotted over the length and breadth of the province, 
and there are few districts where there are not some 
witnesses for the truth, or where the Gospel is not preached 
more or less regularly. 

The great demand for scientific literature which followed 
the Boxer outbreak was so pressing that the Society for the 
Diffusion of Christian Knowledge at Shanghai decided 



236 THE CHINESE EMPIRE 

to open a depot in Chengtu to meet this demand. The 
Society was able to secure the best position in the most 
important street, and the ever -increasing sale of books, 
charts, maps, and other literature has justified the Society's 
decision in opening a depot in that remote part of the 
Empire. 

The Canadian Methodist Mission, recognising that 
Chengtu, the capital of the province, was the centre of 
literary activity and influence, also decided to move their 
Mission Press to that city. The beautiful and spacious 
premises, which were of&cially opened by H.E. the Governor- 
General in 1905, are worthy additions to the missionary 
cause in Chengtu, and bid fair to greatly extend its 
influence and usefulness in the west of China. One of the 
signs of the progressive spirit is a scheme for a Union 
University. Most of the missionaries have seen the 
importance of educational institutions, and have sought to 
provide schools and other facilities to meet the demand for 
Western learning. But since the adoption by China of 
"Western methods of education, the demand for some institu- 
tion for higher education has been greatly felt by those 
specially interested in the spiritual welfare of the educated 
classes. The scheme may take some years before it will be 
finally adopted, but its promoters seem justified in pushing 
it forward at the present time, and hope that it will 
eventually become an accomplished fact. 

Like most of their brethren in other parts of China, the 
missionaries have realised the need of some central institu- 
tion for training Chinese helpers and giving them a 
thorough grounding in Scriptural knowledge. In the past, 
two methods have been in vogue, viz. classes held in out- 
stations, and classes organised at some central point, to 
which all likely candidates might go for a month's study. 
These methods, which in the past time have been very 
helpful, have proved to be insufficient for the growing 
demands for thoroughly trained helpers who can " teach 
others also." Thus, during the last decade, Bible Training 
Institutions have been established by more than one 



THE PEOVINCE OF SZECHWAN 237 

Mission in the province, which give promise of turning out 
bands of thoroughly equipped men to take charge of out- 
stations, and become pastors of the native churches which 
are springing up in all parts of the province. 

The progress of Mission work in this province may be 
summarised as follows : — 

Prior to 1877 there was no resident Protestant 
missionary ; now, if the main waterway from Ichang in 
Hupeh to Chengtu, the capital of Szechwan, be followed — a 
distance of, roughly, 1000 miles — twenty-one walled cities 
will be found, each with a resident worker, either native 
or foreign. 

If the Great South Eoad from Chengtu to Tibet be 
traversed, seven walled cities will be passed within a 
distance of 300 miles, each of which has either a resident 
missionary or Chinese evangelist. If the Great North Eoad 
from Chengtu to Shensi be taken, eight walled cities will 
be reached within a journey of 250 miles. Each of these 
cities is occupied either by the Church Missionary Society 
or the China Inland Mission. 

Should the Great East Eoad from Chengtu to the treaty 
port of Chungking be chosen — a road passing right through 
the heart of the province with its teeming population and 
eight walled cities— the cities would be found occupied by 
the American Methodist Episcopal Mission. Further, on 
the mid -province waterways — the three rivers running 
from the east of the province down towards Chungking — 
fifteen of the twenty cities located there are worked by 
various Societies. Nevertheless, there are some three 
thousand towns and villages still unoccupied. 



THE PROVINCE OF YUNNAN 

By the Rev. John M'Carthy, China Inland Mission. 

The province of Yunnan (Cloudy South) is situated in 
the south-western corner of China proper, and borders on 
both English and French possessions in Burmah and 
Tonkin. It possesses an area of 146,680 square miles, 
with an estimated population of 12,000,000, or the same 
as Mexico. Being so far removed from the busy sea-bound 
provinces, and not being in the way of the ordinary 
traveller, it does not occupy so much of the thought and 
effort of the Christian Church as its importance would 
warrant. And yet there is hardly any part of China that 
has a more exciting ancient history. 

It is generally accepted that the inhabitants of this 
province originally came through Burma from Hindustan. 
The name given to the district when first mentioned in 
Chinese history — during the Chau dynasty, 1122-255 B.C. 
— was Shan-tsan. No particulars are given, the name 
only being mentioned. It seems to have been afterwards 
divided into six princedoms, until in the seventh century 
one prince obtained supreme control. Frequent attacks 
were made upon these people by their neighbours from the 
north and east, and during more than a thousand years the 
aborigines fought desperately with the Chinese for life and 
home. 

Through all these years the people seem to have been 
able to maintain their independence until a.d. 1252, when 
Kublai Khan subdued the province, since which time it 
has been under Imperial rule. 

238 



THE PEOVINCE OF YUNNAN 239 

There are to-day many places in Yunnan which mark 
the campaigns of Mang-cu-ko, a celebrated Imperial General* 
about A.D. 230-40, and in Yunnan Fu there is a memorial 
temple erected to his memory. 

Near the Hsia-kuan, at Tali Fu, there is a " myriad- 
grave " of Chinese soldiers who fell in the seventh century ; 
and west of Tali Fu is also a Tartar " myriad-grave " to 
the memory of those who died during Kublai Khan's 
expeditions. Here people pray for the restoration of their 
sick. 

Without dwelling upon the various risings which took 
place until the final conquest of Yunnan by the Chinese, 
reference should be made to a Mohammedan rebellion 
which was only subdued some thirty years ago. The rebels 
were most powerful in the western part of the province, 
and indeed for several years a Mohammedan prince ruled 
over a good part of Westeen Yunnan, having his seat of 
government in Tali Fu. 

With regard to these Mohammedans it may be interesting 
to quote the remarks of a very intelligent and reliable 
observer — the late E. Colborne Baber, Esq., of H.M. 
Legation in China — who during wide travels in Western 
China, and a prolonged residence in Szechwan, had unusual 
opportunities of forming correct conclusions on the matters 
about which he wrote. He says : — 

" The Mohammedans of Yunnan are precisely the same 
race as their Confucianist and Buddhist countrymen ; and 
it is even doubtful if they are Mohammedans, except so far 
as they profess an abomination of pork. They do not 
practise circumcision, though I am not sure if that rite is 
indispensable ; they do not observe the Sabbath, are unac- 
quainted with the language of Islam, do not turn to Mecca 
to pray, and profess none of the fire-and-sword spirit of 
propagandism." He also quotes the opinion of an Indian 
native officer who accompanied Dr. Andersen's expedition 
to Tali at an earlier period — " who frequently lamented 
the laxity that prevailed amongst them," and asserted that 
they were " no Mussulmans." 



240 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

This rebellion was finally repressed with the most fearful 
brutality. The city of Tali was taken by treachery. 
"When the Mohammedans had surrendered and given up 
their arms, the so-called Sultan came into the Imperial 
Camp and asked to see the Commander. On being intro- 
duced he begged for a cup of water. He then said that he 
had " nothing to ask but this — ' Spare the people ' " ; then 
drinking the water he almost immediately expired, he 
having already taken poison. His head was at once struck 
off and exposed, and, heedless of his prayers, the victors 
proceeded to massacre the helpless garrison and town folk. 

After the fall of Tali Eu the rebellion was gradually 
suppressed in other places ; the majority of the rebels that 
remained being glad to become loyal subjects when they 
had the opportunity of doing so. The ruins, still to be 
seen in many parts of the province, tell the sad tale of how 
fearful the struggle must have been, and with the exception 
of the capital, Yunnan Eu, the province has not even yet 
recovered its former prosperity. There is little doubt but 
that the evident sympathy shown to the Mohammedan 
Pretender by the British and others during the rebellion 
has not tended at all to promote good feeling towards the 
foreigner on the part of the Chinese authorities in the 
province. 

The province has sometimes been called " the Switzer- 
land of China," being very mountainous, especially in the 
west and north. The mountains west of the city of Tali 
are 8000 feet above the city, and as the city stands 6500 
feet above the sea level, the highest peaks of these mountains 
compare favourably with Mont Blanc. At Likiang, some 
distance north of Tali Eu, there is snow on the mountains 
all the year round. To the east of this latter city there is 
a beautiful lake, which is some 35 miles long and about 
7 miles wide. Like the Sea of Galilee, it is subject to 
sudden squalls of wind, which come down with great force 
from the mountains on the west of the city, and make 
navigation at times extremely dangerous. 

South of the city of Yunnan Eu there is another fine 



THE PEOVINCE OF YUNNAN 241 

lake (these are called " seas " by the people), 40 miles long 
and from 5 to 8 miles wide. There are also many smaller 
lakes throughout the province. 

Among the principal rivers are the Upper Yangtse, the 
Salwen, the Mekong, and the Ked Eiver. None of these, 
except perhaps the last, are of any value in the province 
for navigation. 

Among the Chinese the province has been proverbial 
for its rich mines of gold, silver, copper, iron, and lead, and 
if put under proper supervision, with the employment of 
modern machinery, all this mineral wealth might become 
a source of great profit to the province, and indeed to the 
Empire. As at present managed, however, the public 
benefit is infinitesimal. Salt wells also are found in many 
places, also coal. 

Arrangements have been made between the Chinese and 
the French Governments for a line of railway to join 
Tonkin and Yunnan Fu. The work is going forward, but 
the unhealthiness of the route near the Tonkin border has 
been a hindrance. It has been difficult to get labourers 
who can stand the climate. It is also reported that there 
is to be a private short line of railway from Bhamo to Teng- 
yueh, and thus avoid the old caravan road through the 
Ku-ch'in Hills, and facilitate the transport of goods from 
Burmah into this part of China. While the difficulties of 
engineering such a railway could doubtless be overcome, 
the mountainous character of the country cannot but make 
its construction very expensive. 

The climate of Yunnan is very equable, as most of the 
plains, especially in the central part of the province, are 
from 5000 to 7000 feet above sea -level. Thus the 
temperature in the summer does not often exceed 86° in 
the shade, and in winter there is seldom much snow in the 
plains, except in the eastern parts on the borders of Kwei- 
chow. Here the winters are more severe and the snow 
lasts longer. As a rule the rainy season commences in 
June and lasts till the end of August, and sometimes into 
September. At the beginning of the rains the rice is 

E 



242 THE CHINESE EMPIRE 

planted, and reaped about October. In the dry or winter 
season opium, wheat, and beans of various kinds are grown. 

The healthiness of the greater part of the province, 
especially in its western section, has been emphasised by 
Captain Eyder — who has for long been occupied in sur- 
veying a great part of the province — in a paper read before 
the Geographical Society in London ; his idea being that in 
the future this part of Yunnan may become the sanatorium 
for Burmah and Tonkin. 

The quantity of opium grown is increasing yearly, and 
it is considered to be of a very good quality. The foreign 
drug is not generally used, except when brought in by 
officials for their own private consumption. The continu- 
ally increasing growth of the poppy naturally leads to the 
greater use of the drug by the people, and their consequent 
deterioration. The ordinary Yunnanese, from whatever 
cause, is the most lethargic specimen of humanity that 
could well be imagined. Nothing seems to move him, not 
even the desire to make money, which is supposed to be 
such a distinctive characteristic of the Chinese in other 
parts of the Empire. Among the majority of workmen the 
general feeling seems to be — if you get enough for food 
and opium by half a day's work, why distress yourself by 
labouring the whole day ! There can be little doubt but 
that the lazy, listless attitude of the mass of the inhabitants 
may be largely attributed to the widespread prevalence 
of opium eating and smoking. One grievance often re- 
ferred to by the people is, that while Indian opium is 
allowed to enter China, Yunnan opium is not allowed to 
enter Burmah — though nevertheless much is smuggled into 
that country. 

With regard to the people themselves, in addition to 
the Chinese — many of whom are immigrants from Szechwan, 
Hunan, Hupeh, and other provinces, even as far east as 
Kiangsu — there is a large number of the aboriginal tribes — 
some say between fifty and sixty — spread over the province. 
Some of these are only found, in any number, in the 
east. They have all distinct dialects, and some say distinct 




An Aboriginese Festival. 

The top picture shows some of the men engaged in a dance. The bottom picture shows the primitive 
jinisical instrument— a kind of wind-pipe organ — which they use. To face page 243. 



THE PEOVINCE OF YUNNAN 243 

languages. It is more likely that many of these tribes are 
only different branches of the same original families, and 
that many dialectic differences are only differences of the 
same original tongue. This is the decision arrived at by 
F. S. A. Boiurne, Esq., a Consular Agent who was specially 
detailed to acquire information for the British Government 
in the district where these tribes are found in greatest 
numbers. In his report to the British Government, he says : 
" There is no family of the human race — certainly no 
family with such claims to consideration — of whom so little 
is accurately known as of the non-Chinese races of Southern 
China. This is in great measure due to the perfect maze 
of senseless names taken from the Chinese in which the 
subject is involved. There is a catalogue of 141 classes of 
aborigines, each with a separate name and illustration, 
without any attempt to arrive at a broader classification. 
It appeared to the writer that before these tribes could be 
scientifically assigned by etymologists, they must be reduced 
to order among themselves, and that something might be 
done in that direction by taking a short vocabulary ^ and 
obtaining its equivalent in the dialect of every tribe met, 
when a comparison would reveal afiinities and differences. 
The twenty-two vocabularies that follow are the result.^ 
A comparison of these vocabularies and a study of Chinese 
books (especially the Yunnan Topography) has led to 
the conviction that, exclusive of the Tibetans (including 
the Si-fan and Ku-tsong), there are but three great non- 
Chinese races in Southern China : the Lo-lo, the Shan, and 
the Miao-tse." 

If this can be fully substantiated, it would be a rather 
comforting consideration, as it is evident that in that case 
a thorough knowledge of these three languages would give 
ample facilities for evangelising these various tribes. The 
barest reference only can be made to these families of 
tribes, as to give information of any value as to their history 
and manners and customs would require a separate paper 
for each one. 

1 See Appendix I. - See China, No. 1, 1888. 



244 THE CHINESE EMPIRE 

The Shans. — The main body of the Shan people inhabits 
the valley of the Salwen, and the country as far as the 
Mekong eastward and the Irrawaddy westward. They are 
found to the north as far as Tengyueh Ting, where they 
occupy tljie whole of the Taiping Valley. Within the 
Chinese borders they are governed by their own hereditary 
chieftains, subject to Chinese officials. They call them- , 
selves the " Tai " family, and are a peaceable and in- 
dustrious people. Most of them are ardent Buddhists ; 
but some are found who worship " Nats " or demons, like 
their neighbours the Kah-ch'ins. 

The Shan tribes stretch south and west into Burmah. 
Those in Burmah are well known, and a good deal of 
Christian effort has been put forth for their benefit. The 
Scriptures and other books have been translated into their 
language by the missionaries of the American Baptist 
Mission. Nothing has yet been done for these people 
dwelling within the Chinese border, though they are quite 
accessible. 

The Ming-kia tribes, whose principal location is in the 
Tali plain, and on towards the Yungchang Prefecture, 
are generally considered to be allied in race to the Shans. 

The Lo-lo. — The old Chinese name for the Lo-lo race 
was " Ts'uan " (barbarian), a name taken from one of their 
chiefs. Where the Lo-lo come from is not yet decided, 
but their present habitat is well defined. In the great 
bend of the Yangtse river, in long. 103^ east, between that 
river and the Anning river, the Lo-los are at home. This 
country, occupied by the independent Lo-los, covers an area 
of 11,000 square miles, and is called "Liang-shan" or " Ta- 
liang shan " (Great Ridge Mountains). This designation 
does not mean any particular peak or peaks, or special 
range, but applies to the whole Lo-lo region, a district 
mountainous throughout, and containing a few summits 
which reach the limits of perpetual snow. Thus they live 
in independence of China under their own tribal chiefs. 
Thence they extend in a scattered manner as far north as 



THE PEOVINCE OF YUNNAN 245 

lat. 31° 15', long. 103° 30' east. To the west they extend 
to the Mekong river. To the south they are found 
occupying here and there the higher ground. To the east 
they are found as far as Kweiyang in the Kweichow 
province. They seem to be more numerous as Ta-liang- 
shan, their present home, is approached, and form much of 
the largest part of the population in North-Eastern Yunnan 
and North-Western Kweichow. 

The Miao-tse. — These are the ancient lords of the soil 
in Kweichow and Western Hunan. Indeed, Kweichow has 
been for ages the battlefield between the Aborigines and 
the Imperialists. Some of these tribes have passed over 
the borders of the north-western part of Kweichow, and 
now inhabit the north-eastern part of the Yunnan province, 
not far from Chaotung Fu. There may be other families 
residing in other parts of the province, but the main body 
of this people seems to be gathered in the district indicated. 
The tribes of Miao-tse are designated by the Chinese as 
" Black," " Magpie," etc., according to the dress, generally, 
of the women. Being rather shy, they are usually found 
off the main roads, and so it has been difficult to get to 
know much about them, except in the south-eastern part 
of Kweichow, where they are more numerous. 

Mr. Pollard of the Bible Christian Mission has been 
able of late years to gain an entrance among the Miao-tse 
of this province, and already has a large and interesting 
work among them.^ Hundreds have been received into 
Church fellowship. 

There is also a large work going on at Anshuen Fu, in 
the Kweichow province, among the same people,^ where 
Mr. Adam of the China Inland Mission has had much 
encouragement in the work. It will soon be easier to get 
much interesting information about their history, manners, 
and customs. 

^ See Bible Christian Magazine for November 1906. Mr. Pollard has 
already prepared a small primer for their use, and translated the Gospel of 
Mark into their language. 

- See p. 251 et scq. Also A Modern Pentecost. Morgan and Scott. 3d. net. 



246 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

In addition to these three families of tribes whose repre- 
sentatives are to be found in this province, there are also 
several of Tibetan origin in the west who are quite 
accessible. Among these are the Tibetans, pure and 
simple, the Si-fan, the Ku-tsong, and the Ka-ch'in tribes. 
These latter inhabit the hills between the Shan country and 
Burmah. Among the Burmese Ka-ch'ins, the American 
Baptist missionaries are carrying on a good work, but the 
Chinese Ka-ch'ins, as well as the Chinese Shans and the 
other border tribes, are still outside the pale of any effort 
for their temporal or spiritual benefits. 

Missions. — There are only two Missions having workers 
in this wide field : the China Inland Mission and the 
Bible Christian Mission. The Bible Christian Mission com- 
menced their work in association with the China Inland 
Mission, and are now working in the districts in the 
Prefectures of Tungchwan and Chaotung, and, as already 
mentioned, have lately opened work among the Miao-tse 
in the neighbourhood of the latter Prefecture. Their two 
main stations were opened in 1887 and 1891. 

The first distinct effort made for the benefit of the 
Yunnan province by the China Inland Mission was made 
in 1875, when a work was commenced in Bhamo in Upper 
Burmah by the Rev. J. W. Stevenson and Mr. (now Dr.) 
H. Soltau — not only for the preaching of the Gospel to 
Chinese residents and traders, but also to establish a station 
which should form a base for missionary effort for the 
province of Yunnan. Although for many years the dis- 
turbed condition of the border districts between Burmah 
and China prevented the effective carrying out of this 
latter intention, there is little doubt but that the opening 
of the station has done much to call attention to the needs 
of this province, and to stimulate the further efforts that 
have been made since within its borders. This station is 
still occupied, and now that free access is secured by the 
occupation of Upper Burmah by the British, it is likely 
to be of more value to the work in Yunnan than ever 



THE PEOVINCE OF YUNNAN 247 

before. This will be all the more certain if the small line 
of railway between Bhamo and Tengyueh, already referred 
to, is really completed. 

It is an interesting fact, which should be had in grate- 
ful remembrance, that the opening of the whole of Western 
China — Yunnan included — to Gospel work, was ac- 
complished, under God, in consequence of the murder of 
a Christian Civil Officer of the British Government. In 
the last letter written by him to his family at home, Mr. 
Margary spoke of his own trust in God and in Christ his 
Saviour, and of his desire that prayer should be offered by 
his Christian friends in England that his journey on 
Government matters to Burmah should tend in some way 
to the opening up of those wide provinces, through which 
he was passing, to the preaching of the Gospel.^ 

It will be remembered that Mr. Margary travelled safely 
through to Burmah, and joined the expedition that was 
then awaiting his arrival to escort it into China. Among 
the Ka-ch'in Hills the party were attacked, and, it was 
said, by wild hill tribesmen. Mr. Margary going forward 
to find out the cause of trouble was, when alone, murdered 
at Manwyne. By the Chefoo Convention, which followed, 
the Chinese Government agreed, among other things, to 
the issue of an Imperial proclamation, to be circulated all 
over the eighteen provinces, making it widely known that 
foreigners had the right to travel everywhere in China. 

Members of the China Inland Mission, who had been 
specially preparing for widespread evangelisation, had thus 
a very favourable opportunity given them to initiate those 
itinerations that have resulted in the opening up of 
permanent work in all these western provinces. 

In the year 1877 the writer of this paper started on a 
journey from Shanghai to Bhamo, the latter place being 
reached without difficulty of any kind. The journey was 
made in company of a Christian Chinese friend and a 

^ The writer of this paper has had this statement from Mr. Margary's 
own mother. Mr. Margary's prayers, though not answered as he may have 
expected, have been most certainly granted. 



248 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

couple of coolies who carried the few absolutely necessary 
things. As the distance from Chungking to Bhamo was 
performed on foot, and the traveller was each day, and all 
the day, before the people, who were uniformly kind and 
friendly, the question of the possibility of missionary 
residence in Yunnan province was settled in the only 
satisfactory way it could have been settled at the time,^ 
Another evidence of the goodwill of the people of Yunnan 
was afforded by the safe arrival, shortly afterwards, in 
Bhamo of Dr. Cameron of the China Inland Mission. 
Having travelled west in Szechwan, he entered Yunnan 
from the north, and, passing Tali Fu, he made his way 
through Yungchang Fu, Tengyueh, and the Shan States 
into Burmah. Everywhere he found the people kind and 
obliging, and by no means antagonistic to the presence of 
foreigners. Though at that time the British Government 
would not allow any one to cross from Burmah to China, at 
a later period the return journey from Bhamo to Shanghai 
was accomplished by Mr. Stevenson and Mr. Henry Soltau. 

No station, however, was opened in the province until 
1881, when Mr. George Clark was enabled to secure 
premises and begin missionary work in the prefectural city 
of Tali. Yunnan Fu, the capital of the province, was 
opened in 1882; Klitsing Fu, in the more eastern part 
of the province, being opened for work in 1886, and 
Pingyi Hsien, within a day of the Kweichow border and 
on the road to Anshuen Fu in Kweichow province, was 
opened for permanent Mission work in 1904. 

Much has been done from these various centres during 
the years since they were opened. Many wide itinerations 
have been made over various parts of the province, although 
the results hitherto have been rather discouraging. 

Since the reopening of the work in the province in 
1901, after the Boxer rising in China, the word, "In due 
season we shall reap if we faint not," seems to be to 

^ For a full account of this journey see a paper read by Mr. M'Carthy 
before the Royal Geographical Society, and published in the Royal Geo- 
graphical Society's Magazine for August 1879. — Ed. 



THE PEOVINCE OF YUNNAN 249 

some extent in course of fulfilment. This has been due, no 
doubt, to the increase of prayer which has been called 
forth for the work in every part of China by the dreadful 
experiences of 1900. There is certainly a greater willing- 
ness on the part of the people to hear the Word preached 
and to welcome friendly intercourse. 

At present there are five centres which are being worked 
by the members of the China Inland Mission : Bhamo, 
opened in 1875 ; Tali Fu, opened in 1881 ; Yunnan Fu, 
opened in 1882; Kutsing Fu, opened in 1886; and 
Pingyi Hsien, opened in 1904. 

The conformation of the country renders it necessary 
that a number of other centres should be opened if there 
is to be any widespread evangelisation of the province, 
for the mass of the population reside in plains which are 
divided from each other by high hills or mountain ranges. 
Thus a great deal of valuable time and strength are neces- 
sarily wasted in efforts to itinerate from one plain to another, 
and the work done in one of these plains cannot affect 
the people in another. 

It is desirable that medical missionary work should be 
largely increased ; indeed the ideal plan would be to have a 
medical missionary for each large centre. At present the 
China Inland Mission has only one medical missionary for 
the whole province ! When it is remembered that it takes 
twenty days of travel to reach Tali from Bhamo, that 
from Tali to Yunnan Fu would need thirteen days, and 
five more days would be needed to reach Kutsing Fu from 
Yunnan Fu, it will be seen how impossible it would be for 
the medical man to do more than attend to those who 
come to him for advice in his own district. 

There is also special need for the work of Christian 
women. No prosperous work can be looked for if the 
mothers and daughters are neglected, and this can only 
be accomplished by Christian women. The need for such 
workers will be evident when it is mentioned that for more 
than a year there has been only one unmarried lady and 
only three married ladies for all the women for whom 



250 THE CHINESE EMPIRE 

the China Inland Mission is responsible in the province. 
There is certainly sufficient reason here for praying the 
Lord of the Harvest to send more labourers into His Harvest. 

Special prayer is now being offered for the opening of 
two more stations between Yunnan Fu and Tali Fu on the 
way to Bhamo. Most of the market towns in the Tsu- 
hsiong Prefecture have been visited by Mr. Sanders during 
his itinerations some years ago. Yungchang Fu, eight 
days' journey west of Tali, might have been the China 
Inland Mission's first station in the province if the writer 
had had money enough with him in 1877, or if he could 
have remained there when he passed through on his way 
to Burmah, for a house was offered for rental at that time. 
Although he hoped to get money in Bhamo and return 
within a reasonable time, the way back into China was 
barred by the British Government. 

Yungchang Fu is situated in a plain more than 20 
English miles long and from 6 to 8 miles broad, with 
many market towns and villages, the whole plain almost 
being under cultivation. Tengyueh Ting is really an open 
port, where any foreigners have the right to reside and 
trade. There is a British Consul located there and an 
Imperial Commissioner of Chinese Customs with his staff. 
Being on the edge of the Chinese Shan States, it would not 
only be a good centre for the plain in which it is situated, 
but would also be a good place from which to begin work 
among the Shan tribes that lie between Tengyueh and 
Manwyne, where Mr. Margary met his death. One has often 
thought that a Gospel Hall in this latter town would be 
a most fitting memorial to Mr. Margary 's memory. 



THE PROVINCE OF KWEICHOW 

By the Rev. Samuel R. Clarke, China Inland Mission. 

The two characters Kweichow as now written mean 
precious or honourable land, but as originally written the 
character Kwei meant " demon " or " devil," and the two 
characters meant the " Land of Demons." The inhabitants 
were called Lo-si Kwei or Lo-si demons, which probably 
refers to the spiral form in which they did up their hair. 
This was about two thousand years ago. 

The province of Kweichow is in West or West Central 
China. It contains about 60,000 square miles, and the 
population is variously estimated at from five to eleven 
millions. Probably the population is about seven millions. 

At the present time there are five different races found 
in the province. These are the Keh-lao, Lo-lo, Miao, 
Chung-chia, and Chinese. The languages spoken by these 
communities are all monosyllabic, but a comparison of their 
vocabularies reveals so few resemblances as to entitle them 
to be called different languages. Among the five it seems 
to us the greatest resemblance can be traced between the 
Chinese and Miao. Naturally in all these languages there 
are words borrowed from the Chinese. 

Of the Keh-lao there are, so far as we know, only a few 
small villages in the neighbourhood of Anshuen Fu. 
These people claim to be the original inhabitants of the 
land, and it is worthy of note that while the Chinese 
regard the Miao as the original occupants of the land, and 
in some places the Miao claim to be so, yet in the neigh- 

251 



252 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

bourhood of the Keh-lao, the Miao acknowledge them to be 
the original occupiers of the soil. Their speech is evidently 
different to every other language spoken in the province. 
Who they are and whence they came is a very interesting 
problem that still awaits solution. 

The Lo-lo are found in the north-west of the province. 
As far as we know, their numbers in Kweichow are not 
considerable. They seem to have drifted into the province 
from Szechwan on the north and Yunnan on the west, 
where they are found in considerable numbers. As 
missionary operations spread we shall find out more about 
them, but it is doubtless in Szechwan and Yunnan that 
most can be learned. 

The Keh-lao and Lo-lo form so insignificant a pro- 
portion of the population that, apart from questions of 
ethnological interest, they would be left out in a brief 
sketch of the province. Moreover, in their personal appear- 
ance and in the appearance of their villages, a traveller 
passing through the districts where they are to be found 
would naturally look upon them as Miao. 

Of the Miao and Chung-chia it is difficult to say which 
is the more numerous. If we put down the population of 
Kweichow as seven millions, the Miao and Chung-chia 
together would probably amount to between two and three 
millions. The Miao are to be found in the east, south, and 
west of the province, and the Chung-chia in the centre, 
south, and west of it. 

We shall treat first of the Miao, as these people by all 
accounts were in this region before the Chung-chia. This 
race was known to the Chinese in other parts of what is 
now the Chinese Empire as early as the days of Yao and 
Shuen, more than four thousand years ago. Erom these 
days to very recent times they have fought with varying 
success against the encroaching Chinese. Wherever the 
Chinese are now in the north and east, the Miao were there 
before them. But the Miao were no match for their 
better organised and more industrious neighbours. Gradu- 
ally they have been absorbed among the Chinese or driven 



THE PROVINCE OF KWEICHOW 253 

from the more fertile plains of the east to the more 
mountainous and less fertile regions of the west. The 
Chinese say there are seventy different tribes of Miao in 
KWEICHOW, but who is to define what constitutes a tribe ? 
At the present time the Chinese differentiate and name the 
various tribes from something distinctive in the dress of 
the women. Thus they speak of the Heh or black Miao, 
Peh or white Miao, Hwa or paste-coloured Miao. The men 
for the most part are dressed as Chinese peasants, though 
some of them wear a dress that resembles more the robe of 
a Buddhist priest than the costume of the Chinese at the 
present time. It may be, however, that this dress is 
similar to that worn by the Chinese before the present 
dynasty. But the women of all the tribes wear a peculiar 
dress of their own, and the women of each tribe are all 
dressed nearly alike. Among the same tribe in different 
villages there are slight variations, as, for instance, in the 
length of the skirt and the colour of the silk used for 
embroidery, so that those thoroughly acquainted with them 
can tell at a glance to which tribe a woman belongs, and 
in some cases to what village of the tribe. None of the 
women bind their feet. 

Although the Miao in the east of the province are quite 
unintelligible to those of the west, a comparison of their 
vocabularies ^ shows at once they are speaking different 
dialects of the same language. This, together with the fact 
that some of them claim to be aborigines and to have 
always lived where they are, while others claim to have 
come from the east, suggest that their migrations to their 
present abodes took place at widely different intervals and 
possibly by different routes. The Ya-chio Miao in Tating 
district say they came from Tungking by way of Szechwan, 
which is manifestly absurd. The Heh Miao in the east of 
the province claim to have come from Kiangsi, and this is 
doubtless correct. Three thousand years ago there was a 
Miao kingdom occupying the country between the Poyang 
Lake in what is now Kiangsi and the Tungting Lake in 
^ See Appendix I. 



254 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

what is now Hunan. They have always been a turbulent 
race, and from what we know of human nature in general, 
we cannot be surprised that they should love independence 
more than subjection, and prefer to keep their own land 
rather than allow other people to appropriate it. 

The claim of the Miao in Eastekn Kweichow to have 
come from Kiangsi is strengthened by the fact that there 
are Miao in Hunan province, which lies between them and 
Kiangsi. Some of those we have met in Kweichow say 
they can understand the language of the Hunan Miao, 
though with more or less difficulty. 

In earlier times, before they were broken up and sub- 
jugated by the Chinese, their rulers were princes who could 
lead large armies into the field. But in recent times they 
have been a people disorganised and scattered, and this has 
made their conquest more easy for the Chinese. In maps 
drawn and issued within the last two hundred years, parts 
of the province of KW'EICHOW are marked as the region of 
the Sen Miao, and recent maps copying the earlier ones 
have the same parts labelled in the same way. The word 
Sen, or Shen, means " wild," " unsubdued," and this is the way 
the Chinese designate all within the frontiers of the Empire, 
and on the borders of it, who are not subject to them. 
But at the present time there are no independent Miao in 
Kweichow. The earlier maps published were made by 
Boman Catholic missionaries two hundred years ago, so we 
may conclude there were in the province at that time 
Miao who were still unsubdued. 

Till very recent times also the Miao were, while really 
subject to the Chinese, ruled by their own hereditary 
chiefs. This system, however, seems to be passing away, 
and though there are still in some places hereditary chiefs 
exercising authority, the men among them now responsible 
for their tribesmen to the Imperial magistrates are appointed 
by the Chinese. These men are called " Tuan " or head- 
men, just as the same sort of men are called by the same 
term among the Chinese. They are very like Justices of 
the Peace in England, having power within a certain juris- 



THE PEOVINCE OF KWEICHOW 255 

diction to settle minor law cases ; but all serious cases are 
tried by the Chinese magistrate. These headmen are also 
responsible for the collection of the land tax. Thus it 
appears to us they are ruled exactly the same as the 
Chinese living in villages and hamlets. Probably on account 
of their ignorance, and the lack of men having literary 
degrees among them which would give them the privilege 
of interviewing the magistrate, they are more squeezed than 
the Chinese. But the Chinese yamen runner is a func- 
tionary of proved impartiality ! eager to extort money from 
anybody and everybody he can get into his clutches. 

The Miao have no written language. This is a very 
remarkable fact, if we bear in mind that the Chinese have 
cultivated literature for three thousand years, and these 
people have been their neighbours, and some of them their 
near neighbours, for all this length of time. The two races, 
though often contending, have not always been in arms one 
against another ; there has always been some intercourse 
between them. Moreover, the Miao language, like Chinese, is 
monosyllabic, unencumbered with conjugations, declensions, 
or other inflections, and it would be easy to represent Miao 
words by Chinese characters, which are not phonetic but 
ideographic. At the present time there are schools in many 
of the Miao villages where Chinese literature is taught. 
Probably from earliest times there have been some Miao 
who could read Chinese, and yet not one of them, as far as we 
know, ever attempted to write down their own language. If 
the attempt ever was made, it evidently met with no accept- 
ance among the tribesmen, who remain to-day as illiterate 
as their ancestors three thousand years ago. What writing 
they have to do must be done for them in Chinese. All 
their contracts, mortgages, and deeds of sale or rental are 
written in Chinese, and probably not one in a hundred of 
them, when he buys a piece of land, is able to read the deed 
of sale when it is written. 

But if the Miao have no literature, they have plenty of 
legends ^ handed down from earlier times. Who composed 

1 See p. 270. 



256 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

these legends no one knows. They are taught by the older 
men to the younger ones. All that we have heard are in 
verse, five syllables to a line, the stanzas being of unequal 
length, one interrogative and one responsive. They are 
sung or recited at their festivals by two groups, generally 
one group of young men and one group of young women, 
one group interrogating and the other responding. Among 
these legends is a story of the Creation, including a description 
of how the heavens were fixed up on pillars, and how the 
sun was set in its place. There is also the story of a deluge, 
in which it appears all the earth and the people on it were 
submerged except one man and his sister. As there was 
no other woman for the man to marry, he married his sister, 
and from these two the world was repeopled. 

It is undoubtedly difficult for a stranger to learn the 
religious beliefs of people like the Miao. But we have 
known them so long and some of them so intimately 
as to justify us in venturing an opinion on the matter. 
The Miao are now living so close to the Chinese and some- 
times so intermixed with them that they are naturally 
adopting some of the superstitions of their neighbours. If 
any one were to ask a Miao what was the object of their 
worship, he would probably say he worshipped heaven and 
earth. This we believe they have learned from the Chinese, 
and learned from them recently. As a matter of fact, we have 
been unable to discover among them any indigenous object 
of worship. As far as we know, they build no temples, and 
if in some places little shrines may be found, we believe they 
have recently learned from the Chinese to build them. 
They have at certain seasons of the year musical festivals 
at which there are horse races and bull fights. They believe 
that the crops of the year depend on these celebrations, but 
in what way the weather or crops are influenced they do 
not profess to understand. To the onlooker there is nothing 
religious about these observances ; they are always regarded 
by the people as times of relaxation from work and oppor- 
tunities for enjoyment and social intercourse. 

They believe in the existence of the soul after death, and 



THE PROVINCE OF KWEICHOW 257 

when questioned will vaguely reply that the soul of the 
deceased has gone to be with its ancestors. On the death 
of a parent they sacrifice a bull or a cow, and explain this 
by saying it is their custom to do so. They also believe in 
demons, and are all their lives in bondage to the fear of 
them. If a traveller passing through their districts should 
see one or a group of them going through what was mani- 
festly some sort of reUgious observance, he would find on 
making inquiry that this was in connection with the dead 
or with demons. In every village there are one or two men 
who are regarded as exorcists, whose business it is, for a con- 
sideration, to expel or counteract the influences of those 
malevolent beings. If a man or his cattle be ill, or if any 
misfortune befall him, he attributes it to demons, and one 
of these exorcists is in request. Their modes of procedure 
are various, but might be generally summed up as unin- 
telligible mutterings, extraordinary gestures, accompanied 
with throwing things about. Sometimes a man is accused 
of having a demon, and this is a bad thing for the man if 
it is generally believed. This does not mean that he is 
possessed by a devil, but that he possesses a demon who does 
his will to the injury of his neighbours. They fear the 
demons but do not reverence them, and would laugh if it 
were suggested that they worshipped them. They also 
believe in the use of medicine ; but it is not very clear when 
the medicine should be taken or when the exorcist should 
be sent for. We believe that the medicine is first taken, 
and should that fail it is assumed that there is a demon 
present, and the exorcist is sent for. Of all the Miao in 
KwEiCHOW, the Heh or black Miao seems to be the most 
numerous and the most intelligent. Most of them own the 
land they cultivate, many of them are well-to-do, and in all 
respects seem equal to the Chinese peasantry around them. 
They not only bring their produce and cattle to the markets, 
but many of them engage in trade and open stalls in the 
market-place. On the river that flows from Kaili to Hung- 
kiang in Hunan all the headmen appear to be Miao. 
Elsewhere, however, the Miao seem to be poorer than and 

s 



258 THE CHINESE EMPIRE 

inferior to the Chinese ; many of them live in mere hovels, 
and much of the land they cultivate belongs to the Chinese. 
Drink is, we believej in most cases the cause of their 
poverty. The love of whisky, which they make for them- 
selves, is a prevailing vice among them all. Festivals, 
marriages, funerals, and sacrificial observances in reference 
to the dead are all occasions for the reckless consumption 
of whisky. 

They are much given- to litigation, constantly going to 
law with each other. In the first instance, a case is 
brought before the local headman, but on these occasions it 
is difficult to satisfy both parties, and one of them takes the 
case before the district magistrate. It is amazing to think 
how much these people spend in legal proceedings, very often 
failing to get justice after all. But they think it due to 
themselves to fight a case out to the bitter end. Nearly 
all these lawsuits arise on account of their land or their 
women. They observe the marriage relation, but do not 
honour it as strictly as the Chinese. If a young Miao 
woman is dissatisfied with her husband she not infrequently 
disappears, and is subsequently found at her parents' home 
or living with some other man she prefers. Hence arise 
considerable ill-feeling and trouble of all sorts. We have 
assisted at the discussion of some of these matrimonial 
disputes and know how hard they are to settle. 

The vice of opium-smoking is not so prevalent among 
them as it is among the Chinese, but many produce, and 
some consume the drug. During our ten years' experience 
among them we have observed the habit becoming more 
and more prevalent. Opium may not be the specific for 
all the ills that flesh is heir to, but it never fails to ease 
the pain, and among people who have no medical science, 
with opium always at hand, it is easy to foresee what the 
state of things will be in the course of time. This is not 
the place for a discussion of the Opium Question, or for a 
comparison of the relative evils of dram-drinking and opium- 
smoking, but we take this occasion solemnly to assert that 
we know of no vice so likely to destroy a person or a com- 



THE PROVINCE OF KWEICHOW 259 

munity morally and physically as the habitual use of opium 
in any form. 

The Chung-chia are unquestionably the same race as 
the Shans of Burmah and the Siamese, There was at one 
time a Shan kingdom in Yunnan. In the course of time 
some of these people moved south and formed the present 
kingdom of Siam. Others of them drifted eastwards, and 
are now to be found in Kwangsi and Kweichow, while 
large numbers of them remain in Yunnan. They are, we 
believe, very numerous in Kwangsi. We estimate that 
there are about a million of them in Kweichow. They 
entered the regions which now form part of Kweichow 
about a thousand years ago. Wherever they are to be 
found in Kwangsi or Kweichow they invariably assert that 
their ancestors were Chinese who came from the province of 
Kiangsi, and many of them can name the prefecture and 
district from which their forefathers came. But it must be 
borne in mind that these people speak a language which is 
not Chinese, and for the identification of scattered tribes 
there is no more trustworthy guide than a comparison of 
their vocabularies. Their speech is a dialect of Shan and 
Siamese, and by this we recognise them to be of the same 
race. 

But how comes it, then, that these people claim to be 
Chinese when they are not Chinese ? This we shall attempt 
to explain. When they entered these regions the Miao 
were here before them. They probably looked down on the 
Miao then as they do now, especially as the Heh Miao, who 
are in every way their equals, had probably not at that 
time arrived in these parts. Before the Chinese occupied 
this province and systematically colonised it, there had been 
frequent wars and military demonstrations against the 
turbulent Miao. There were also on these occasions 
garrisons left in different parts of the country, and these 
being composed of soldiers whose wives were not with 
them, some of the men married into Chung-chia families. 
The Chinese never seem to have despised the Chung-chia 
as they do the Miao. This marrying of Chung-chia 



260 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

women probably went on for a long period, so that in 
time many of them were really descended from the 
Chinese and others related to them by marriage. As the 
Chinese are the superior and ruling race, it is natural that 
as many as can claim to be allied to them should do so, and 
this they are the more likely to do, so as not to be regarded 
as Miao. When, three or four hundred years ago, Chinese 
immigrants from Kiangsi entered the province in large 
numbers — doubtless more men than women — many 
of them married into Chung-chia families. The relations 
already existing between the Chung-chia and the earlier 
settlers would make it more easy and natural for the 
latter ones to marry into Chung-chia families. It is to be 
noted that the Chinese words which the Chung-chia have 
adopted into their language are not pronounced as the 
Chinese around them, who are mostly from Szechwan and 
Hunan, pronounce them, but as they are pronounced in 
Kiangsi and the region of the lower Yangtse river. 

Like the women among the Miao, the Chung-chia 
women do not bind their feet. The old tribal or national 
costume of the women was a rather tight-fitting jacket and 
a skirt very like the skirt worn by Miao women. This 
dress is not at all uncommon among them now, but the 
Chinese fashion of loose jacket and trousers for women is 
evidently taking the place of the old style. Owing to their 
larger feet they do more work in the fields than Chinese 
women. We cannot remember ever to have seen a Chinese 
woman planting rice in a paddy-field. 

The Chung-chia men can hardly be distinguished from 
the Chinese. Perhaps their noses are more flat and eye- 
brows more bushy than among typical Chinese, and the 
same may also be said of the women. As they are nearly 
all agriculturalists, the men dress exactly the same as 
Chinese farmers and village folk. They do, however, on 
special occasions wear the Chinese jacket and long robe. 
When any of them move into the city and engage in trade 
they are not to be distinguished from the Chinese. There 
are also literary and military graduates among them. 



THE PEOVINCE OF KWEICHOW 261 

Unlike the Miao, they do not seem to be split up into 
separate tribes. In different parts of the province they are 
called by different names : Chung-chia about Kweiyang Fu, 
Yii-chia about Aushuen Fu, and Suei-chia about Tushan- 
chow. The Chinese mostly call them T'u-ren (natives) and 
themselves K'eh-chia (immigrants), which shows how the 
Chinese regard them. The dialects in their several districts 
vary, but not so much as to render them quite un- 
intelligible to one another. We have spoken of them as 
Chung-chia, which is one of the names they have given 
themselves among the Chinese or the Chinese have given 
them. The words are Chinese. " Chung " possibly means the 
second or younger of two brothers ; " chia " means family or 
tribe. Another explanation is that Chung-chia means 
heavy armour, and refers to the sort of armour worn by 
them in ancient times. Etymological explanations are not 
always satisfactory. About Kweiyang Fu they call them- 
selves "Bu-yuei" in their own language. "Bu" is a personal 
prefix, and what " yuei " means we are unable to say. 

We have not been able to discern among them any old 
legends handed down from prehistoric times. If ever 
they possessed such legends their wish to be thought 
Chinese and the claims that their ancestors were Chinese 
immigrants from Kiangsi is a potential reason why these 
should be neglected and at length forgotten. Probably else- 
where among them others may be more successful in the 
search for legends than we have been. 

Like the Miao and Chinese, they live in constant dread 
of demons. For all these people the spirit world is not far 
off, and is peopled by unseen intelligencers whose constant 
interference in human affairs is not to the advantage of 
those concerned. The Chung-chia do not build temples in 
their villages as the Chinese do, though in religious matters 
they seem to have copied the Chinese more than the Miao 
have done. At the entrance to their hamlets little shrines 
are often built in which are sometimes rudely carved images 
and sometimes only unhewn stones to represent the spirits 
of the land. They sacrifice a bull or cow to deceased 



262 THE CHINESE EMPIRE 

parents with elaborate ceremonies, but all they can say 
about it is that if they do this the deceased will go to 
heaven. If a stranger should question them about their 
religious beliefs they would say they do as the Chinese do. 
They have no written language. They have many simple 
love ditties which the young men and maidens are 
accustomed to sing to each other, and in this they are more 
like the Miao than the Chinese. We have seen some of 
their ditties written down in Chinese characters. Some- 
times the character represents the sound of the Chung-chia 
word with more or less accuracy, and sometimes the mean- 
ing, which makes it very difficult for one who does not 
know the ditties to understand. 

We do not think the claim of the Chung-chia to be 
Chinese has done them any good ; they appear to have all 
the defects of the Chinese without their better qualities. 
The Chinese generally describe the Miao as turbulent, 
simple, and without proper motives of propriety ; while they 
describe the Chung-chia as crafty, lying, and dishonest. 
There are thieves and robbers among the Miao who prey 
upon the travellers and distant hamlets, but the dishonest 
among the Chung-chia are sneak-thieves who prowl around 
and pilfer from their friends and neighbours. The Chinese 
say every Chung-chia is a thief. 

There are more schools in their villages than among the 
Miao, and consequently more of them can read and write 
Chinese. We have heard it said, and possibly with a good 
deal of truth, that when a Chung-chia can read and write 
he gives up working to live by his wits. Learning how to 
write pleas and counter pleas, he is constantly in and about 
the yamens assisting in law cases, making profit for himself 
out of other people's difficulties, and frequently for obvious 
reasons stirring up trouble among neighbours. Such men 
are a nuisance all over China, and not less so in out-of-the- 
way country districts. 

Of the Chinese in Kweichow we need not say much. 
As mentioned above, the earlier immigrants came from 
Xiangsi, but later ones, that is, for the last three or four 



THE PROVINCE OF KWEICHOW 263 

generations, have come from Hunan and Szechwan. At 
the present time we believe more are coming from Szechwan 
than elsewhere. Since ever the Chinese came into these 
parts there has doubtless always been a certain amount of 
leakage from the Miao and Chung -chia into the Chinese 
community, and it is certainly going on at the present 
time. Consequently the Chinese in this province are not 
so typically Chinese in features as the Chinese of the south 
and east. The language they speak is good Mandarin, and 
would easily be understood in Peking or Nanking. It is 
most like that spoken in Szechwan, and more like that of 
North China than that of the eastern provinces. KwEi- 
CHOW is very mountainous, nearly all of it being three or 
four thousand feet above sea -level. The hills are not 
exceedingly high, but are found everywhere. In fact, KwEi- 
CHOW is all hills, with short narrow valleys between, and 
hardly anything in it worthy of the name of a plain, unless 
it be a stretch of country from Kweiyang Pu to Tingfan 
Chow. We think that even this region would not strike 
a traveller as being a plain till he got near to Tingfan 
Chow. 

The streams of the province flow north-east and south, 
but none of them are navigable even for native boats till 
just as they are leaving KwEiCHOW. This, together with 
the fact that there is no road in the province over which a 
wheeled vehicle could be drawn or driven, makes the con- 
veyance of products a costly undertaking. Everything has 
to be carried by coolies or on the backs of ponies and mules. 
Thus it would double the cost of a load of rice to carry it 
120 miles. 

Opium, because of its high value in proportion to its 
bulk, is the chief export of Kweichow. It is said that 
in Kweichow seven out of ten men over twenty-five years 
of age smoke opium, and a smaller but not inconsiderable 
proportion of the women. Hides are also exported, and 
gall-nuts. The hills of the province have nearly all been 
stripped of their timber, and what remains in the south- 
east of the province, in the district of the Heh Miao, is 



264 THE CHINESE EMPIKE 

being rapidly cut down and floated away through Hunan 
to Hankow. 

Iron and coal are found in large quantities, but unfor- 
tunately in different localities, and the lack of facilities for 
transport renders the working of iron mines on any large 
scale an unprofitable undertaking. All the coal extracted 
is for local use. Silver, lead, copper, and zinc are to be 
found, but in what quantities we are not able to estimate. 
Quicksilver has been found from very early times, but some 
of the mines are now exhausted or nearly so, and some of 
them flooded. The soil is not fertile ; what native wealth 
there is in the province is in the bowels of the earth, and 
to develop these mineral resources in the absence of water- 
ways, railways are necessary. But when we think what a 
rocky labyrinth of hills this province is, we are not by 
any means hopeful as to the early introduction of the 
locomotive. 

The climate of the province is excellent. By reason of 
its altitude and latitude it is neither very hot in summer 
nor cold in winter. The thermometer in the shade is 
seldom seen as high as 90° or much below 30°. Rice 
is the staple food of all who can afford it ; for the rest there 
are Indian corn, oats, and such cereals as are grown on the 
hill-sides. The number of the different kinds of vegetables 
produced is amazing. Many of the fruits of Europe are pro- 
duced in the province, and some others, but the flavour of the 
native fruits cannot as a rule be comparable with those of 
Europe. Probably the Chinese do not know how, or will 
not take the trouble to cultivate them properly. 

Protestant missionary operations were commenced in 
Kw^EiCHOW in the year 1877, when Messrs. C. H. Judd and 
J. F. Broumton, both of the China Inland Mission, travelled 
through Hunan to Kweiyang Fu, the provincial capital. 
At that time General Mesny, of the Chinese Army, was 
residing in that city, and with his aid premises were secured. 
Mr. Judd, however, soon continued his itinerations, leaving 
Mr. Broumton in charge of the newly -opened Mission 



THE PEOVINCE OF KWETCHOW 265 

Station. He was very soon joined by Mr. Landale, and in 
1880 by Mr. and Mrs. George Clark, Mrs. Clark (n^e 
Eossier) being the first European lady who had visited the 
province. Various changes followed, while Mr. T. Windsor 
reached Kweiyang Fu in 1885, and the Eev. and Mrs. 
Samuel Clarke in 1889. In the following year the staff 
was augmented by the arrival of Dr. and Mrs. Pruen, Mr. 
and Mrs. G. Andrew having left the province in 1888. In 
1895 Mr. and Mrs. Samuel Clarke were appointed for work 
among the non- Chinese communities in the province. The 
details of the various changes in personnel, and the opening 
of the various stations, will not be of interest to the general 
reader ; suffice it to say that up to the present time the 
China Inland Mission is the only Missionary Society engaged 
in work in this province. 

Probably the most difficult and discouraging places for 
missionary effort are the provincial capitals, the reason for 
this being the predominance of the official element, with its 
anti-foreign prejudices, and the natural difficulty of influ- 
encing large cities. However, from the commencement 
nearly one hundred persons have been baptized in the 
capital, and the work has spread to the surrounding districts, 
regular services being held in several out-stations. 

Anshuen Eu, three days' journey west of the capital, was 
opened as a Mission Station by Mr. Windsor and Mr, Adam. 
From the commencement Mr. Adam has been in charge 
of this work, which has been of a decidedly encouraging 
nature. Several out-stations at large centres have been 
opened, and a good staff of native helpers organised, while 
a most remarkable work has recently shown itself among 
the non-Chinese races, of which more will be said later. 

Tushan Chow, six days' journey south of the capital, and 
on the borders of Kwangsi, was opened by Mr. Windsor in 
1893, and settled missionary work was commenced in 
Hsingyi Fu, seven days' journey south of Anshuen, by 
Mr. Waters in 1891. The proximity of this latter station 
to the province of Kwangsi, which for so long was in 
a state of chronic rebellion, led to the workers being 



266 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

obliged to retire at the request of the officials in 1902. 
The rebels occupied part of the prefecture. Through lack 
of workers this station is still vacant. At Tushan, where 
the work at first was by no means encouraging, before the 
workers were obliged to retire in 1900, some men of 
intelligence and position in the city had become earnest 
inquirers, these men meeting for the study of the Scriptures 
and prayer even while the missionaries were absent. 

Tsenyi Fu, five days to the north of Kweiyang, on the 
high-road to Chungking, was opened in 1902 by Dr. and 
Mrs. Pruen, and Chenyuan Fu, eight days' journey to the 
east of the capital, and near the borders of Hunan, was 
opened in 1904 by Mr. D. W. Crofts. This city is the 
only river port in the province, and is the place where 
travellers from Yunnan and Kweichow to Peking commence 
their river journey. 

Definite missionary work was commenced by Mr. and 
Mrs. Webb in 1896 amongst the Heh Miao. After 
moving from place to place for about a month in the 
Tsingping district, five days east of the capital, they were 
enabled to rent half of a small house in a Miao village, less 
than a mile from the Chinese market town of Panghai. 
The Chinese at once showed suspicion and resentment at 
the foreigner living among the Miao. Their opposition, 
however, died away in time, and the Miao, who were at first 
afraid, subsequently became friendly. The following year 
they were able to rent the other half of the house they 
lived in. Unfortunately the sudden illness of Mrs. Webb 
made it necessary for them to leave for the coast. Con- 
siderable progress was, however, made by Mr. H. Boulton, 
who took charge of the work, a school being opened which 
was attended by boys from other hamlets, the boys bringing 
their own food. Subsequently the work was transferred to 
the care of Mr. W. S. Fleming. 

It was about this time that serious trouble broke out 
between the Miao and Chinese at this centre, and while the 
missionaries were in no way responsible, the issue was of a 
tragic nature. The subject of the dispute was whether the 



THE PEOVINCE OF KWEICHOW 267 

market, which was held every six days, should be on the 
street of Panghai or on the opposite shore of the river, 
which was near and convenient in every way. Up to that 
time it had been held on the street, and the Chinese had 
levied a toll on all who opened stalls or brought produce 
for sale. To avoid this imposition, the Miao decided to 
hold the market on the opposite river shore, and did so for 
some months. The Tsingping magistrate, however, came 
and burned down their thatched booths, the writer himself 
being an eye-witness. The total value of the property could 
not have been more than $20 or $30, but the Miao 
determined on retaliation, and in the month of October 
suddenly raided the village of Panghai and burned it to 
the ground. This was interpreted as an act of rebellion, 
and troops were moved into the district, causing a local 
ferment. 

Just at this period occurred the Empress Dowager's 
famous cowp d'Stat of 1898 at Peking, which was regarded 
everywhere in China as an anti- foreign move ; and the 
Chinese, who believed, or pretended to believe, that the 
Miao had been encouraged to rebel by the missionaries 
furnishing them with arms, assumed such a hostile attitude 
that Mr. Fleming decided to retire to the capital. On 
November 4 he started, accompanied by P'an-ta-yeh, a Miao 
evangelist, and P'an-si-yin, a Miao teacher. Some 15 
miles from this place he reached the Chinese market town 
of Tsung-an-chiang, which was full of local militia, and he 
had barely crossed the river by the ferry-boat when he was 
murderously set upon from behind. Mr. Fleming and the 
Miao evangelist were both killed, but the teacher managed 
to escape to the neighbouring hills, and conveyed the sad 
news to the missionaries at Kweiyang Fu. There is no 
doubt that the murder had been arranged by the leading 
men of the district, and the Chinese were much surprised 
when ransacking the station at Panghai to find no 
weapons amongst Mr. Fleming's belongings. 

At the close of the terrible Boxer year, 1900, serious 
trouble broke out at Kaili, 16 miles from Panghai. 



268 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

In consequence of the bad harvest, gangs of men, both 
Miao and Chinese, went about plundering, and one of these 
gangs attacked the sub-district city of Kaili on the night 
of November 14, setting fire to the town, and kilHng two 
military" officials, and severely wounding the sub -district 
magistrate. For such an outrage some one had to suffer, 
and when the higher civil and military authorities came 
upon the scenes the Christians were accused. Thirty-two 
men who were regarded as Christians, though they were 
only recognised by the Church as inquirers, were put to 
death, some of them having been tortured until they con- 
fessed themselves as rebels, while three or four hundred 
families were blackmailed and plundered. Subsequently, 
when the missionaries returned to the province in 1901, 
this matter was carefully investigated, and the Chinese 
authorities admitted that the Christians were entirely 
free from blame. While the plundered families were 
indemnified and a proclamation put out exonerating the 
Christians, no one was tried for the murder of the thirty- 
two innocent men ; and as it was not for the missionaries 
to ask for vengeance, they had to be satisfied with the 
vindication of the innocence of the Christians. 

In June 1904 the work among these Miao was taken 
in charge by Mr. C, Chenery, who was in many ways 
eminently fitted for it, but, unfortunately, in less than twelve 
months he was accidentally drowned, and was buried by the 
side of Mr. Fleming and the Miao evangelist. That work 
is now in charge of Mr. E. Williams. 

The encouraging and successful work among the Miao 
at Anshuen Fu, to which reference has already been made, 
far surpassed in results what had been expected from the 
special efforts made to reach them. The goodwill and 
confidence of many had been gained through medical help 
received from Mr. Adam, and in a remarkable way the 
interest shown by these people spread to more distant 
communities, and there are now thousands of these abori- 
gines around that district who call themselves Christians. 
Many of these, however, are very ignorant, and are being 



THE PEOVINCE OF KWEICHOW 269 

gradually instructed in the Gospel. A great movement has 
also commenced among these Miao at and around Kopu/ 
which is eight or nine days' journey to the north-west of 
Anshuen, in the prefecture of Tating, and near the borders 
of the province of Yunnan. Many of these were baptized 
in the presence of a thousand or more spectators, and they 
have, at their own expense, built a chapel to accommodate 
several hundred persons. Chapels have also been built in 
two or three other Miao villages, which are being made the 
centre for regular work. At the last half-yearly meeting 
held at Anshuen Fu four or five hundred persons were 
present, about half of whom were Miao. The movement 
has also spread westward, and is being cared for by workers 
of the Bible Christian Mission from the neighbouring 
province of Yunnan. 

Missionary effort among the Chung-chia has not been so 
encouraging, though many of their villages around Kweiyang 
have been repeatedly visited and several schools opened. 
The Gospel of Matthew has been translated into their 
language by the writer, and published by the British and 
Foreign Bible Society, but as the scholars desire to learn to 
read and write in Chinese, they are not eager to have this 
used in the schools. 

For missionary work among the non-Chinese in this 
province it is advisable that the missionary should know 
something of their language, though this is not absolutely 
necessary, as the larger number of them can speak Chinese. 
We cannot remember to have met a Chung-chia man who 
could not speak Chinese, though doubtless there are such. 
Naturally a smaller proportion of the women can speak 
Chinese. Probably not one in three of the Miao men can 
speak Chinese, however. As to the prospects of missionary 
enterprise in this province, the workers were never so 
hopeful as at the present time. 

^ For a fuller story of tliis remarkable movement see A Modern Pentecost, 
published by the China Inland Mission and Morgan & Scott. 3d. net. 



270 THE CHINESE EMPIRE 



THE MIAO STORY OF CREATION 

Who made heaven and earth 1 
Who made insects 1 
Who made men 1 
Made male and made female ? 
I who speak don't know. 

Heavenly King made heaven and earth. 
Zie ne made insects, 
Zie ne made spiders, 
Made male and made female. 
How is it you don't know ? 

How made heaven and earth 1 
How made insects 1 
How made men and demons 1 
Made male and made female 1 
I who speak don't know. 

Heavenly King is (or was) intelligent, 
Spat a lot of spittle into his hand, 
Clapped his hands with a noise. 
Produced heaven and earth. 
Tall wild grass made insects, 
Stones made men and demons, 
Made male and made female. 
How is it you don't know 1 

Then follow many questions and answers, in all above 
one thousand lines, describing how the heavens were 
propped up and how the sun was made and fixed in its 
place. 

Heavenly King is a translation of Vang vai, the two 
words they use as the name of the Creator, and it is 
very interesting to note how clearly and simply they say 
" Heavenly King made heaven and earth." This is so 
different from the elaborate and confused cosmogeny of the 
Chinese as to compel the opinion that we have here a very 
old tradition, and one they did not learn from the Chinese. 



THE PROVINCE OF KWANGSI 

By the Rev. Louis Byrde, B.A., Churcli Missionary Society. 

Situation. — The province of Kwangst — " Extensive 
West" — stretches roughly for 450 miles from west to east 
between longitude 105° and 112° east, and for 250 miles 
from north to south between 26° and 22° latitude north. 
Though situated in the south of China, it is entirely cut 
off from the sea, its natural coast-line, on the Gulf of 
Tongking, being reckoned to the neighbouring province of 
Kwangtung. 

Size. — Its area as given in The Statesman's Year-Book is 
77,000 square miles, but as no attempt has been made to 
scientifically fix the positions of its borders, such figures are 
only approximate. 

Physical Feattires. — The outstanding feature of Kwangsi 
is its river system. The West Kiver, rising in Yunnan, 
enters the province above Peh-Seh (or Pose, Cantonese 
Pak-Shek), where navigation begins, and generally following 
the southern border of the province, leaves it five or so 
miles below Wuchow, flowing thence through Kwangtung 
to the sea below Kongmoon. At Hslinchow (Kwaipeng), 
90 miles above Wuchow, the main stream is joined by an 
important branch, which itself is formed by the Eed Water 
River (geographically the longest but the least important), 
and the Liuchow (Willow) Eiver, made up of two important 
affluents rising in Kweichow. Two other important 
tributaries are the Left Eiver to Longchow, a treaty port 
35 miles from the French Tongking border, and the Cassia 

271 



272 THE CHINESE EMPIKE 

(or Fu) Eiver to Kweilin, the provincial capital. This latter 
is connected by a canal with the Siang Eiver, and so onwards 
to the Yangtse. This great river system provides complete 
water communication to almost eveiy part of the province, 
albeit on occasions dangerous. 

As regards mountains and hills, KwANGSi has its full 
share, there being no plains. To the north and west the 
land rises continuously — in fact, on the north there is a very 
abrupt rise of some thousands of feet up to the highlands 
of Kweichow. To its generally hilly surface are due the 
great and often disastrous freshets on the tributaries and 
the sudden rises of the great West Eiver. This river has a 
maximum summer rise of 7 feet at Wuchow. Its breadth 
also varies from half to three-quarters of a mile, comparing 
not unfavourably with the Yangtse in the proportion of one 
to three. 

Climate. — About one-third of the province lies within 
the Tropic of Cancer, but in spite of this it is not really 
tropical, although the summer is hot and somewhat damp. 
In the north the summer is shorter and drier, and in the 
winter snow and frost are by no means uncommon. In an 
average year January is dry ; February, March, uncertain ; 
April to June, wet ; July, August, uncertain ; September to 
December, dry. But, as elsewhere, weather forecasting is an 
unprofitable business. A sudden fall of temperature, as 
much as 20° in a few hours, when the wind suddenly 
changes and blows down from the highlands on the north, 
is a cause of much sickness resulting from chill. 

Population. — Concerning Chinese populations " fools 
venture where wise men fear to tread." The Statesman's 
Year-Booh gives 5,000,000. This is probably a minimum, 
for some estimates are as high as 10,000,000. That the 
population was much larger in the past than at present is 
evidenced by the fact that much land in many parts once 
cultivated is now waste. The slaughters, often wholesale, 
the inevitable accompaniments of rebellions with which 
Kavangsi has been cursed for sixty years or more, fully 
account for this decrease. Even as recently as two years 



THE PROVINCE OF KWANGSI 273 

ago the official returns for a few counties gave over 20,000 
as the number of executions following on the actual 
suppression of a local rising. This dearth of population has 
made Kwangsi a field for immigration, about 30 per cent 
apparently of the passengers in steamers alone from Kwang- 
tung remaining in the province, amounting to about 40,000 
per annum. In the northern prefectures a large immigra- 
tion of Hunanese continually goes on, tens of thousands of 
them being found in Kweilin city alone. 

For this, if for no other reason, the attempt to recruit 
for the South African mines was foredoomed to the failure 
it turned out to be. In this respect Kwangsi is in marked 
contrast to Kwangtung, with its surplus population flowing 
out to the ends of the earth. 

Though reckoned among the poor provinces of China, its 
poverty is not the result of overcrowding as elsewhere, but 
may, in fact, be due to this very want of population, coupled, 
of course, with the chronic unrest and the absence of easy 
means of communication apart from the rivers. As i& 
natural under the circumstances, a large proportion of the 
population is found in the navigable river valleys. 

Aboriginal Trites. — That numerous aboriginal tribes 
exist is an undoubted fact, particularly in the north-west, 
but to acquire facts about them is another matter. They 
are separated into tribes under chiefs, who render some sort 
of homage to the Chinese officials. The names of some of 
these tribes are Miao, Tao, Tong, Chuang, Chong, and Lolo. 
In speech as in custom, etc., they are quite distinct from 
the Chinese, but some are akin to the Burmans and others 
to the Tibetans. Some tribes are believed to have a 
rudimentary form of writing, but others use, if necessary, 
Chinese characters. The French Roman Catholic mission- 
aries have reduced one or two of their languages to writing. 
No other Mission work has been attempted among them, 
although they seem peaceable and friendly people. Their 
chief industry is cutting timber in the mountains and 
floating it down to the main rivers. In point of numbers 
they are quite in a minority among the general population. 

T 



274 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

(Mr. A. Little in The Far East, p. 136, suggests 50 per cent, 
but this is far too high an estimate.) 

Les Lolos, by Paul Vial, Shanghai, 1898, gives informa- 
tion about this particular tribe. 

Language. — KwANGSi is roughly divided into two 
language areas by a line drawn diagonally a little north of 
Nanning to a little south of Pingloh. North of this line is 
Mandarin-speaking, south of it Cantonese with kindred 
dialects. Colonies of Hakkas also exist. The aboriginal 
tribes speak their own (non - Chinese ?) languages as 
mentioned above. 

Ancient History. — KwANGSi, along with the south 
generally, was originally inhabited by uncivilised tribes, 
the descendants of whom possibly are found to-day in the 
Miaotse, etc., where intermarriage with the Chinese has not 
obliterated the chief differences. The region was then 
known as "Yueh." The great emperor Shih Hwangti in 
216 B.C. annexed and partly subdued Yueh, designating it 
the province of Kweilin. About 206 B.C. Chao-to, one of 
his celebrated generals, raised the standard of revolt and 
rapidly extended his authority over all Southern Yueh. 
Chao-to's grandson, who succeeded him, failed to keep 
possession, and the Hans later regained the ascendency. 
Han Wu-ti in 111 B.C. again had to send large forces to 
suppress a rebellion (vide The Far East, p. 147). 

From that day to this KwANGSi has been in the balance, 
oscillating between successful and abortive rebellions. 
Whenever the ruling powers in the north have been weak, 
KwANGSi has been left alone ; when strong, Kwangsi has 
suffered, and nursing her wrongs, has waited for the next 
favourable opportunity to throw off the yoke. Until quite 
recent times the relation to the central Government has 
been more that of a dependency than a province, the 
existence of 34 hereditary Tu-sze governing counties 
plainly revealing this. 

In the reign of Cheng Hua, a.d. 1465, of the Ming 
dynasty, a bridge of boats was constructed at Wuchow 
across the Cassia river, of which, however, no trace remains 



THE PROVINCE OF KWANGSI 275 

to-day except the iron pillars standing upright on the 
banks. The similar bridges at Kweilin and elsewhere were 
probably made about the same time, and possibly also the 
military road along the river from Kweilin to Wuchow, the 
ruins of which, with three massive castle " keeps," testify to 
the firm hold which the invaders from the north meant to 
acquire over this southern clime. 

Modern History. — Modern history likewise mainly 
concerns itself with rebellions. In 1849 the Taiping 
Rebellion, led by Hung Siu-ts'iien, a Hakka native of the 
province, broke out in the west. (Was it in the Taiping Fu 
prefecture ?) After various successes, fighting and burning 
their way through the province, the Taipings attacked 
Kweilin. Here tradition says that they used towers on 
wheels in order to overcome the defenders on the high walls. 
These latter burnt the towers. Not being able to properly 
invest the city, they gave up the siege and passed on to 
their triumphant march through Hunan. 

The Boat Rebels had complete control of the southern 
portion of the province at a later date, holding even 
Wuchow for two years, 1857-59. 

The Mohammedan Rebellion, 1855-73, in Yunnan, 
seriously affected the west of the province. 

Finally, for the last ten or more years a series of risings 
against authority have been more or less general throughout 
the province. Thus in July 1898 Wuchow was threatened 
by rebels from the south-west, who had captured several 
cities, and laid waste the country. Again, omitting minor 
events, in June 1904 mutinous troops sacked Liuchow 
and other places, and then marched on Kweilin, but divided 
counsels caused delays. Meanwhile Grovernment troops 
arriving from Hunan checked their further advance. 

Other risings in the west have at one time or another 
attracted considerable attention from the Government. 
Immense numbers of troops, one year with another, have 
been drafted into the province, the late Viceroy Tsen having 
at one time, 1904-1905, 106 regiments (perhaps 50,000) 
of so-called foreign -drilled men at his disposal. As a 



276 THE CHINESE EMPIKE 

matter of fact, the cure has often been worse than the 
disease, for the actual beginning of serious trouble in the west 
was caused by Marshal Su disbanding troops in preference 
to paying them the arrears of wages due. The men there- 
fore marched off with their modern rifles, and have since 
lived by plunder when other means of livelihood failed. 
Troops sent against them have often been induced by offers 
of higher pay to join the rebels. 

Other causes have also operated, e.g., famine in some 
particular district, the import of rice from elsewhere being 
forbidden until an acute stage is reached. Also the incom- 
petence and rapacity of officials, who, of course, come from 
other provinces. But the greatest cause of all has un- 
doubtedly been the measures taken to quell the risings. 
The Government troops, more often than not, in dealing with 
a district do far more harm than the rebels did themselves. 
If a village is suspected of helping, or even selling supplies 
to the rebels, it is ruthlessly destroyed along with its 
inhabitants, any of those who manage to escape naturally 
joining the rebels. The Viceregal proclamation announced 
complete destruction to any place from which even one rebel 
had come. This seems to have been carried out, for con- 
tinual reports have come in of villages and large farms 
entirely destitute of inhabitants. Now (1907), by way of 
compensation for the devastated districts, the risings being 
apparently over, military colonies are suggested as a means 
of repeopling the land. 

Connected with the general unrest may be mentioned 
the work of the secret societies. The chief are the San-hoh- 
hwei, or San-tien-hwei, in English " The Triads " ; the Ko- 
lao-hwei, " Elder Brother Society " ; and the Ko-ti-hwei, 
" The Brotherhood," possibly another name for the previous 
one. The central idea of one and all is to drive out the 
Manchus and restore a Chinese dynasty to the Dragon 
throne. 

Mention must be made of the Boxer Uprising and its 
effect upon the province. In June 1900 all foreigners, 
with the exception of a few at Wuchow, were withdrawn. 



THE PROVINCE OF KWANGSI 277 

and even there during the crisis, before it was known 
definitely what would happen at Canton under Li Hung 
Chang, the few men remaining were in readiness to flee at a 
moment's notice, one steamer being always kept at the port 
in case of need. The storm, however, did not break, and 
after a time the missionaries were all allowed to return 
inland, finding on their arrival that the attitude of the 
officials had changed greatly for the better. 

Of recent famines the most serious was in 1903, along 
the West River. Shortage of the early rains was the cause. 
Great suffering existed, but was partly relieved through the 
initiative of the missionaries, who opened rice depots. 
Funds came in from Hongkong and America, the. Chinese 
also emulating the zeal of foreigners. However, as so often 
in such cases, the remedy was somewhat late in arriving. 

Cities. — KwANGSi has 1 1 prefectures, 1 chihli-chow, 
2 tings, 4 1 ^ chows, 52^ hsiens. The Governor resides at 
Kweilin — made the capital in 1665 — and the Viceroy of 
the Liang Kwang at Canton ; though Viceroy Tsen twice 
visited the province, and for a time, in 1904-1905, resided 
in Kweilin, in spite of his being a Kweilin man. It was then 
that he publicly drank the blood of a rebel leader, who was 
executed by " ling-chih " in the great public square of the 
city. 

Kweilin (" Cassia Grove "), the capital, with a popula- 
tion estimated at 150,000, is oval in shape, situated on the 
west bank of the Cassia river, about 250 miles from 
Wuchow. It was evidently so placed for ease of access 
from the north, a level road connecting it with Hunan, there 
being no pass to surmount to get through the mountains. 
It is surrounded by a good wall about seven miles long, and 
has several suburbs, that across the river being connected 
by a bridge of boats. There are no important manufactures, 
the population being largely residential. Within the city 
is another walled enclosure, " The King City," built during 
the Ming dynasty for a member of the imperial family, who 

^ Of these 25 are t'u-chow, or subordinate chow. 
^ Of these 3 are t'u-hsien, or subordinate hsien. 



278 THE CHINESE EMriEE 

was a local " King." This is now filled with the Examination 
Halls, a magnificent view of which is obtained from an 
overlooking " bluff." Several other bluffs lend a charm to 
the general aspect. Temples in caves, partly artificial, are 
another feature. 

Kweilin, at one time the scene of Kang Yu-wei's teaching 
on reform, was rightly one of the first provincial capitals to 
open officially a college on modern lines. This was in May 
1899, and it has been staffed by Chinese ever since, though, 
if the truth must be told, some of the " professors " are 
hardly worthy of the title. Great improvements have, how- 
ever, taken place of late. 

Above the city the Cassia river is difficult of navigation, 
but notwithstanding great quantities of salt still go that way 
into Hunan, the southern portion of that province being 
obliged to receive its salt from the Liang Kwang. 

Manning {" Southern Best "), which is on the north 
bank of the West Kiver, 360 miles from Wuchow, is a most 
important, if not the most important, commercial city of the 
province, being on the natural and most convenient trade 
route to Yunnan, as well as being the link between Tong- 
king and the east. After many years of indecision, in fact 
since 1899, the Government has at last, January 1907, 
opened it as a treaty port with I.M.C. staff. It is reported 
that Great Britain will also appoint a consul. French 
influence has been predominant in the past, although 
cordially disliked by the Chinese. It has also been the 
scene latterly of an aggressive and extensive Eoman Catholic 
work, but apparently so far without much local result. 

Lungchow. — Farther west than Nanning, and situated 
on the " Left Eiver," a tributary of the West Eiver, is 
Lungchow, opened as a treaty port in 1887, after the 
Franco-Chinese War. It has not yet been connected with 
Hanoi by rail, as intended, on account of the reluctance of 
the Chinese to give the French a foothold in Kwangsi. 
The terminus of the railway is over the border near Lang- 
son, but a road connects with Lungchow, 35 miles away. 
Though the French have firmly established themselves at 



THE PEOVINCE OF KWANGSI 279 

Limgchow, the hoped-for developments are still in the 
future. 

Wuchow. — The most important treaty port is Wuchow, 
situated in the extreme east of the province, opened in 
1897, since which time it has rapidly risen to be one of the 
"greater" ports of China. It is distant about 220 miles 
from Canton, Hongkong being somewhat farther, with both 
of which places it is in continuous steam communication. 
The city, at the very gate into Kwangsi, occupies a similar 
position at the junction of the Cassia river (locally called 
Fu river) with the West Eiver, as Hankow does with 
regard to the Han and the Yangtse. It is likewise the 
head of the larger steamer navigation, and hence a place of 
transhipment for goods, and like Hankow must continue 
to increase in importance. But, unlike Hankow, it unfor- 
tunately possesses little level land, hills being plentiful, the 
" Peak " Taiyiin Shan, 1150 feet, overlooking the city. 
This absence of room, coupled with the fact of a possible rise 
of water of 70 feet or so, has led the inhabitants to build 
their houses several stories high. The city was " founded " 
in A.D. 592, and was for long the seat of Government, 
including also Tongking, and no doubt has had an eventful 
history if all were known, for being the " key " to Kwangsi 
from the east, its possession must often have been a point of 
contention. 

It is now a thriving, bustling mart and entrepot, with a 
large boat population on the numerous craft of all descrip- 
tions. The river banks are a line of pontoons, partly stores 
and partly wharves. Its population is supposed to be 
50,000. 

Hsilnchow (locally known as Kwaipeng), 90 miles 
from Wuchow, on the West Eiver ; Liuchow and King 
Yuen, on a tributary to the north-west, are also important 
cities. 

Communications. — As mentioned above, the river system 
provides communication to almost all parts of the province. 
Steamers of not more than 7 feet draught can (and do 
daily) reach Wuchow even at lowest water. From thence 



280 THE CHINESE EMPIRE 

(apart from numerous Chinese craft of every conceivable 
shape and rig), Chinese-built launches run continuously to 
Kiangkow or Tahwang Kiang (locally Kong Hau), 75 
miles above Wuchow. From this point some go north- 
west to Liuchow, and others south-west to Kwei-hsien 
(locally Kwai Un), 150 miles along the West Eiver from 
Wuchow. When the water is favourable (about ten 
months in the year) launches now run on to Nanning, 360 
miles from Wuchow, and even as far as Peh Seh (Pak Shek), 
two days' journey from the Yunnan border and twenty-five 
stages in all from Yunnan Seng. They also run by the 
Tso river to Lungchow, 3 5 miles from the Tongking border. 
One motor boat, one of the first in China, also runs up to 
Nanning. These launches are mostly for passengers, and 
are often " armour-clad," i.e. are surrounded with heavy 
iron plates (movable) and strong wire netting as a pro- 
tection against pirates, who are not unknown on the 
upper West River, but are not nearly so common as on the 
lower river in Kwangtung. As an extreme instance, it 
may be recorded that eight launches were " held up " 
between August and November 1904, within 30 miles 
of Wuchow ! Launches are also used for towing 
junks. 

Beyond Liuchow navigation is possible by boat by two 
routes into Kweichow, one vid Kingyiian, the other right 
up to Kuchow. Also by a river and canal system to Kweilin ; 
but this route is now only possible during the rains, having 
been allowed to fall into disrepair. The Red Water River, 
though the longest branch of the West River, is un- 
navigable, as is witnessed by the fact of there being no 
towns on its banks, and is only used for floating down 
timber rafts. The Cassia river, north from Wuchow, 
although one succession of rapids with a fall of 600 feet 
in about 200 miles, is navigated to its source by the 
ingenious and indefatigable Chinese boatmen. On this 
river occurs the Tsong Lin Gorge, little more than 50 feet 
wide in places, of which Bickmore the traveller says : " As 
we sailed along with such overhanging precipices on either 



THE PEOVINCE OF KWANGSI 281 

hand, the effect was far grander than anything I have seen 
elsewhere in China." Beyond Kweilin a canalised channel 
across the plain of Hsing An, evidently an ancient lake 
bottom, connects with the head-waters of the Siang river, 
and so with the Yangtse. The remarkable " rift " in the 
Nan Ling Mountains, north-east of Kweilin, through which 
this river passes, is the only one that occurs in the con- 
tinuous ranges parallel to the sea-coast from Yunnan to 
Chekiang. This probably accounts for the fact that all 
North Kwangsi speaks Mandarin, while every other part 
on the seaward slope of these mountains speaks a variety 
of dialects. The " rift " itself is, speaking roughly, a valley 
about 1 5 miles broad and 100 long, hedged in by mountain 
masses. The Taipings advanced into Central China through 
this " rift," the failure to hold such a gate having the most 
dire consequences. A railway could be built between 
Yungchow, Hunan, and Liuchow, Kwangsi, without neces- 
sarily rising above river level. 

Of roads proper Kwangsi is sadly deficient. Nothing 
would do more to prevent " rebellions," and also provide a 
means of the disposal of surplus produce, than a properly 
carried-out system of roads, which exist now only in embryo 
as narrow and often dangerous trails. Within living 
memory a prefect of Pingloh cut a road (or repaired one) 
connecting with Chaoping Hsien, but otherwise little seems 
to have been done in this connection, although some sur- 
veying has been undertaken. 

Of suggested railways the air is full, notably one from 
Kweilin to Wuchow (or to Hsunchow) and on to Pakhoi, 
with branches to Nanning and also north to Kweichow, so 
as to give the province a direct outlet to the sea, popular 
opinion demanding a provincial seaport. Considerable 
sums seem to have been gathered from confident " share- 
holders," but so far nothing has materialised except " Kail- 
way Bureaux " and their attendant officials. 

Industries. — The Taiping Kebellion, along with its sub- 
sequent imitations, seems to have cast a gloom over the 
enterprise and ambition of the indigenous population. 



282 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

Nearly all industries, carried on with the object of 
supplying more than local demands, are largely in the 
hands of immigrants from Kwangtung or Hunan. Eice 
grown along the river valleys, though not to the same 
extent as in the past, is a valuable asset. So is timber, 
immense quantities of which are cut and floated down from 
the north-west, over 1000 large rafts leaving Wuchow for 
down river annually. Bamboo and firewood must not be 
forgotten. The cultivation of the mulberry (for silk) has 
of late been greatly extended and offers some promise. 
Though rich in minerals, gold, silver, copper, tin, antimony, 
iron, coal, etc., little more than surface work has been 
attempted. At one silver mine near Kwei-hsien, although 
foreign machinery has been imported, it has never been 
used successfully, partly on account of hampering mining 
regulations and partly from lack of intelligent direction. 

The collection and expressing of oils is one of the chief 
industries. The complete failure of sugar-production in the 
last few years, i.e. for more than local needs, seems some- 
what unaccountable. Boat-building and the working up 
of bamboo into various articles, rope, etc., employ many 
people. 

Trade. — KwANGSi is always reckoned as one of the three 
poor provinces of the empire, but it is quite open to question 
whether it is as poor generally as officially represented. 
Under this impression Sir Eobert Hart, when Wuchow was 
opened as a treaty port in 1897, expected that the 
customs staff would have merely nominal duties to per- 
form. Nothing was more unforeseen (in spite of rebellions 
and famines) than that the I.M.C. trade returns would 
soon place Wuchow among the " greater " treaty ports. 
For 1905 the total trade returns for that port alone 
(Lungchow figures are unimportant) for both steamer and 
junk traffic amounted to £3,369,380, to which at the 
very least £500,000 must be added for the opium exported 
and the salt imported. It must, however, be mentioned 
that some of the foreign imports, especially kerosene, are 
carried by river vid Liuchow to Kuchow in Kweichow (that 



THE PEOVmCE OF KWANGSI 283 

province receiving two-thirds of its foreign imports vid 
Wuchow), and that large quantities of salt likewise pass 
vid Kweilin into Hunan, also pewter ore and oils, as well 
as goods into Yunnan vid Pehseh (Pakshek). 

KwANGSi possesses most productive river valleys, also 
great supplies of timber, which unfortunately is rapidly 
being cut down and but little replaced ; so, given a just 
administration and internal peace, trade should yearly show 
a distinct increase. That such is expected, it may be 
mentioned that two companies have erected oil tanks at 
Wuchow. 

The chief exports are : Kice, opium in transit, timber, 
hides, leather skins, etc., oils of various kinds, poultry 
(2,000,000 in one year to Hongkong), cattle to Hongkong, 
cassia, indigo, medicines, raw silk, etc. 

The chief imports are : Salt, opium from Yunnan and 
Kweichow, cotton goods and yarn, woollen goods, silk goods, 
bar iron, kerosene oil, fish, flour, paper, matches, lamps, etc. 

Dwellings. — Kwangsi being rich in timber, most of the 
houses are built of that material. These are often pro- 
tected by fire -walls of brick completely surrounding the 
house, but not an integral part of it. The typical house, 
not those of Cantonese design, consists of a series of wooden 
structures, each itself being planned on exactly the same 
building principles as a large marquee tent. The roof 
of tiles is always longer by one section to the rear than to 
the front, on the principle of head and tail. Unfortunately 
all houses have not fire-walls (as bricks cost money), and 
so cities are subject to most devastating conflagrations. 
Several fires, for instance, in Kweilin have destroyed over 
a thousand houses in a few hours. 

In some parts rock caves and caverns are inhabitated, 
but probably by aborigines. 

A large population lives on the water, every boat being 
a home, and a very healthy home too. 

Guilds. — In a province where immigrants comprise a 
considerable proportion of the population, that peculiarly 
Chinese institution of guilds naturally flourishes. Thus 



284 THE CHINESE EMPIRE 

in any city, and often in small places as well, the finest 
buildings are the Guild-houses, belonging to the provincials 
of Hunan, Kwangtung, Kiangsi, and other provinces. A 
Guild-house is partly a theatre and partly a place of business, 
where the members, who all pay dues, meet as occasion 
demands. 

American Boycott. — The American boycott, unless the 
latest news portends its revival, is now a thing of the past. 
In Wuchow and along the West Eiver, being Cantonese- 
speaking, considerable feeling was manifested. Some 
American missionaries found it advisable to take a holiday. 
The sale of kerosene and American tobacco products fell 
off. In some parts Australian flour replaced American, 
being also cheaper than the Chinese and better. As 
KWANGSI has provided very few emigrants, actual personal 
feeling was never very deep, but as the import trade is in 
the hands of Cantonese merchants, all American goods were 
for a time tabooed in 1905. 

Educational Progress. — As mentioned above, a provincial 
college was opened in Kweilin in 1899. Since then many 
others have been added — police, normal, law, industrial, 
and other schools. Also some for girls. From all parts 
of the province the same intense desire for modern educa- 
tion is reported. In many places temples have been seized 
and either converted into or the materials used for building 
schools. At times this has caused local resentment where 
a popular shrine has been concerned, but generally the 
people are not loath to have the opportunity to recover 
property from Buddhist monks, who are not in high favour 
nowadays. In the Wuchow prefecture alone sixty modern 
schools have been opened. 

The students of all these modern schools wear a semi- 
military uniform, gymnastics and drill forming a regular 
part of the curriculum. The cutting off of the queue and 
wearing a foreign-shaped straw hat are also marked features, 
of which also " music " must not be omitted. 

Police Reform. — In such matters Kwangsi has been by 
no means behind the rest of the Empire, The ancient 



THE PKOVmCE OF KWANGSI 285 

system of night watchmen was abolished in 1903 or 
earlier in Kweilin, modern drilled and uniformed police, with 
sentry boxes, taking their place on the streets. Other 
prefectural cities followed suit. Though all is not gold 
that glitters, nor every uniformed stalwart a paragon of 
virtue, the new system is evidently a vast improvement 
on the past. 

With regard to prisons, a little has been done to improve 
them, and horrible excesses are rarer than they used to be. 
Some grades of prisoners are provided with work. At the 
time when it was desired to attract coolies for South Africa, 
the Government thought it had a golden opportunity (at 4s. 
a head) of being relieved of the denizens of its prisons, but 
its hopes were rudely dashed to the ground by the British 
authorities at Wuchow refusing point-blank to accept the 
shackled " volunteers " ! 

General Progress. — In spite of the repeated set-backs of 
local "rebellions," progress is noticed throughout the province. 
Apart from the increased facilities of steam communication 
mentioned above, postal developments have been marked in 
the last three years. Wuchow is the head office, with 5200 
li of land lines, radiating in all directions, an alternate day 
service being maintained. This has led, inter alia, to a 
great increase in the circulation of newspapers. 

The Likin stations on the West Eiver system have 
lately been reduced from 53 to 18, and are now called 
Tung Shui. 

A mint for coining copper ten -cash pieces is to be 
established ; meanwhile the import of such is restricted in 
order to keep up their value until the local authorities are 
ready to reap the prospective harvest. 

Paper money is being introduced, but is not in general 
favour. The currency up to now has been largely silver 
dollars with subsidiary silver coins. Those from Hongkong 
are usually preferred to Kwangtung tokens. The introduc- 
tion of ten -cash pieces has greatly reduced the amount of 
copper cash in circulation. 

In the towns, market-places have taken the place of 



286 THE CHINESE EMPIRE 

wayside stalls, thereby allowing much freer movement in 
the crowded streets. 

An organised system of street lighting has also been 
introduced. 

Military reforms are in keeping with the rest of the 
empire. 

The desire for constitutional government is by no means 
absent, the more enlightened among the people demanding it. 

Opium. — KwANGSi imports no Indian opium (in 1905 
2 piculs only), but on the other hand receives from Yunnan 
and Kweichow sufficient to leave, after supplying all her 
local needs, about 10,000 piculs for export to Canton. 
Very little opium is produced in the province itself. Opium 
caravans also pass Kweilin en route for Hunan. 

In 1903 the Chinese authorities raised the duty on 
native opium for use in the province from 7 to 100 taels 
(a tael is about 3s.) per picul (133 lbs.), and thereby during 
the next year realised over 500,000 taels in revenue, against 
the previous 38,000 taels paid by an opium syndicate. In 
spite of this, the price of Yunnan opium remains at about 
£65 per picul, as against £115 for Indian opium. 

Opium-smoking and its consequent evils are widely 
disseminated through the province. 

French Relations. — Ever since 1885, after the inglorious 
war, China has had France as a neighbour to the south- 
west. Throughout these years she has been pursued by a 
dread of French aggression, every move on the latter's part 
being met by a corresponding move by China. Mutual 
suspicion has been the order of the day, and not always 
without reason, at least on China's side. The French at 
once established themselves at Lungchow, the only treaty 
port for years, but all endeavours to construct their railway 
across the border have so far met with a refusal. 

In 1898 a railway survey party roughly surveyed a line 
from Lungchow vid Nanning and Liuchow to Kweilin and 
onwards, but nothing has come of it. At the same time, 
a secret agreement was arranged whereby, among other 
clauses, no foreign machinery or railway material, other 



THE PEOVINCE OF KWANGSI 287 

than French, could be imported into the province. This 
has probably become a dead letter, but it did not tend to 
decrease the feeKngs of distrust on China's part. 

The continued rebellions and risings in the west have 
provided excellent grounds of grievance on the part of 
France, but all offers of men or money to repress the same 
have been steadily refused, and when threats of intervention 
followed offers of help, the Chinese authorities have over 
and over again risen to the occasion and suppressed the 
risings. 

As an offset to French influence at the treaty port of 
Lungchow and also at Nanning, the Chinese have for eight 
years been trying to have Nanning opened as a treaty port. 
There being no particular commercial reason why it should 
be so opened, its actual opening has been, delayed until now, 
January 1907. At the same time, the Government is 
appointing a Tao-tai, with powers equal to a provincial 
governor, to have general superintendence over the west. 
This is as an alternative to the other suggestion, that the 
capital be removed from Kweilin to Nanning. 

In every way possible the French colonial authorities 
are trying to gain a predominating influence in Kwangsi, 
speaking of it as " Our Kwangsi," as the Germans are 
reported to speak of " Our Shantung " ; but the suspicions 
of the Chinese being fully aroused, such a consummation 
seems less likely than ever, quite apart from what other 
nations might have to say on the subject. The two 
" French " schools at Nanning and Kweilin are said to be 
subsidised by the French colonial authorities. 

EoMAN Catholic Missions 

Eoman Catholic missionaries of "Les Missions ^fitrangeres" 
of Paris have, in modern times, been working in Kwangsi 
since about 1850, formerly making Kwei-hsien their head- 
quarters. Latterly Nanning has become their principal 
centre, where several important buildings, among which a 
large foreign style cathedral with two towers, in red and 



288 



THE CHINESE EMPIRE 



white, seating 800, have been erected. At both this place 
and Kweilin, boys' high schools, under the charge of Marist 
lay brothers, have been opened, where a modern education, 
including French and English, is given. About 150 
students attend. A seminary for training priests, with 
fourteen students, has also been opened at Nanning. About 
eight stations are occupied by foreigners, Wuchow being 
held as an agency. 

Since the Chinese Government has taken a firmer stand 
about interference in Yamen affairs, their local influence is 
perhaps less, and therefore better, than it used to be. 



Roman Catholic Statistics for 1905 



Members 


3201 


Chinese catechists . 


40 


Chapels 


50 


Schools . 


45 


Bishop . 


1 


Scholars 


510 


Priests . 


24 


Dispensaries . 


5 


Lay brothers . 




Baptisms, heathen . 


611 


Sisters . 


3 


„ heretics . 


9 


Chinese priests 


4 


„ children . 


198 



Pkotestant Missions : Histoky 

Until recent years KwANGSi had no resident Protestant 
missionaries. About forty years ago Dr. Graves of Canton 
itinerated as far as Kweilin, followed at a later date by Mr, 
Wells of the L.M.S., Hongkong. Some C.I.M. missionaries 
also once reached Kweilin from Kweichow. Bishop Burdon, 
C.M.S., Hongkong, also paid evangelistic visits to the 
southern regions. The American Presbyterians established 
a medical mission at Kwaipeng on the "West Eiver, but 
were driven out by a local riot. The American Baptists, 
South, for many years carried on work by means of Chinese 
workers at Wuchow, from whence they were repeatedly 
expelled, and also farther west. Erom 1894, however, the 
missionaries of the Alliance Mission began to regularly 
itinerate, and succeeded in 1896 in occupying a house in 
Wuchow. After the opening of that port in June 1897, 
residence became easier, and two other Missions, the 



THE PKOVINCE OF KWANGSI 289 

Southern Baptist Convention and the Wesleyan Missionary 
Society, were soon represented by foreigners. The next 
year saw the advent of the Church Missionary Society, 
whose missionaries in 1899 moved on to Kweilin. 

Taking now (1907) a quick survey of the four Missions, 
the Alliance Mission far outnumbering the others, we see a 
chain of stations along the West Eiver from Lungchow in 
the west to Wuchow in the east. To the north-west 
Liuchow is occupied. To the north Kweilin and Pingloh. 
To the south Yulingchow (Watlam-chow). Thus, with the 
exception of the district drained by the Eed Water Eiver, 
where the population is small, all the main centres are held, 
often very weakly, by the representatives of Evangelical 
Christianity. 

Apart from Wuchow, where schools, hospitals, etc., have 
been in working order for some years, the whole work is 
largely of a simple evangelistic character, though small 
schools are rapidly coming into being. Colporteurs of the 
British and Foreign Bible Society have for years circulated 
great numbers of Gospels. 

In the Mission history of the province the year 1906 
will long be remembered as the time when Dr. Eoderick 
Macdonald of the Wesleyan Mission, Wuchow, was shot by 
pirates near Samshui, Kwangtung, when travelling on the 
s.s. Sainam, one of the Wuchow steamers. The whole 
province mourns the kindly doctor, who had so won the 
confidence of the Chinese that he never found it necessary 
to build a wall round the mission compound ; possibly the 
only case in China. 

As regards results, though no great ingatherings can so 
far be recorded, a very steady increase is noticeable, and 
now that so much of the actual pioneering is a thing of the 
past, much greater additions may confidently be expected. 

Pkospects 
Difficulties : — 

1. The danger of the Chinese attaching themselves to 
the Church for political motives. 

u 



290 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

2. The commercial spirit that so quickly affects all who 
accept new ideas in any shape or form. 

3. The methods of work employed by the Eomanists 
leading to ill-feeling among the Chinese. 

4. The frequent risings and general state of unrest in 
the past. 

Encouragements : — 

1. The readiness of the people everywhere to listen and 
inquire. 

2. The strong spirit of independence often shown among 
converts. 

3. The difference of method between Protestants and 
Eomanists being more clearly distinguished by the Chinese. 

4. The better prospect of quiet throughout the province 
than for years past. 

The prospects, therefore, are bright, with a faithful God, 
a growing Church, and an open province. On the part of 
the Church, wise statesmanship will be called for in the face 
of the marvellous awakening of the national life, so that 
what is best and strongest in the Church shall be retained 
and not alienated in these days of unparalleled crisis. 



[Table 



THE PROVINCE OF KWANGSI 



291 





American 
Southern 


Christian 
and 


Wesleyan 


Church 


Kwangsi 




statistics. 


Baptist 
Convention. 


Missionary 
Alliance. 


Missionary 
Society. 


Missionary 
Society. 


Medical 
Mission. 


Totals. 


Date of Entry . 


1868 


1894 


1897 


1898 


1906 




Missionaries 


2(1 med.) 


17 


2 (1 med.) 


2 


1 (1 med.) 


24 ) 


,, Women 


3 (1 med.) 


20 


1 


1 


1 


26 i 


Stations 


1 Wuchow 


111 


1 Wuchow 


1 Kweilin 


1 Nanning 


15 


Out-Stations 


18 


2 








20 


Communicants . 


900 


230 


71 


6 




1,207 


Baptized 




250 


126 


9 




1,285? 


Catechumens 




60 


14 


6 




80? 


Schools — 














Boys 


2 


8 


2 






7 


Scholars . 


50 


70 


23 






143 


Girls 


2 


2 


1 






5 


Scholars . 


30 


45 


17 






92 


Chinese Workers- 














Men 


23 


14 


8 


1 




44 


Women . 


5 


7 


3 






15 


Hospitals . 


1 




2 






3 


In-patients . 


200 




100 






300 


Out-patients 


4,000 




3,000 




500? 


7,500 



Statistics corrected for the most part up to June 1906. 

1 Stations of the Alliance Mission — Wuchow, Teng Hsu (Yung Hu), Teng Hsien (Tang Un), Pingnan 
(Peng Nam), Hsiin Chow, i.e. Kweiping (Kwai-peng), Yuh Lin Chow (Wat-lam Chau), Nanning (Nam Ning), 
Lungchow, Liuchow, Kweilin, Fingloh. 



THE PROVINCE OF SINKIANG 

By Mr. George Hunter, China Inland Mission. 

SiNKlANG, or Chinese Turkestan, is that portion of the 
Chinese Empire which reaches right to the heart of Asia. 
It extends from west to east, from long. 75"" to long. 95° 
east of Greenwich, a distance of about 1100 English miles ; 
and from south to north it extends from lat. 37° to lat. 45°, 
a distance of some 560 English miles. The total area of 
this province is 550,590 square miles, which approximates 
in extent to the whole of the German Empire, with France 
and Spain combined. 

On the east, Sinkiang is bounded by the province of 
Kansu, on the south by Tibet and Kashmir, on the west 
by Parmir and Eussian Turkestan, and on the north by 
Eussian Turkestan, Siberia, and Mongolia. The whole 
province is almost walled all round by high mountains. 
In the south there are the Altyn-tagh and Kuen-luen 
mountains, and on the north the Tien-shan range. 

The most important of its rivers are the Cherchen and 
the Tarim, which flow in an easterly direction into the 
Lobnor (Lake). The Hi flows north-west into Lake 
Balkash, while the Yuldur flows into Lake Bagrash. The 
most important lakes are Lobnor, Bagrash, Lu-ko-ch'uen, 
near Turfan, and Barkul, near the city of Barkul. There 
are also numerous other small lakes among the mountains 
and valleys. 

These mountains, with the rivers and lakes, stand as 
sentinels to prevent the province being devastated by the 

292 



THE PEOVINCE OF SINKIANG 293 

great Gobi desert. The high mountains check the fierce 
desert winds, and their cold snow caps help to cool a 
portion of the Gobi's scorched black surface. The rivers 
and rivulets also moisten large tracts of the bed of this dry- 
sea of sand (Sha-mo), thus providing land suitable for 
cultivation. Large portions of the Gobi desert are 
untrodden by the foot of man. Though we are indebted 
to travellers who have prepared maps and given much 
information about the Gobi, what the Chinese historian 
says in the Topography of Juen-huang Hsien is still true. 
He says : " For many miles there are no barbarians dwell- 
ing, or cattle grazing, nor is there water or grass, and 
moreover no one passes that way." 

The climate of Sinkiang is very changeable, for the 
atmosphere is quickly cooled by sudden gales of wind, so 
that even in summer the traveller has to keep his winter 
clothing near at hand. The coldest inhabited part perhaps 
is Barkul, and the hottest Turfan. This latter place is the 
Eshcol valley of the Gobi desert, and is a real vineyard. 
It lies so low and is so hot in summer that the inhabitants 
have to spend the mid-day in caves dug in the earth, and 
do their work after sunset. The ancient name of this valley 
was Hochow, or " Fire district." 

There are many wild animals in Sinkiang ; such, for 
instance, as tigers, leopards, wolves, bears, wild pigs, wild 
camels, wild horses, deer, antelopes, etc. 

The main roads of the province are the following : — 
From Suchow to Jili, fifty-four stages ; from Urumchi, the 
capital, to Kashgar, fifty-four stages ; and from Urumchi to 
Ku-ma-cheeh (or Beer, or T'a-ri-pa-ha-tai), eighteen stages. 
This latter route is the one used by Eussia for the import 
and export of goods. The last-mentioned place is not very 
far from the Irtish river, whence steamboats ply to Omsk, 
a city on the Siberian railway. In addition to the above- 
mentioned cart roads, there are also camel routes through 
Mongolia to Kweihwachen, Kalgan, and other places. There 
is also a camel route in the south from Khotan to Tuen- 
hwang Hsien, and another direct from Suchow to Hami, 



294 THE CHINESE EMPIRE 

which passes about 100 miles to the north of Ansi Chow. 
This is the route by which Mr, Hans Doring of the British 
and Foreign Bible Society travelled this year (1906). 

According to the Chinese historians, this province was 
inhabited by very ancient tribes, and if it be just to be 
guided by the Chinese characters employed to express their 
names, these tribes must have been very wild and un- 
civilised. The ancestors of the Hsiong-nu, one of the 
ancient races which inhabited this province, were called 
Hsien-yiien, both characters of which have the dog radical 
in their forms, Mr, M. Hatano, a Japanese gentleman who 
is staying here (Urumchi), has kindly looked up both the 
Chinese and Japanese records concerning the ancient tribes 
of Central Asia, He says that the Hsien-yiien tribes are 
only mentioned in very ancient Chinese history, and he 
thinks that they may be the aborigines of China, Some 
people say that the Hsiong-nu — the last character of which 
means slave, 600 b,c, — were ancient Turks, but others, and 
perhaps rightly so, say they were of Mongolian descent. 
Some of the Hsiong-nu (or Hun-nu) tribes invaded Europe 
at an early date, one tribe of which is called A-ti-la, The 
present treasurer of Sinkiang, Wang Shu-cha, in his book 
on The Wars of Europe, says the Hungarians are the 
descendants of the Hun-nu tribe A-ti-la. The same author 
also says in another part of his book : " In the north of Asia 
there were several tribes of the Hun-nu, which invaded 
Europe, and were for many years a terror to the Eomans. 
They were a fierce, coarse race, with broad shoulders, large 
heads, and flat noses. By occupation they were shepherds, 
and were very fond of fighting and plunder. In the 
year a.d. 374 they fought with the Alans in the neighbour- 
hood of the Volga and Don rivers, and as the Alans were 
not able to resist them they became their allies. They 
then crossed the Danube and fought with the Goths, killed 
their king and took possession of their country." 

Another work, entitled A Japanese History of Ancient 
Europe, including Arahia and Turkestan, says : " One of the 
tribes that invaded Europe in the fourth and fifth centuries 



THE PEOVmCE OF SINKIANG 295 

was called Goth, In the years a.d. 433-453 the A-ti-la 
Kan attacked the Goths and also entered Eome. In the 
year a.d. 451 the Eomans and the Goths attacked the 
A-ti-la Kan at Sharone (Chalons) and defeated them. The 
next year A-ti-la Kan invaded Italy, when Pope Leo with 
ditficulty defended the city of Eome." ^ 

One branch of the Hsiong-nu was called the T'ieh-lei or 
Iron Eeins ; this people and the Tu-chlieh Turks became the 
predominating tribes of that part of Central Asia now 
known as Chinese Turkestan. In the north of the province 
there were also Kirghiz and Tibetan tribes at Kotien and 
other places. 

These tribes were divided into many states, the most 
important of which were Pichow near Turfan, now called 
Shangshan Hsien, Kharashu, Kao Ch'ae, and Kotien, etc. 
They were continually fighting among themselves, and were 
often glad that a Chinese Mandarin should stay among 
them to maintain order. More recently Mohammedanism 
made great progress among these tribes, most of them 
becoming followers of that religion. Even the Kirghiz 
adopted the Turkish language. About fifty years ago they 
subdued and ruined the whole province, but are now mostly 
subject to princes, who in their turn are responsible to the 
Chinese Government. The present Turkestan tribes in the 
neighbourhoods of Hami, Turfan, Urumchi, Beer, Kashgar, 
Yarkand, Bokhara, Samarkand, and Eussian Turkestan 
call themselves Lar (or are so called by the Eussians), and 
say that they are of Mongolian descent. 

For many years the Chinese have been immigrating 
into SiNKiANG, the immigrants mostly coming from Hunan, 
Hupeh, Shansi, Shensi, and Kansu. There are also many 
who come from the neighbourhood of Tientsin. The most 
populous Chinese cities are Urumchi the capital, Jili, 
Kuchen tse, Kashgar, Yarkand, and Kotien. The most 
populous Turkish cities are Turfan, Aksu, Ush Turfan, and 
Hami. There are also many Turks in Kashgar, Yarkand, 

^ From the appearance of these quotations it is probable that this 
Japanese history is based upon some European work. — Ed. 



296 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

Kotien, Beer, Mani sz, Ch'angkih, Shangshan Hsien, and 
also all along the district known as Nan-lu, which is on 
the high-road from Urumchi to Kashgar. I may also 
mention that there are large numbers of Kirghiz — Khasack 
tribes — here in the district of Urumchi. They are mostly 
wandering nomadic tribes, though some have farms and 
settled abodes. There are also large numbers of Mongols 
in the district of Karachar. From Urumchi, on the southern 
Mongolian boundary, there are also many Mongols. 

It is interesting to note that there are some 3500 
English miles of telegraph lines in Sinkiang, mostly 
extending from Ansi Chow to Hi, and from Turfan to 
Kashgar, with other branch lines. 

It is not possible with any degree of accuracy to give 
even the approximate idea of the population of this 
province. The Eev. Harlan P. Beech, in his Protestant 
Missionary Atlas, gives it as 580,000, but I think it is 
much larger. Here in Urumchi alone, from which city I 
write, there • is a population of from 40,000 to 50,000 
persons. There are also thousands of Chinese immigrants 
entering the province every year, in addition to a very 
large Turkish population in the district known as Nan-lu. 
The Turks are known to the Chinese as Ch'au-t'eo or Wrap 
Heads, a name given them from the custom of wearing the 
turban. 

Mission Work. — Very little has been done in the eastern 
part of this province. There was some colportage work 
done many years ago by Dr. Lansdell and Mr. George 
Parker, and evidences of this work are still to be seen. 
Nevertheless, the eastern part of Chinese Turkestan is 
practically untouched by Protestant missionaries. Mr. 
Doring and the writer have been enabled to do both 
colportage and evangelistic work for some time, and we are 
encouraged to find the people glad to listen to the Gospel, 
while a few give evidence of more than a passing interest. 
Many have heard the Gospel in other provinces of China, 
and Mr. Doring near Kuchen tse met two men who were 



THE PEOVINCE OF SINKIANG 297 

baptized Christians. There are some Swedish missionaries 
in Kashgar, where they have been for several years. I have 
also received a letter from Mr. G. Raqueue of the Swedish 
Mission, who is engaged in medical mission work at 
Yarkand, so that evangelistic, colportage, and medical work 
are carried on to some extent in these large centres. Mr. 
Hans Doring hopes to go to Hi soon, and I hope to go 
the southern route to Kashgar when the weather becomes 
cooler (1906). 

The Eoman Catholic Church is busy in Hi and district. 
Surely the Protestant Churches ought not to be less zealous. 
There are many difficulties to overcome. Not only is 
Gobi travelling very difficult, but to be a fully equipped 
missionary in Turkestan one needs to be well acquainted 
with Mohammedanism, and to be able to read a little 
Arabic, so as to acquire their theological terms. It is also 
desirable to be able to speak both the Chinese and the 
Turkish languages. Such equipment could be attained 
gradually as necessity required. 

Mr. Macartney, the British Consul at Kashgar, has just 
sent me a letter, mentioning that moneys and letters can be 
sent and received vid Gilgit, Punjab, India, in 40 days 
from England, and that letters vid Eussia can come from 
England in 22 days. 



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THE DEPENDENCIES OF CHINA 



299 



COMPARATIVE TABLE 

SHOWING AREA AND POPULATION OF THE DEPENDENCIES 
OF CHINA, AS COMPARED WITH OTHER WELL-KNOWN 
COUNTRIES. 



Dependency. 


Area, sq. miles. 


Population. 


Manchuria 


363,610 


. 8,500,000 


Ontario, Canada 


214,310 


. 2,114,321 


Mongolia . 


. 1,367,000 


. 2,580,000 


Australia . 


. 2,934,515 


. 4,000,000 


Tibet 


463,200 


. 6,430,000 


New South Wales 


308,560 


. 1,132,234 



" How important has Canada been esteemed, and how poor 
is our appreciation of Manchuria ; yet the latter is perhaps the 
richer country of the two." — Dr. Alexander Williamson. 

" I have a feeling as if I had all my life been systematically 
duped and misled by the stereotyped European and American 
delineation of the Heathen Chinee — possibly the Manchurian 
Chinese are a different race. It seems incredible that these 
dignified, clever, often noble-looking men, and these sensible, 
practical, hard-working women should have served as originals 
to the Chinese depicted in Western literature. I have never 
in all my life even imagined a set of people so passionately, 
feverishly devoted to work. There is no eyewash here ; no 
extra efforts under the eye of the master or mistress. All have 
some share in the profits, and they all of them put their backs 
into what they have to do as if their very lives depended upon 
it. Energy is only half the battle ; these men and women 
possess high individual intelligence to guide that energy. To be 
realised, their farming must be seen. Such furrows ! Such 
promise of crops with each sprouting corn-stalk tended like a 
rose-bush in the garden of a duchess ! And all this energy, 
strength, and intellect available for about tuppence ha'penny per 
diem ! " — From A Staff Officer's Scrap-hook, by Lieut.-General Sir 
Ian Hamilton, K.C.B., British Attach^ to the Japanese forces 
in Manchuria, 



300 



MANCHURIA 

By the Rev. James W. Inglis, M.A., United Free 
Church of Scotland. 

The country known to foreigners as Manchukia is called 
by the Chinese Kwantung (" East of the Barrier ") or The 
Three Eastern Provinces. Under pressure, however, of 
recent events the new school of Chinese writers is learning 
to use the name Man-chou with reference to the whole 
territory, though this is hardly true to history. 

The names of the three provinces are : Fengtien or 
Shengking, Kirin, and Heilungkiang. 

The population is estimated by recent authorities at 
20,000,000, and the total area is about 370,000 square 
miles. 

History. — According to the Chinese historian, the 
northern coast of the Gulf of Liaotung was in ancient 
times inhabited by barbarous tribes, among whom civilisa- 
tion was introduced in 1122 B.C. by the brother of Wu 
Wang. After this we find the kingdom of Chaosien 
embracing the southern part of Shengking and the west 
of Corea as far as Pingyang. In 112 B.C. this kingdom 
was overthrown by the Han dynasty, and the country 
became a vassal of China. In the confused wars that 
followed the downfall of the Han, the lands adjoining the 
coast became the prey of invaders from the north. A tribe 
inhabiting the hilly country in the basin of the Taling Ho 
possessed itself of all Liaohsi, including under this name 
Eastern Chihli (Yungping Fu), for the Great Wall did not 
then extend so far east. At the same time the Kaoli 

301 



302 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

(Coreans), who first appear on the upper Yalu about the 
Christian era, established themselves in Liaotung. While 
paying tribute to China they succeeded in maintaining a 
virtually independent kingdom, extending as far west as the 
Liao, and having its capital at Pingyang, until in a.d. 668 
they were overthrown by the Tang dynasty. Their name 
still remains attached to many villages in Fengtien, and 
any ruins whose history is lost are ascribed by the popular 
voice to the Kaoli. It was not till the tenth century that 
they revived sufficiently to establish the modern Corean 
kingdom, since when the Yalu has remained the boundary 
on the west. 

Meanwhile Central Manchuria had been following an 
independent course under the headship of various tribes of 
whom little is known but the name. The fall of the Corean 
power was the occasion of the rise of a powerful confederacy 
named Bohai, which from its capital near Ninguta dominated 
the country from the Sungari almost to the mouth of the 
Yalu. During this period the country was prosperous and 
well peopled. " Learning flourished " — presumably Chinese 
learning. However, in 926 the power of Bohai was de- 
stroyed by the invasion of the Kitan, a race dwelling on the 
upper Liao, who for many centuries had raided the north 
of China, and who now turned their arms eastwards, over- 
running the country as far as the Hurka. It was this 
people who at the same time established the Liao dynasty 
in North China. Erom them the name Cathay was carried 
to Europe, and China is still known to Russia as Kitai. 

The people of Central Manchuria now appear under the 
name of Niichen, but broken up into many independent 
clans. Under the weight of disaster, their former civilisa- 
tion was lost, and they reverted to the nomadic state. In 
1114 a Niichen chief attacked an army of the Liao on the 
banks of the Sungari, where his victory began a career of 
conquest more startling in its rapidity than even that of 
the later Manchus, for in nine years he had swept down 
through Manchuria and taken Peking, thus founding the 
dynasty of Kin. 




'rOMB OF KrKHACHU 



Nurhachu was the founder of the present Mauchii power, the chieftain ot the original royal Tungusic 
tribelet known as "Manchu." He died 1627. The picture shows the corner tower of the Bast Tomb near 
Moukden. The roofs are bright yellow glazed tiles ; under the eaves the woodwork is painted bright blues and 
greens. Beautiful wild woods surround the tombs. To face -page 303. 



MANCHURIA 303 

When the Ming dynasty obtained possession of Liaotung 
in the fourteenth century they were the first rulers of Chinese 
blood who had governed north of the Yellow River for more 
than 400 years. It is evident, therefore, that during this 
period the population of North China must have been largely 
mixed with immigrants of Tartar blood, and conversely that 
the adjacent parts of Manchukia must have been much 
affected by Chinese civilisation. As an instance we may 
refer to the Sung dynasty porcelain mentioned by James 
as found on the north of the Sungari, and the writer 
possesses a coin of the same dynasty dug out of a ruin in 
the Imperial Hunting Grounds. 

The Mings governed Liaotung as far north as Kaiguan, 
where their pagoda still remains. From that city their 
frontier ran east some 25 miles, then south to near the 
latitude of Liaoyang, where it ran east again to the Yalu. 
All this was an integral part of the Chinese Empire. The 
rest of Manchuria was divided among numerous Niichen 
tribes. 

With the seventeenth century we enter on the modern 
period. At that time the tribe in the mountains, 100 
miles east of Moukden was known by the name of Manchu. 
By a combination of diplomacy and force their chief 
Nurhachu had effected a combination of the tribes as far 
as the Sungari, and in 1617 he was able to declare war 
with China. In 1621 Moukden and Liaoyang fell into 
his hands, and he was master of all Liaotung. After much 
heavy fighting in Liaohsi and Chihli, the Manchus, in 1644, 
established their capital in Peking, being the third dynasty 
that their country had given to China. 

The immediate effect on Manchuria was disastrous. 
Great numbers of the population migrated to Peking, where 
the " Tartars " and the Chinese still remain apart. Others 
were scattered on garrison duty and formed military colonies 
in China. The natives of Southern Manchuria who sub- 
mitted to the Conquerer were enrolled by him as the 
" Chinese Banner " (Han-Klin) and shared his fortunes. 
The country was thus denuded of its inhabitants, and as 



304 THE CHINESE EMPIRE 

late as 1682 Verbiest reports that many of the cities were 
almost empty, and of a multitude of towns and villages no 
trace remained. 

At this time the belt of country between Corea and the 
" palisades," corresponding roughly to the basin of the Yalu, 
was cleared of its inhabitants, leaving only one road through 
Fenghwang Cheng and the Corean Gate for intercourse 
between the two countries. North of this a wide area east- 
ward of the high-road from Kaiyuan to Kirin was reserved 
as the Imperial Hunting Grounds. Here there may still 
be seen the earthen ramparts of many abandoned cities, 
and it is an impressive experience when the traveller comes 
on these forgotten ruins, standing silent for more than two 
centuries in what was till yesterday a pathless waste. 

Of the history of the Amur region nothing definite is 
known before the seventeenth century, though inscriptions 
on the lower Amur show that Chinese from the south had for 
long traded by sea with the barbarous tribes there. It was 
not till 1671 that the province of Heilungkiang became 
organised under the new dynasty, but already bands of 
Cossack adventurers had come into conflict with the Manchu 
outposts. By the treaty of Nertchinsk in 1689 the 
Russians were shut out from the navigation of the Amur, 
and China was confirmed in possession of the basin of that 
river north to the Yablonoi mountains. No use, however, 
was made of this vast territory beyond the collection of the 
tribute of furs. At the time of the Crimean War the 
Russians came down the river in strong force, and remained 
in possession till the treaty of Aigun in 1858 ceded to them 
the left bank of the Amur, while in 1860 they were granted 
the lands between the Ussuri and the ocean, now forming 
the province of Primorsk. 

Before 1820 the Chinese were not allowed to settle in 
the two northern provinces, but in that year the Govern- 
ment instituted the leasing of the public land of Kirin, and 
since then the tide of immigration has been steadily swell- 
ing. From that time dates the settlement of the fertile 
plain within the great bend of the Sungari, as also of the 



MANCHUEIA 305 

Mongolian lands north of Kaiyiian. Another step was 
gained in 1861 by the opening of the port of Newchwang 
to foreign trade. 

In the sixties the weakness of the central government 
gave an opportunity to large bands of robbers to terrorise 
the country. They were strong enough to capture a yamen 
and put the Mandarin to death, and when they threatened 
the walled city of Kaichow the foreign community of New- 
chwang had to take measures for their own defence. In 
1875 order was at last restored, and the Corean marches, 
which had become the haunt of the brigands, were thrown 
open to legitimate settlement, being divided into four (now 
six) magistracies. In 1876 the adjoining part of the 
Hunting Forest was also created into a Mandarin district 
(Hailung Cheng), and in 1897 and 1903 three new dis- 
tricts were created out of the remainder of the same forest. 
Finally, in 1903, a large tract of Mongol land west of 
Petuna was opened to Chinese settlement and placed under 
the administration of Moukden. 

The foreign relations of Manchuria within recent years 
belong to the history of the Empire and need be only 
mentioned. First came the war with Japan in 1894-95, by 
which the hollowness of the Chinese military preparations 
was exposed and the seed sown of future trouble. In 
January 1896 a Eussian colonel with sixteen men arrived 
in Moukden by way of northern Corea ; the same year saw 
the conclusion of the agreement for the railway to cross 
Manchuria to Vladivostok, the construction of which was 
begun the following summer. In 1898 the Eussians took 
over Port Arthur, and got permission to connect it with 
Harbin by rail. 

The rising of 1900 found the Eussians unprepared. 
Their railway was still in the making, and their garrisons 
too scattered and feeble to defend it effectively. All inland 
settlements had to be abandoned ; even at Harbin the civil 
population escaped in barges down the Sungari. Soon, 
however, four columns had crossed the northern and eastern 
frontiers, and in the early autumn the southern column had 

X 



306 THE CHINESE EMPIRE 

defeated the main body of the Chinese army. It was a 
more difficult task to restore order in the country. Bands 
of marauders were everywhere ; in the eastern hills of 
Fengtien the broken fragments of the army united with 
the robber bands till they numbered 20,000 men. 
The Russians defeated this force in successive expeditions, 
but order was not finally established till after they retired 
and handed the administration back to the Chinese. 

In 1902 the Russians evacuated the west side of the 
Liao, and in the following spring they partially retired from 
the province of Fengtien ; but when the time came to 
evacuate the northern provinces, in accordance with their 
agreement, they replaced their guards at the gates of 
Moukden, and sent an armed force to the mouth of the 
Yalu. Then followed the war of 1904-5, of which we can 
hardly yet see the outcome. 

Much money was thrown away by the Russians during 
their construction of the railway and the succeeding military 
occupation. Yet it is questionable whether the country at 
large benefited, as the Chinese who took the Russian 
roubles were chiefly new-comers from Shantung, while the 
prevailing disorder interfered with traffic and disorganised 
commerce. Still more was this the case during the war. 
Large districts were laid waste, especially on the Russian 
side, the villages destroyed, the inhabitants driven away, 
and the soil untilled. Some time will elapse ere the 
country can recover from the losses of those two years ; yet 
there is every hope that, under the more enlightened 
administration now prevailing, the magnificent resources of 
the country will give it renewed prosperity. 

Shenghing Province. — The population of the province of 
Shengking or Fengtien is estimated at 13,000,000, and the 
area is stated at 60,000 square miles, but if we include 
the recently opened lands it cannot be under 70,000. 

The principal river is the Liao, which rises north of 
Peking at an altitude of 3700 feet. It flows thence 
eastward through Mongolia under the name of Shara Aluren 



MANCHUEIA 307 

(" Yellow Elver "), and after losing some of its volume there 
it turns south into Manchukia. The principal affluent is 
that called by the Chinese the Inner Liao, the combined 
waters of the Hun and the Taitze, which enters it a few 
miles west of the Chinese Newchwang. Below this it is a 
tidal stream a quarter of a mile wide, with a sluggish 
current. The head of navigation for junks is Tung 
Chiangtze, beyond which traffic is forbidden ; boats also go 
up the affluents to Liaoyang, Moukden, and Kaiylian. 

The Yalu rises in the Changpai Shan, but the principal 
feeders in the upper section come from Corea. The largest 
tributary is the Hun Kiang, which rises due east of Moukden 
and flows south by Tunghwa and Hwairen. The volume of 
the Yalu is probably greater than that of the Liao, its basin 
receiving a larger rainfall. Junks ascend some thirty odd 
miles above Maoerhshan, but the Hun is barred by a rapid 
below Hwairen, and its course is often through rocky gorges. 

The Taling Ho is the chief river in the western section 
of the province. 

The most important and most populous section of the 
province is the great central plain of the Liao. West of 
this, from above Kwangning to the Great Wall, is a hilly 
country with bold heights rising to 3 feet. East of the 
plain is a vast sea of mountains, rising in places to 
5000 feet, and pierced by many fertile valleys. These 
mountains bound the plain as far as 44° N., and form the 
backbone of the Liaotung peninsula, ending at Port Arthur 
on the south. Eastwards they connect with the Changpai 
Shan, whose highest peak (8000 feet) gives rise to the 
Sungari ; the name is applied to the whole chain dividing 
that river from the Yalu, and a high offshoot (5000 feet) 
runs down between the Yalu and the Hun. These ranges 
are covered with an impenetrable forest of elm and pine, 
which is being rapidly thinned as far as the means of 
transport will allow. The logs are floated down to the 
Yalu, where they are made into rafts, which again are sent 
down to the mouth at Antung and Tatung Kow. 

Products. — The staple crop on the plain is the tall 



308 THE CHINESE EMPIKE 

millet or sorghum {Kaoliang), besides which small millet, 
maize, and dry rice are grown. Vegetables are abundant, 
but fruit is of poor quality. On the higher ground Kao- 
liang is less common, and the people live more on small 
millet or maize. The exports come principally from the 
new lands to the north and east of the ancient boundaries, 
where the scantier population allows of a surplus. The 
principal export is beans ; next come hemp, tobacco, and 
indigo. 

Climate. — Observations at Moukden give a mean 
temperature for the year of 45° E., for July 77° and for 
January 9°. The extremes noted ranged from 100 to 
— 28°. The barometer in February is two-thirds of an 
inch higher than in July. The rainfall, including snow, is 
33 inches, with seventy days of precipitation. Farther 
south the climate is modified by the sea, especially on the 
side facing Corea. On the plains the winter climate is 
very dry, the snow is soon absorbed by the dry air, or 
melted by the brilliant sun ; as we go eastward we find the 
sky more clouded and the snow lying longer, till in the 
extreme east it may lie to a depth of two feet. 

People. — The sketch of history given above has shown 
that the southern portion of the province was from ancient 
times a dependency of China, and to this the character of 
the population corresponds at the present day. From the 
Great "Wall to the Liao the appearance of the country and 
the habits of the people are not very different from the 
neighbouring part of Chihli. In the Liaotung peninsula the 
dialect approximates to that of East Shantung, especially 
along the coast, where there has long been intercourse with 
the opposite shores. Again, the basin of the Yalu has been 
repeopled within these thirty years almost entirely by 
immigration from East Shantung, while the Mongol land north 
of Kaiyiian shows a preponderance of colonists from Chihli. 
From Liaoyang northwards the Manchu influence is seen in 
the dress and coiffure of the women, and in the dialect, 
which resembles the Pekingese. A few villages here are 
inhabited by the Siho, a tribe allied to the Manchus, who 



MANCHURIA 309 

still retain their own language, but the Manchu language 
proper is never heard in ordinary use. 

Every year may be seen a stream of emigrants coming 
in by two lines of march, one by the highway from Chihli, 
the other from the seaport of Newchwang. The goal of the 
wayfarers is generally the northern provinces or the " new 
lands" (pien wai) of Fengtien, but a large number find 
employment by the way. Thus the men of Central 
Shantung work the vegetable gardens round Moukden, 
while the trade of that and other cities is chiefly in the 
hands of Chihli men, particularly those from Yungping Fu. 
The Russian railway brought a multitude of unattached 
characters, who found employment in the mushroom settle- 
ments around the stations. 

Cities. — The capital is Moukden (Chinese Shengking, 
Fengtien Fu, or Shenyang); population, 200,000, a large 
number of whom belong to the ofl&cial class. Next in size 
come Liaoyang, the ancient capital of Liaotung ; Chinchow 
(Kingchow), the centre of the west ; Newchwang (Chinese 
Yingkow), the gate of all sea-borne traffic, and Tiehling, where 
the export trade is transferred from the road to the river. 

Kirin Province. — The population is estimated at 
5,000,000, and the area is about 110,000 square miles. 

Almost the whole province is drained by the Sungari, 
which from its source in the Changpai Shan runs north-west 
to Petuna (Bodune), there receiving the Nonni, after which it 
bends north-east, forming the boundary of the province until 
it joins the Amur. This river is navigable by shallow-draft 
steamers up to Kirin, but Chinese boats go far on the upper 
waters. 

The physical features are very diverse. The Sungari 
below Kirin city flows through a vast plain which is a 
continuation of the plains of Central Fengtien. South of 
that city the forest-clad mountains extend to the Chang- 
pai Shan. Eastwards the mountains are broken by the 
valley of the Hurka and by the feeders of the Tumen and 
the Ussuri, but the population there is very sparse. 



310 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

Products. — Much that is said of Fengtien applies here, 
but the Sungari plain, besides an immense export of beans, 
now supplies large quantities of wheat to the mills of 
Harbin. The climate is cold, the thermometer sometimes 
sinking to — 40.° The Sungari has been frozen at Kirin by 
the 15th November, and at Harbin by the 3rd. The 
snowfall is ample, and the rain is less limited to one season 
than it is at Moukden. 

People. — Till recently the pure Manchus formed the 
bulk of the population, but the colonists from China now 
outnumber them. Especially within the last dozen years 
has a great advance been made in pushing back the wilder- 
ness on the east. To this the Eussian railway has 
contributed by opening a track through the forests. On 
the lower Sungari and the Ussuri there are still tribes of the 
Tungusic stock, who are coming under Eussian influence. 

Cities. — The capital is Kirin ; population, 100,000. The 
principal commercial centre is Kwanchengtze (Changchun 
Fu), now the junction of the Eussian and the Japanese 
railways. Harbin is a Eussian settlement with a large 
parasitic population of Chinese. Petuna is a centre of 
Mongol trade. Towards Eussia three garrison towns defend 
the frontier ; the other towns are trading centres on the 
Sungari plain. 

Heilungkiang Province. — The population is 2,000,000, 
inhabiting an area of 190,000 square miles. This pro- 
vince includes all the territory between the Sungari and 
the Amur ; the only other river of note is the Nonni, 
which is navigable for steamers of light draught up to 
Tsitsihar. 

The Great Khingan mountains divide the Nonni from 
the upper Amur, while the Lesser Khingan lie between the 
Amur and the Sungari. Of the rest of the province a 
great part is a steppe covered with luxuriant grass, which 
affords pasture to herds of ponies and oxen. 

The Chinese have colonised a considerable area about 
Hulan, reaching to 100 miles north of the Sungari. 



MANCHUEIA 311 

Here are several prosperous towns, with an export trade 
similar to that on the south bank. Beyond this area the 
government is still purely Manchu. The capital is Tsitsi- 
har or Pukwei, around which a settled population is found. 
Thence to the Amur are a few garrison towns, and in the 
extreme north are the gold mines of Moho. The rest of 
the province is inhabited, in the west by nomad Mongols, 
in the north and east by Tungusic tribes who live by fishing 
and hunting. 

Missions. — First in the field were the Eoman Catholics. 
When their work began I have not been able to discover, but 
there were Christians in the country in the seventeenth 
Cientury. In 1840 the first bishop arrived, to find a 
scattered community of over 3000 Christians, mostly 
immigrants from North China. In 1891 the number of 
Catholics was stated at 13,000, mostly gathered in Christian 
communities away from the main roads. After that a bolder 
policy was followed, and work commenced in most of the 
towns. In 1900 the Mission suffered severe loss. Many 
churches were burned ; in Moukden the bishop with his 
assistant clergy and congregation were slaughtered ; in all 
some 600 Catholics lost their lives. 

Although the port of Newchwang was opened in 1861, 
nothing was attempted by Protestants till 1866, when 
Alexander Williamson made his first visit as agent of the 
Bible Society of Scotland. This was followed in 1867 by 
the settlement of William Burns, who survived only one 
winter, but whose memory inspired the Church to follow 
where he had pointed the way. 

The Presbyterian Church of Ireland was the first to 
obey the call, and in 1869 appointed Dr. Joseph M. Hunter 
and the Eev. Hugh Waddel to Newchwang. Mr. Waddel 
soon had to leave on account of ill-health, but was able to 
labour for many years in Japan. In 1874 his place was 
filled by the Eev. James Carson, who still occupies this field. 

The Mission having been reinforced, a chapel was opened 
in Chinchow (Kingchow) in 1885. In 1891 this city was 



312 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

occupied for permanent residence, and medical work was 
begun by Dr. T. L. Brander. The Eev. T. C. Fulton, after 
itinerating as far as the Sungari, settled, in 1887, in 
Moukden, from which centre he initiated the evangelising 
of the remaining country west of the Liao northward to 
Mongolia. Kirin province was entered from Kwanchengtze, 
where Messrs. Carson and Greig arrived in 1 8 9 0. In the 
following year, after several medical visits to Kirin, Dr. 
Greig was attacked and severely injured by the bodyguard 
of the Tartar General ; but the end was the establishment of 
a large hospital in that city. 

Since then reinforcements have been sent at regular 
intervals, and the increase of the staff has allowed the 
subdivision of the great area formerly supervised from a 
few centres. The Mission now embraces the following 
territory : — All west of the Liao, divided into four districts, 
with 5 clerical missionaries and 1 medical, 2 lady 
evangelists and 3 lady doctors; Newchwang, with the 
west face of the Liaoting peninsula worked by 1 clerical 
and 1 medical ; West Moukden with 1 clerical missionary 
and 1 educational. In Kirin there are three centres, with 
3 clerical missionaries, 2 doctors, and 1 lady evangelist and 
1 lady doctor, also 2 lady doctors undesignated. The out- 
stations of Kirin include Christian communities as far as 
Ninguta and Hunchun. Besides this the Irish Mission now 
works that part of Mongolia under the government of 
Chihli where James Gilmour spent his last years. 

The pioneer of the Scottish Mission (United Presbyterian, 
now United Free) was the Eev. John Eoss, who in 1872 
settled in Newchwang. Three years later he was joined by 
the Eev. John Macintyre from Shantung, and was thus set 
free to spend the greater part of each year in Moukden. 
The next step was in 1882, when Mr. Eoss secured property 
in Moukden and the medical mission was established by 
Dr. Christie. A few years later a line of out-stations was 
stretched north of Moukden, which ultimately led to the 
settlement of Eev. James Webster in Kaiyiian, with 
oversight of the Christian communities scattered far to the 



MANCHUKIA 313 

north and east. Mr. Macintyre also removed to Haicheng, 
from which centre he conducted a careful work in the 
surrounding plain until his death in 1905. At the same 
time Dr. Westwater, who had been transferred from Chefoo, 
broke down the conservative opposition of Liaoyang by his 
medical work, and in 1890 this city also became a Mission 
centre. The chain was thus connected along the central 
plain to a distance of some two hundred and thirty miles 
from the coast. In the following years the Gospel was 
carried from the various centres along the lines of com- 
munication through the eastern hills, and the Mission staff, 
though now augmented, found it difficult to maintain 
careful oversight of the Christian communities so widely 
scattered. In 1892 reports received through the Bible 
Society led to the appointment of Dr. T. M. Young and 
the Eev. Daniel T. Kobertson to open work in the north of 
Kirin province. After long and persevering opposition from 
the Manchu officials a settlement was made in Ashiho, from 
which a long line of outposts now extend to the east and 
west. Pioneer work has also been done on the north of the 
Sungari in Heilungkiang province, and the opening of a 
station at Hulan is in contemplation. 

The Mission thus covers all that part of Fengtien east 
of the Liao, with the exception of the Liaotung peninsula 
and the basin of the lower Yalu. In this area there are four 
Mission centres, to which two more may shortly be added. 
These are worked by 6 clerical missionaries, 4 medical, and 
1 educational, with 7 lady evangelists and 4 lady doctors. 
In Kirin there is one centre, from which the northern part 
of the Sungari basin below the great bend is being worked. 
The staff at present consists of 3 clerical missionaries with 
1 medical. 

Including missionaries' wives, the total strength of the 
Irish Mission is 15 men and 20 women, and of the Scottish 
Mission 15 men and 22 women; in all 72. 

An important step was taken in 1891 when the two 
Presbyterian Missions were united with the view of form- 
ing one native church. The first presbytery met the following 



314 THE CHINESE EMPIRE 

year with an attendance of nine elders, and at once set about 
drawing up regulations for the admission of inquirers and 
the guidance of the converts in life and doctrine. 

Besides the organisation of the native church, a principal 
fruit of the union is the development of the educational 
policy. Schools have not been much used to win the 
heathen, but have been found necessary for the instruction 
of Christian families. The new educational policy of the 
Chinese Government has now rendered our primary schools 
obsolete, and the first problem before us is to provide a 
band of teachers who shall keep the Christian schools up 
to the standard demanded by the new order of things. 

To attain this end a College was opened in Moukden in 
1902 by Dr. J. E. Gillespie of the Irish Mission, to whom 
a Scottish colleague has now been appointed. Here there 
is an attendance of about fifty young men, who receive 
instruction in geography, history, mathematics, and science. 

Theological Training. — At an early period promising 
converts were employed as evangelists, and instruction was 
given them by lectures or by guidance in private reading. 
, A regular course of study was afterwards instituted, extend- 
ing over four years, and in 1898 a Theological Hall was 
opened under the presidency of Messrs. Eoss and Fulton, 
to which those men are admitted who have already passed 
through the Junior Course. As a visible result there are 
now 2 native pastors and 18 licentiates, i.e. men who have 
finished their training and are eligible for the pastorate, 
and 2 of the latter have been chosen as evangelists to be 
sent out by a native missionary society. Biblewomen 
are also under training by the lady missionaries. 

Medical training has also been carried on in the 
hospitals ; at first with the view of immediately supplying a 
staff of dispensers, but in later years systematic instruction 
has been given, so that there are now several men who can 
be entrusted with the out-patient department ot even with 
surgical operations. 

To this brief sketch of the measures adopted by the 
Mission it remains to add that the blessing of God has 



MANCHURIA 315 

followed abundantly on our labours. In the early period 
the first notable success was the gathering of a band of 
converts in Moukden, largely through the work of an 
evangelist in the street chapel. The next period saw the 
spread of the work in the villages. Inquirers from the 
country were laid hold of in the chapel or the hospital, and 
took back into their own district the impulse they had 
received. Here the Chinese family system proved a help, 
for when a prominent member of the family is thoroughly 
changed he will bring in his numerous relatives and con- 
nections. The result was that the missionary had to follow 
rather than to lead, and many populous districts were 
passed by to visit small hamlets or remote valleys, where 
the spirit of inquiry had preceded the coming of the 
foreigner. Medical missions proved also of invaluable help 
in overcoming prejudice and allaying suspicion. They 
succeeded in winning the favour and even friendship of 
several among the official class, and diffused an idea of the 
beneficent mission of Christianity more widely than any 
other agency. In some districts the way was prepared for 
us by the secret sects of Buddhism, which have for their 
aim the " reform of character " and the " removal of sin." 
From these have come many of our most sincere and 
zealous converts. 

The Mission progressed steadily and peacefully up to 
1894. In that year, on the outbreak of the war with 
Japan, the Eev. James A. Wylie was murdered in Liao- 
yang by soldiers passing to the front. The whole foreign 
staff then withdrew from the interior, while the native 
Church continued to worship alone for a year. When the 
swell caused by the war had subsided we found ourselves 
in presence of a new movement towards Christianity. To 
this many things had contributed. The failure of the 
Chinese army set men thinking on the causes of the 
national weakness ; the power of the foreigner suggested to 
many that they might find shelter in the Church from 
official oppression. But when every deduction has been 
made, it remains true that the movement was but the 



316 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

natural growth from the seed sown in previous years. It 
was not long ere the wave of inquiry passed over the whole 
Mission field up to the Sungari, and in the four years, 
1896-1900, the baptized membership rose from 3000 to 
over 19,000. 

The storm of 1900 broke unexpectedly in Manchuria, 
but the foreign staff were able to escape to the coast in 
time. All the Mission buildings were destroyed by fire, 
and a general persecution of the native Christians suc- 
ceeded. Some 300 were put to death ; probably more died 
within the year as a result of the hardships they endured. 
There were many noble and heroic deaths, and others who 
wandered among the hills suffered not less nobly in saving 
their consciences together with their lives ; but a great 
multitude compromised with the enemy by payment of 
fines or by acceptance of a certificate which notified that 
they had renounced the Christian " heresy." 

The recovery of the Mission was much delayed by the 
Eussian occupation. Travelling was hindered in some 
places by Eussian suspicion, in others by the ravages of 
brigands. The uncertainty of the political future dis- 
couraged the timid from coming about us, and the " Boxer " 
outbreak had left an evil legacy of estrangement between 
the Church and the people. Two years of peace were 
allowed us, occupied mainly in reviving the native Church. 
During the late war between Eussia and Japan the men 
mostly remained at their stations, but within the sphere of 
hostilities no travelling was possible. The relief of destitute 
refugees, without distinction of creed, was thrown upon the 
missionaries, in co-operation with the Eed Cross Society of 
Shanghai, and the friendly relations thus established both 
with the people and the Government have effaced the bad 
memories of 1900. 

The shadows on the political sky have now passed by, 
and the door is again open. Much remains to be done, 
and much may be expected among a people many of whom 
have given such bright promise of the Christian graces. 

Danish Mission. — The Danish (Lutheran) Missionary 



MANCHUEIA 



317 



Society entered Manchuria in 1895. Its sphere of opera- 
tions is Port Arthur, with the eastern face of the Liaotung 
Peninsula and the basin of the lower Yalu. In all there 
are five principal stations. The following is extracted 
from the last report : — 

" Up to the end of 1905 the number of baptisms has 
been 138. There are 12 European missionaries and 4 
native evangelists. Numbers of the natives are on strict 
probation, and the Christians are showing praiseworthy 
activity and liberality. On the whole, the missionaries 
have found the authorities and the populace to be friendly 
disposed, and a hopeful spirit animates all the workers in 
the field." 

Statistics of Presbytery of Manchuria 



Native pastors 




2 


Total baptized members 


11,584 


„ elders 




40 


Candidates . 


3,551 


Churches and chapels . 


270 


Schools 


69 


Baptized (1905)— 


- 




Boys . 


653 


Men 


. 673' 




Girls . 


358 


Women 


. 345 - 


1,327 


Contributions 


$39,511 


Children . 


. 309 






= £3,951 




Statistics of ] 


Danish Mission 




Baptized 
European mission 


aries 






138 
12 



Stations, viz. Port Arthur, Sinyen (Sinyang), Taku Shan, 
Antung (Shaho), Fenghwang Cheng . . . . 



TIBET: THE LAND OF THE LAMAS 

By Mr. Cecil Polhill, China Inland Mission. 

The land of seclusion and mystery ; of vast plains at 
immense altitudes ; the last country to open its doors to 
the world's commerce, or to the messenger of the Gospel, 
no wonder Tibet excites the world's fascination and interest. 
It is the marvel of the twentieth century that a country 
larger in area than France, 1600 miles from east to west, 
700 miles (at its broadest part on the east) from north to 
south, should thus be able to remain fast sealed to the 
outer world. 

One of the chief reasons for this isolation lies in the 
physical configuration of the country, the extraordinary 
height of the wild uplands of the interior, only rivalled by 
the still more mighty heights which form a majestic 
rampart surrounding the whole territory. Southward are 
the Indian Himalayas, westward their continuation, and 
then the Karakorums, etc. ; northward the Kuen-luen, Akka 
Tag, and Altan Tag ; while eastward serried masses, range 
upon range of mountains, separate Tibet from China. 

Southern Tibet is traversed throughout for 1300 miles, 
almost its entire length, by the river Tsangpo, which river 
finally enters India, and probably loses itself in the mighty 
Brahmaputra. Along the valley of this river reside the 
larger part of the population of Tibet ; the villages and 
small towns are numerous, and Lhasa lies only 18 miles to 
the north of its banks, at an altitude of over 13,000 feet. 
It is constantly navigated. 

318 



TIBET 319 

From a line about 150 miles to the north, and parallel 
with the Tsangpo, stretches the vast northern plain or 
Chang-Tang, which extends to the foot of the Kuen-luen 
range, the southernmost fringe of which is peopled by 
nomads, dwelling in black tents. The remainder of this 
plain is at too great an elevation (from 15,000 to 16,000 
feet) for man to live or procure food, and is occupied by vast 
herds of wild animals — antelopes, wild asses, bears, foxes, 
hares, wild sheep, and great herds of wild yak. The 
last-mentioned animal is to the Tibetan quite indispensable. 
Its milk, rich in cream, supplies quantities of butter ; its 
long hair, of a peculiarly tough nature, is made into tents 
which are used by the nomads, and into sacks for the 
farmers. Further, the animal is constantly requisitioned 
as a beast of burden, it being sure-footed and unwearying, 
although carrying loads of two hundredweight along dangerous 
paths and over narrow rocky passes. The tea from China 
is carried by them in large caravans, both to Lhasa and all 
over Tibet. Game is plentiful on the upland pastures, 
there being hares, wild turkeys, partridges, pheasants, and 
tragopan, etc. 

The political divisions of Tibet are three : Ngari on 
the west ; Tsang and Wei (or sometimes the two combined, 
Utsang), the central province, and containing the chief 
population of the country, including Lhasa, Shigatze, and 
Gyangtse; and the whole of Easteen Tibet from long. 92" 
to the Chinese border, and roughly below lat. 34°, occupied 
by the province of Kham. 

North-west of Kham, around the lake of the same name, 
is the province of Kokonor, inhabited partly by Mongols, 
under eighteen chiefs, and partly by Tibetan nomads in 
black tents ; all of whom are governed by the Viceroy 
residing at Sining in Kansu. Included under this juris- 
diction is Amdo, a name given to the Tibetan peopled parts 
of Western Kansu, China. These Tibetans are peculiarly 
fine and intellectual. In these districts are many monas- 
teries, several of which are of great reputation, such as 
Kumbum, Lhabrang, and others. Ngari, with a part of 



320 THE CHINESE EMPIRE 

Ladak, is styled " Little Tibet " ; Tsang and Wei are " Tibet 
proper " ; while the appellation " Great Tibet " is applied 
to the whole of the east, to Kham, Amdo, etc. 

The spiritual head of Tibet has been the Dalai Lama, 
until his flight from Lhasa, at the time of the British entry 
into that city in 1904. He has been seen by missionaries 
recently, on his return journey from Urga, and may 
possibly have already reached his old residence. The 
temporal government is in the hands of a council of 
ecclesiastics, the chief of whom is styled " King." This 
Dewa-zhung, in its turn, acknowledges the sway of the 
Chinese representative or Amban and his assistant, while a 
subordinate Chinese Governor advises and controls at 
Shigatze. Probably the priestly power is more in evidence 
than the temporal. 

Chinese troops garrison the country at Lhasa, Shigatze, 
and other places, and since A.D. 1720 taxes have been paid 
by Tibet to China, either in money, in labour, or in kind. 
The annual revenue of Tibet exclusive of this payment is 
£35,560. Tibet acknowledges its vassalage to China by 
sending tribute to the Chinese Emperor once in ten years ; 
the embassy bringing back, in return for its offering of gold 
and cloth, etc., an imperial gift of silk, tea, and bullion, to 
the Dalai Lama. 

While Centkal Tibet is ruled from Lhasa, Kham is 
divided into thirteen sub-provinces, the inhabitants of 
which vary in character and government. In religion all 
own a sort of fealty to the Dalai Lama, though some are 
directly subject to Chinese rule, and others more or less to 
the Lhasa Government. These tribes are a lawless set, and 
are most unwilling to admit other authority than that of 
their own chieftain. In some cases these are laymen, 
styled " Kings," and in others ecclesiastical princes with 
Deputy-Governors. 

Chamdo and Derge are the two leading provinces of 
Kham. The former of these, while owning Lhasa as its 
suzerain, is practically independent, and is ruled by two 
ecclesiastics. Its chief town, which is also called Chamdo, 



TIBET 321 

is situated above the confluence of the two great rivers Dza 
and Ngom, which together form the upper waters of the 
Mekong river. Derge is ruled by a " King," and is under 
the jui'isdiction of China. Its chief town, Derge Dong- 
khyer, is famous for the manufacture of all kinds of metal 
work, and some of the rifles used by the Tibetans during 
the recent Britsh campaign were manufactured in Derge. 
Monasteries, large and small, abound in this principality. 
The " Khamba," as the men of Kham are called, may be 
divided into pastoral tribes or nomads and town or village 
dwellers. All are strong and brave, though wild and 
lawless. In all the towns and villages, Chinese officials 
exercise a certain authority, and are a help to civilisation. 
The part of Kham extending from the town of Batang 
eastward to Tachienlu is included in the Chinese province 
of Szechwan. In a few of the fertile valleys, especially near 
Lhasa, along the Tsangpo, plentiful crops of wheat and peas 
are produced, though the main product of the country is 
barley, from which tsamba is made. 

The country may be divided under four classes : 

(1) The vast northern plateaux, which are barren and 
desolate, with only a few scrubby bushes here and there. 

(2) The upland pasture grounds, chiefly in Southern 
Tibet, like the moors in the homeland, wild and weird. 
Here there are not only to be found nomad tents, but 
small towns built of stone. 

(3) In other parts the country is cut up into deep 
ravines and rocky gorges, through which rush river 
torrents. On the side of these rocky gorges are perched 
villages and monasteries. 

(4) The downs are especially found in the eastern 
province of Kham, often with rich pasturage and varied 
vegetation. 

The cold of these regions is, of course, intense ; from 
October to April frost rules everywhere, and snow lies thick 
upon the ground. In many places the variations of 
temperature in a few hours are wonderful, 60° between 
morning and mid-day being no uncommon thing. On the 

Y 



322 THE CHINESE EMPIRE 

steppes the wind is bitterly cold. The French traveller 
Gabet had the skin peeled almost entirely off his face when 
travelling to Lhasa ; and the balls of tsamba placed when 
hot in the morning under three or four thicknesses of 
clothing were in the evening found frozen hard. In 
spring and summer there are heavy hail-storms. During 
April, May, and June the air is wonderfully clear and pure. 
The rainy season of India makes itself felt to a certain 
extent throughout Tibet, and not infrequently snow falls in 
the height of summer. The wind, which blows unceasingly 
all the year round, is one of the traveller's greatest trials. 

Tibet is a great land of lakes, and the winter season is 
chosen by travellers that an easier way over frozen lakes 
and rivers may be found. Among the largest of the lakes 
are Kokonor, Tengrinor, and Yamdok. 

The main routes from China into Tibet are: (1) The 
official route, which leaves Tachienlu by way of Batang 
and Chamdo. For the greater part of the way this route 
leads over rocky and precipitous ledges, and three months 
are needed to reach Lhasa. The Government postal 
couriers travel this route by day and night with relays of 
horses, and while usually taking somewhat under two 
months for the journey, have reached Peking from Lhasa 
within one month. (2) The second route from Tachienlu, 
longer, but over easier gradients, traverses the undulating 
downs of Drango, Derge, and Kegudo, and then strikes 
south-west to Lhasa. This route is traversed by the yak 
caravans bearing tea, and was followed by Eockhill and 
others entering China. (3) The third route is vid Sining 
in Kansu, Lake Kokonor and the Tsaidam, thence across 
the terrible Chang-tang (north desert) to Lhasa. All 
Chinese entering Tibet have to secure a' passport. Various 
passes from India and Kashmir are all closely guarded, and 
at present access from those parts is difficult, if not 
impossible. 

The chief Tibetan exports are gold-dust, musk, and wool. 
The musk is taken from the musk-deer, and is largely 
bought by the Chinese at Tachienlu. The musk-bag is 



TIBET 323 

about the size of a hen's egg, and is attached to the 
abdomen of the male deer. It contains less than half an 
ounce of this highly scented and exceedingly penetrating 
substance. It is in great demand by the Chinese, and 
fetches a high price. 

Of imports, the largest is tea, and is exclusively from 
China. This tea is for the most part grown in the neigh- 
bourhood of Yachow in the province of Szechwan. After 
being sun-dried, the larger and smaller leaves, with the 
coarse stalks, are manufactured into large bricks of various 
qualities. These are carried on the backs of coolies to 
Tachienlu, where they are sold to the Tibetan agents 
through some twelve or fifteen firms ; they are then 
forwarded in continuous streams of caravans to Lhasa and 
other destinations in Tibet. 

Up to the present our Indian tea estates have not, with 
all their art and effort, been able to produce that peculiar 
taste which the Tibetan consumer alone values and will 
drink. 

The Tibetans claim they are descended from the monkey ! 
They belong to the Mongolian family, but are less civilised 
than the Chinese, being more like simple country folk 
compared with townsmen. The men of Lhasa are generally 
short in stature, those of Kham being tall and powerful. 
They are long-lived, strong, and active, and their women 
are able to carry burdens of great weight over the mountain 
passes. The women generally are good-looking and able, 
and frequently manage the home and farm, while the men 
hunt and shoot, or look after the sheep. The Tibetans 
have round faces, prominent cheek-bones, flat noses, wide 
mouths, thin lips, and black eyes, larger and less slanting 
than the Chinese, and black hair. Their skin is of a 
brownish yellow tint which is often increased in darkness 
by a plentiful anointing of butter. The men usually plait 
their hair in a queue a la Chinois, while the women have 
sixty or more small plaits fastened to broad bands, to which 
are attached shells and coins. 

Eed is the chief dress colour worn by the Tibetans. 



324 THE CHINESE EMPIRE 

Violet, green, and white, with a pattern of crosses, 
are also sometimes worn. The cloth, which is like a 
rough serge, is mostly woven in the Lhasa district. By 
the lower classes thick sheepskins with the wool inside 
are worn, the outer skin being trimmed with tiger-skin 
or red or blue cloth. In any case the gown is made 
very long. It is pulled over the head, and then fastened 
with a girdle, the gown being allowed to fall over the 
girdle in the form of a huge pocket, in which cash and 
other articles are often carried. In hot weather, when 
cooler gowns cannot be afforded, the wearer frequently puts 
out one or both arms, and lets the garment hang from the 
girdle. The hats worn by the Tibetans are sometimes the 
ordinary Chinese round skull-cap, or a brocade -trimmed 
brown felt, which is fur -lined for cold weather. In the 
winter, long leather boots are worn, while in the summer 
the men and women often go barefoot. Both sexes are 
very fond of jewellery, especially the Lhasaite. They wear 
ear-rings with turquoise pendants, silver bangles, bone 
thumb-rings, and amulet boxes. The women are especially 
lavish in their display of finery ; coral and amber, but more 
particularly turquoise, being conspicuous. Around Lhasa 
the women smear their faces with thick black paste — a 
custom which it is said was instituted by the great Saint 
Dewo Eimpoche, to conceal their beauty. The Tibetans* 
chief food is tsamba, which is flour made of roasted barley 
and mixed into a paste with tea, butter, and salt. The 
consumption of tea is very large. It is boiled with salt, 
milk, and butter in large open stoves, until it resembles 
a kind of thick broth. Beef and mutton are also much 
used, but as a rule they are only partly cooked. Bread is 
seldom eaten. All Tibetans drink to excess, partaking for 
the most part of a kind of beer, made of barley, called 
chang. They are free from the habit of opium-smoking, 
but are very fond of tobacco and snuff, the Lamas confining 
themselves to the use of the latter. 

In disposition the Tibetans are good-natured, cheerful, 
and friendly, yet easily roused. The imperative should 



TIBET 325 

never be used in speaking to a Tibetan, for fear of the 
consequences. Their standard of morality is not high. 

Whenever a Tibetan makes a gift to another, it is 
customary to offer it with a scarf of blessing, which is 
an indispensable accompaniment. Their houses differ in 
various districts. Some are entirely built of stone, others 
of wood, usually two stories high. The roofs are flat, and 
are used for storing grain or for promenades. The windows 
are small open spaces, with shutters for use at night, while 
the ground floor is frequently a stable. The large pro- 
portion of the population live in black tents made of yaks' 
hair, and their chief wealth consists in their flocks and 
herds with their produce. 

Tibet has very extensive literature, not only historical 
and religious, but also medical and philosophical, etc. Print- 
ing from wooden blocks has been carried on for centuries. 
Education is for the most part confined to the Lamas. 

Tibet has been correctly styled the "Land of the 
Lamas." It is a country full of monasteries, and of red- 
robed, bare-headed, and bare-armed priests of Buddha. In 
and around Lhasa alone there are some forty thousand 
Lamas. The three principal monasteries near the capital 
are Sera, Galdan, and Drepung, each of which has from 
three to five thousand inmates. Again, in Amdo, there 
are several very large monasteries of great repute, the 
most famous of which are Kumbum near Sining, and 
Lhabrang south of the Yellow Eiver. These monasteries 
vary in size ; in some there are only a few Lamas, while 
sometimes the occupants may be limited to two or three, 
or even one solitary ascetic. 

The priesthood is intensely venerated by the people, 
every family being proud to contribute its quota to swell 
the number. A popular saying is, " Without the Lama in 
front there is no approach to God." Whether at the 
building of a house or the starting on a journey, at a 
marriage or a funeral, in times of sickness or of harvest 
or famine, the Lama's aid is considered indispensable. 

The particular form of Buddhism prevalent is one 



326 THE CHINESE EMPIRE 

peculiar to Tibet. One chief point in the Tibetan belief 
is their faith in a succession of incarnate Buddhas ; the 
original Buddha Shakyatubpa or Sang-gye taking up his 
dwelling first in the person of the Dalai Lama, and then 
in many lesser dignitaries of the church. In addition to the 
Buddhist teaching of morals and the method of attaining 
to Nirvana — a state of practical and permanent insensi- 
bility, removed for ever from the chain of transmigration, 
or continuous rebirth into a world of suffering — demon 
worship and demon possession, the practice of magic and 
of sorcery, etc., are very rife, and much thought of. 

In Lhasa there exists a government oracle resident at 
the Drepung Monastery, who is constantly consulted by 
the rulers ; another one in the town is in popular demand. 
Buddhism entered the country from India and China in 
the seventh century a.d., and evidences of the religiousness 
of the people abound on all sides. Prayer-flags large and 
small wave on tall poles up the mountain sides, beside the 
monasteries, at the approach to the Lamaseries, on house- 
tops, across the roads, in fact everywhere. Chodtens or 
whitewashed monuments containing the bones of saints 
are met with beside the roads and near monasteries, while 
prayer-wheels may be seen in the hands of every man and 
woman, who, while turning it, repeats the mystic formula, 
" Om-mani-padmi-hum." Prayer- wheels are also turned by 
water, or by wind, or even smoke in houses. 

The Tibetan's whole life is outwardly religious. He is 
constantly praying or repeating the mystic formula. He 
offers thanks for a journey, and consults the Lama at every 
step. When crossing a pass he reverently places a stone 
on a mound at the top. He tells his beads, but the heart 
is untouched either by purity or godliness. The Chinese 
say of a tripart man, the Chinaman forms the head for 
intelligence, the Mongol the legs for endurance, and the 
Tibetan the heart for religiousness. 

Lhasa is, of course, the Metropolis of Buddhism, the 
seat of the Dalai Lama, the Mecca of the Northern 
Buddhists. Its main thoroughfares are daily thronged 



TIBET 327 

with pilgrims from China, Mongolia, India, and also parts 
of Tibet, all craving a moment's audience with the great 
Pontiff, that they may receive his blessing. Ten days on 
a swift horse would carry the traveller from Siliguri, at 
the foot of the Darjeeling hills, to Lhasa, a distance of 
359 miles. The city stands on the bank of the river 
Kichu, about 20 miles from the Tsangpo, and is in 
extent only about half a mile square. Prettily situated 
amongst trees and surrounded by mountains, the chief and 
absorbing attraction is the Potala, the Dalai Lama's palace. 
This is a magnificent structure on a lofty summit over- 
looking the town. The great Lhokang, or idol temple, 
with its glittering cupolas, in the centre of the town, 
contains a huge image of Buddha. The population of 
Lhasa is roughly 20,000 priests, 7000 Tibetan laymen, 
of whom 5000 are women, and 3000 Chinese pupils, 
making a total of 30,000 persons. The climate is clear 
and salubrious. 

A second Pope, the Teshu Lama, lives at Teshi-lunpo, 
the second town in Tibet, and situated about 150 miles 
to the west of Lhasa. 

Since Manning's visit to Lhasa in 1811, and the 
French Fathers Hue and Gabet's stay of six weeks in 1845, 
many attempts have been made by European travellers 
to reach that city, the Kussian general Prejvalski several 
times nearly succeeding. In 1892 Eockhill from Sining 
came within a week's journey of Lhasa, and in 1890 M. 
Bouvalot and Prince Henry of Orleans reached Tengrinot, 
95 miles north from Kashmir. In 1891 Captain Bower 
from the same point came within 200 miles north-west of 
the city, and in 1893 Miss Annie Taylor from China got 
within twelve days of the capital. Dr. Sven Heldin has 
since then reached a spot 150 miles from the city. It 
was left, however, for the British expedition of 1904 to 
set before the eyes of the public by means of camera and 
pen the hidden treasures of this hitherto forbidden city. 

The immediate cause of this expedition was the reception 
of information in November 1903 of the existence of a 



328 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

secret treaty just signed between Eussia and the Dalai 
Lama. The expedition was hastily prepared, and the 
force crossed the Jelap Pass and reached Einchingong in 
the middle of December, moving a month later to Tuna. 
After three months the force advanced to Jura, where a 
hostile body of 5000 warriors blocked the road to Gyangtse. 
Overcoming this opposition, the expedition pushed on to 
Gyangtse, where they were for seven weeks besieged, until 
a relieving column appeared in June. From this point 
a peaceful march was allowed by the Tibetans to Lhasa, 
which city was reached in August. After the signing of 
a treaty the expedition returned to India. Although the 
results of this move are not yet distinctly apparent, they 
will doubtless be manifest in days to come. It is evident 
that Chinese rule has of late become stronger, and it appears 
that in the near future the Chinese will more fully colonise 
and develop the country and then allow access thereto. 
It now remains to briefly recount the story of missionary 
enterprise in seeking to carry the Gospel to these people. 

The Roman Catholics were the first to attempt missionary 
work in Tibet. In 1845 the Fathers Hue and Gabet, 
travelling from Sining in China, succeeded in reaching 
Lhasa, and stayed there six weeks, propagating their tenets, 
when they were arrested by the Chinese and sent back 
to Canton vid Batang. Since that time missionaries of 
the Eoman Catholic Church have taken up work at various 
points on the Chinese border of Tibet, and now have 
stations at Tachienlu — which is the residence of their 
Bishop — at Batang, at Atentze, Tseku, and Weisi, in the 
provinces of Szechwan and Yunnan. In most of these 
centres they have converts. 

Protestant Missions. — The Moravians were the first 
to work among the Tibetans. In 1853 two men named 
Edward Pagell and Augustus William Heyde were sent 
to open up a Mission in Mongolia. They were, however, 
prevented from entering and crossing Tibet, and they 



TIBET 329 

decided to settle down where they were and await the 
removal of the barriers. In this way their iirst station 
was opened in 1856 at Kyelang in Lahoul, and in 1865 
a second centre was opened at Poo in Kunawar. 

These two men were presently joined by Jaeschke, a 
linguist and scholar of extraordinary ability. After 
mastering the language, he quickly set to work and 
prepared school-books, catechisms, liturgies, hymns, tracts, 
Bible histories, and a Tibetan Grammar and Dictionary, 
which have been of untold value to succeeding missionaries. 
By these works his own knowledge and style were perfected, 
and he commenced the translation of the Bible.^ When 
his work was finished he was obliged to return to his 
native land in failing health. 

The New Testament has quite recently, in 1901-1902, 
been revised into colloquial Lhasa, by a Committee 
appointed by the British and Foreign Bible Society, 
assembled at Darjeeling. The members of this Revision 
Committee were the venerable Mr. Heyde, Messrs. 
Amundsen, Macdonald, Mackenzie, and the Eev. Graham 
Scudberg. After its completion, Mr. Heyde, President of 
this Committee, returned with his wife to Europe, having 
completed, without a break, nearly fifty years of labour 
among the Tibetans. 

Jaeschke was succeeded by Eedslob, who completed the 
New Testament in 1884, and subsequently the Pentateuch 
and the Book of Psalms, In 1883 Pagell and his wife 
both died at Poo, worn out with thirty years of ceaseless 
toil. 

The missionaries had long desired to secure premises 
in Leh, the capital of Ladak, feeling that it would be the 
best centre from which to reach the Western Tibetans. 
It is an important city on the high-road between India 
and Turkestan. After long waiting, many difficulties were 
overcome, and in 1885, after nearly thirty years of con- 
tinuous prayer, Eedslob was able to enter and rent premises. 

^ For fuller details of translation work, see the special section on 
Versions. 



330 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

A native dispensary was given to the Mission, and a 
hospital was soon added, Dr. Marx being the first medical 
missionary. Subsequently a day-school was opened, and 
one child at least out of every family was ordered to attend. 

A great blow befell the Mission in 1891, when Dr. 
Marx and child were stricken down with fever, and the 
venerable Eedslob passed away, leaving a newly-appointed 
young Englishman, the Eev. F. Becker-Shawe, alone to 
direct the Mission, with the two widowed missionaries. 
Mr. Eedslob was much beloved by the Tibetans, who 
mourned for him as for a beloved friend. 

The vacant places were taken by Mr. and Mrs. Eibbach, 
and Dr. Shawe subsequently took over the medical work. 

In 1899 work was opened at Kalatse, also in Ladak, 
where Mr. and Mrs. Francke had toiled patiently on, and 
at the present time Mr. Francke, leaving his wife in 
Europe, is leading a small congregation of eight souls and 
instructing candidates. A year later Chini was occupied. 
The Eev. Julius and Mrs. Bruske, after the early hardships 
of pioneer work, settled down to steady labour, but have 
as yet baptized no converts. Chini is beautifully situated 
in the native state Bashahr, and is a good centre for work 
among the ten thousand people speaking the Kanauri 
dialects. A much appreciated episcopal visit of encourage- 
ment to the lonely workers was paid by Bishop B. La 
Trobe in 1901. 

Mr. and Mrs. Gustafson, of the Scandinavian Alliance 
Mission, have for some years past been preaching the 
Gospel to the Mahommedan Tibetans north of Ladak, in 
Baltistan, making Skardo and Shigar their centres. They 
have now five workers. The work is in many ways dis- 
couraging, and the effect of the thin dry atmosphere on 
nerves, etc., is a severe physical trial. 

Travelling east, following the Himalayas, the London 
Missionary Society have, from their base at Almora, made 
many itinerations among the Bhutias inhabiting the moun- 



TIBET 331 

tainous district west of Nepal, and some of these people 
have already been brought into the Kingdom of Christ. 
At Almora a fairly strong church has been formed, from 
which work towards Tibet is being organised. Work was 
commenced amongst the Joharis at Milam in 1890 by the 
Kev. Gr. M. Bullock. At this centre a girls' school was 
opened, with twenty names on the register. The Mission 
hopes to be able to move forward into Tibet itself. The 
Misses Turner and Routledge have for some years spent 
their time among these hillsmen. 

The three other Missions in this quarter are : — 

(1) The Methodist Episcopal Mission, which since 
1899 has been working near by, on self-supporting lines. 
Here Miss Dr. Sheldon and two other ladies have settled. 

(2) The Chowpatti Mission, whose headquarters at 
Chowpatti are situated on the main road leading into Tibet 
and Nepal, This Mission was established in 1902 to 
preach the Gospel in Mid-Himalaya. Mr. Grundy is the 
leader. 

(3) The Indian Christian Realm is perhaps the 
parent of the last-named Mission, with Mr. Poynter, an 
experienced worker in India, with twenty years' record, as 
leader. For some years this Mission has been sending 
evangelists into Nepal. More recently work has also been 
attempted among the Tibetans. 

Farther east, in the neighbourhood of Darjeeling, the 
Scandinavian Alliance Mission has been established 
since 1892 at Ghoom. This is a village on the railway 
just before Darjeeling is reached, and is the headquarters 
of this Mission's Tibetan work. They have some ten 
members at work, all more or less within touch of Tibet, 
at their five stations in Sikhim, and on the southern border 
of Bhutan. In the wedge-shaped country of Sikhim, 
bordered on the west and east by the still partially closed 
lands of Nepal and Bhutan, and with Tibet at its apex, 
the languages and types of people are much varied. The 



332 THE CHINESE EMPIRE 

country is sparsely populated, and the people are of a quiet 
and unenterprising nature. 

This Mission, from its inception, was led by the Rev. 
J. F. Frederickson until the time of his death in September 
1900. He was a most devoted and singularly unselfish 
character, ever at work, in and out of season. He was one 
of God's " salt of the earth." He has left a widow and two 
little orphans. The doctor, when asked what he died of, 
replied, " He was tired — ^just worn out." 

To fill the gap made by his death, Mr. and Mrs. 
Amundsen came round from China, and for two years put 
in valuable work, printing hundreds of Gospels and other 
portions of Scripture, hymns, a small history of India, and 
a Tibetan school primer, etc., besides giving valuable help 
in translating and revising the New Testament. The 
following are their stations : Buza, on the borders of 
Bhutan ; Ringim, Lachen, Lachung, all in Sikhim ; and 
Ghoom. A few converts have been gathered. 

Mr. David Macdonald of Ghoom has done yeoman 
service among the Tibetans, helping alike all the Tibetan 
and Hindu-speaking Missions. He can speak six languages. 
Miss Ferguson and Miss Anderson, in the face of sore 
bereavement, are working on at Darjeeling. Mr. and Mrs. 
Wright are doing excellent pioneering work among the 
Nepalis. 

The Church of Scotland Mission at Kalimpong and 
Darjeeling, with its energetic leader, the Rev. J. A. Graham, 
has always been to the fore in reaching the numerous hill 
tribes of the district. Since 1898, when this Mission was 
reinforced by Mr. and Mrs. Evan Mackenzie, it has made 
special effort to reach the Tibetans. Mr. Mackenzie has 
made numerous evangelistic journeys among the Tibetans 
in Sikhim and Bhutan, constantly preaching in the Bazaar 
and Mission Room in Kalimpong, and teaching classes of 
lads, besides speaking to the Tibetans who attend the neat, 
well-arranged hospital. 

He had a most interesting experience at the time of the 



TIBET 333 

joint visit of the Teshu Lama (vice-Pope of Tibet), the 
Tongsa Penlop (real ruler of Bhutan), and the Maharajah 
of Sikhim to Calcutta to meet the Prince of Wales during 
his Indian tour. Mr. Mackenzie met the Teshu Lama's 
company of some four hundred in Sikhim, and travelled 
with them stage by stage to Calcutta, serving them in 
many ways and receiving from several officials warm invita- 
tions to visit them in Tibet and Bhutan. 

Miss Annie Tayloe, when a member of the China 
Inland Mission, made a bold and adventurous journey 
across Tibet in 1892. Leaving Taochow in Kansu in 
September 1892, she crossed the Yellow Eiver and passed 
through the Eobber Golck country, and entered the Lhasa 
territory on December 31. On January 7, 1893, she was 
met by a civil officer and forced to return to China. 
After enduring great privations from cold, want of food, and 
robbers, etc., she reached Tachienlu in April 1893. 

Since 1898 Miss Taylor has been living at the little 
trading port of Yatung, just over the border, in the narrow 
wedge between Sikhim and Bhutan. Here she has dis- 
pensed medicine, sold Gospels and tracts, and preached the 
Gospel to the Tibetans, who are constantly passing back- 
wards and forwards from Tibet to Kalimpong and India. 

The Assam Pkontier Pioneer Mission since 1891 
has, through their agents Messrs. Lorrain and Savidge, been 
labouring between Bhutan and the north-east of Assam, 
among a number of the wild tribes bordering on Tibet. 
During a part of that time they have worked amongst a 
tribe called the Lushais, who occupy the forest -covered 
mountainous country between India and Upper Burmah. 
This latter work was in 1899 taken over by the Welsh 
Presbyterian Mission, and recently a revival in the Khassia 
Hills has just begun to touch this tribe. 

Messrs. Lorrain and Savidge in 1900 commenced work 
from Sadiya as their base among the wild Abor tribes, 
among whom they laboured until 1903. They then 



334 THE CHINESE EMPIRE 

returned to work among the South Lushais, as agents for 
the Baptist Missionary Society, that Society taking over 
the Abor work. 

The International Missionary Alliance of New 
York in 1892 sent Messrs. Christe and Simpson to China, 
to commence work among the Tibetans. After commencing 
their Tibetan studies at Peking, these brethren in 1895 
selected Taochow in Kansu for their base. This city 
had been opened to Miss Annie Taylor in 1891, and it 
was from here that she set forth on her adventurous journey 
already mentioned. The city is the centre of trade for a 
large region inhabited by many different Tibetan tribes, 
who live in the villages to the north, south, and west. 
Other stations were opened later at Minchow, Choni, Pao- 
ngan, from which latter city the missionaries were expelled 
with violence. In 1900, in common with most of the 
missionaries in China, the workers were obliged to retire 
to the coast ; but in 1902 Mr. Simpson and family, with 
Messrs. Ruhl and Snyder, returned to Taochow. A little 
later Titao, a Chinese city to the north, was opened, and 
Mr. and Mrs. Ekvall took up work there. 

Much itinerating work has been done. At present the 
stations are as follows : Taochow (Old City), Minchow, 
Choni, Titao. Some fruit has already been seen at 
Taochow. 

The China Inland Mission, as with the International 
Missionary Alliance, has sought to reach the Tibetans from 
the Chinese border. In 1877 the late Dr. Cameron of the 
China Inland Mission visited the Tibetans in Western 
Szechwan, passing Tachienlu, Litang — situated at a height 
of 12,500 feet — Hokeo, Batang, beyond which he was 
informed a guard of Tibetan soldiers was posted in order 
to prevent his entrance into Tibet. He had, however, no 
intention of entering, and turned south towards Yunnan, 
passing through the villages of Atentsi — where he was laid 
up with fever for fourteen days — Shihku, and Weisi, in 



TIBET 335 

each of which places the Eoman Catholics have work. He 
then proceeded to Tali Fu, in Yunnan, and thence to 
Bhamo, returning to China vid Eangoon and Singapore. 

In July 1888 the writer and his wife left Tsinchow 
for Sining, immediately after their marriage. Travelling 
from Lanchow, along the north bank of the Yellow Eiver, 
they passed many Tibetan villages before Sining was 
reached. One of the main roads from Peking to Lhasa 
passes through this latter town, and both the Tibetans and 
Mongols living around Lake Kokonor visit Sining, where 
the Viceroy (always a Manchu) of the large province of 
Kokonor resides. 

While carrying on the regular Chinese work of the 
station at Sining, the study of the Tibetan language was 
commenced, the assistance of an old Mongol, who had been 
with Hue and Gabet to Lhasa, being obtained in the early 
stages. Subsequently, when visiting the large monastery 
of Kumbum, about 20 miles to the west, where Gospels 
and tracts were distributed during the quarterly festivals, 
the acquaintance of a learned monk was. made. This monk 
kindly invited the writer and his wife to his monastery, 
which was distant some four days' journey. The friendly 
intercourse obtained with this abbot greatly facilitated the 
study of their language, and gave exceptional opportunities 
for preaching the Gospel. 

Upon another occasion, after travelling for three days and 
crossing the Yellow Eiver where it was fully 100 yards 
broad and very swift, a stay was made at Kweiteh, and 
afterwards for five months at a Tibetan village 15 miles 
farther to the west, right among the people. This was the 
last village before tent habitations were reached. Oppor- 
tunities for preaching were here given at all hours of the 
day, and an exceedingly useful and interesting experience 
was gained. 

In the autumn of 1891 the work at Sining was 
taken over by Mr. Hall and Mr. and Mrs. Eidley. The 
writer moved forward, and travelling with a party of 
Mohammedan traders, crossed the Yellow Eiver near 



336 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

Payenrung, passing through the Jalar Mohammedan 
country. These Mohammedans were originally from 
Turkestan, and the women speak Turki only. Crossing 
large stretches of grassy country often infested by robbers, 
and staying for a day or two near the celebrated Lhabrang 
Monastery, where 4000 monks reside, just at the time 
of one of their large festivals, Taochow was reached, 
where Miss Annie Taylor, who had just arrived with her 
Tibetan servant, was met. From here the return journey 
to Lanchow was made, passing by Choni, where there is a 
large monastery containing 15,000 monks, and where 
a Prince resides. 

In November of the same year a further journey was 
made to the mountain town of Songpan (9000 feet high), on 
the north-west of Szechwan, where a portion of a house was 
rented. Subsequently the writer brought his family to 
this town, after a forty days' journey. There they were 
permitted to remain for two months and a half only. 
The people being worked up into a frenzy of superstitious 
fear through drought, expelled the missionaries after 
handling them very roughly. 

Subsequently, after a period of rest in England and a 
visit to Darjeeling, China was reached again in 1897, in 
company with welcome reinforcements, and premises were 
secured at Tachienlu. Here the forty large inns kept for 
Tibetans were frequently visited in rotation, and copies of 
the "Word of God sold and the Gospel preached. Great 
help was also given to the medical work by Mrs. Dr. E. 
Eijnhart, who reached Tachienlu after her painful journey 
across Tibet, when she lost both her husband and child. 

Missionary journeys were taken to the north and west, 
and one of considerable interest, by Mr. Amundsen, to the 
south-west, when Mill was reached. On one of these 
journeys Mr. Soutter died through fever. The Boxer crisis 
of 1900 closed the work for a time, and Mr. Thomas 
Eadford, when on his way to reopen the station in 1901, 
contracted typhoid fever and died at Chungking. 

After a preliminary visit in 1902 by Mr. Edgar, the 



TIBET 337 

station was reopened in March 1903. The subsequent 
history of this station has been, one of encouragement, a 
large number of inquirers giving in their names. Although 
the majority of these have been Chinese, there are some 
Tibetans, and also many of the principal merchants of the 
town, who have great influence with the Tibetans. 

Another encouraging feature has been the offer of a 
station at Litang, twelve days to the west of Tachienlu. 
On May 14, 1904, the first baptism, of four persons, took 
place outside the city, and another eight were baptized 
during 1905. There are not a few Tibetans among the 
inquirers, one of whom is an ex-Lama. The Christians 
have presented 900 taels (£120) towards the erection of a 
church, and four stations were opened during the year, at 
Mosimien, Lenki, Tsami, and Lutingchiao. The services 
are being well attended, and the outlook is in many 
respects most encouraging. Mr. Edgar also reports that 
Batang is open to missionary enterprise, the Chinese 
having quelled the aggressive Lamas. 

It should also be mentioned that Mr. Amundsen, who 
resides in Yunnan Fu, has been taking some long journeys 
along the Tibetan border for the British and Foreign 
Bible Society. 



MONGOLIA 

By the Editor. 

Before dealing with Mongolia proper, it may be well to 
add a few words to what has been written by Mr. George 
Hunter in his article on Sinkiang, concerning that general 
geographical relationship which exists between all the vast 
tract of territory which constitutes the whole northern 
section of the central Asiatic plateau, lying between the 
Kuen-luen and the Altai mountain systems. Speaking 
somewhat roughly, it may be said that that country which 
extends from Pamir on the west to Manchuria on the 
east, and bounded by Siberia on the north and China 
proper on the south, is Mongolia in its widest sense. 

Between the Gobi Desert of Mongolia proper and Takla- 
makan of Chinese Turkestan (called by some writers 
"Western Gobi or even Western Mongolia) lies a broad belt 
of country some three hundred miles wide, which is not 
desert to the same extent as the two deserts mentioned 
above, but is fairly well watered by the streams which flow 
from the Nan-shan and Tien-shan, on the south and north 
respectively. The explanation of this is by some thought 
to be that the inlet of the Bay of Bengal brings that 
portion of Central Asia nearer to the sea than elsewhere. 
This belt of country which unites China proper with the 
Tien-shan is of great importance to China, affording as it 
does the lines of communication from China to Kashgaria 
and Zungaria. 

With the Pamir and Kuen-luen mountains on the west 

338 



MONGOLIA 339 

and south, and the Tien-shau mountains on the north, 
Kashgaria is shut in in a kind of horseshoe of mountains, 
while to the north of the Tien-shan, between those 
mountains and the Altai, there are three depressions 
through the mountains on the west — which run rather 
east and west than north and south-^which give access 
to Asiatic Eussia and Europe. Along these routes have 
been those great migrations which have taken place in past 
history. These routes are : — 

(1) That along the Black Irtish Eiver, between the 
Ektag-Altai and the Tarbagatai mountains ; 

(2) That which passes the town of Chuguchak, which is 
the most frequented ; and 

(3) That which follows the beds of the Lakes Ayar, Ebi, 
and Ala, connecting with Lake Balkash. 

For long the Chinese have called the road which runs 
to the south of the Tien-shan into Kashgaria " The South 
Eoad," and that which runs to the north of the same range 
into Zungaria " The North Eoad." 

The strategic value of that belt of country mentioned 
above, which connects China proper with Western Mongolia, 
is easily recognised and has made these routes the scenes of 
many bloody struggles. Hami is said to be almost un- 
rivalled in Asia as a strategic centre, any army proceeding 
either east or west needing to hold this place as a base for 
further progress ; and what Hami is to the southern route, 
so Barkul is to the northern route into Zungaria, these 
two cities being united by only one good pass through the 
eastern extension of the Tien-shan. 

Chinese Turkestan, or the Tarim basin, may be said to 
have four natural divisions : the highlands ; the lowlands, 
lying between the mountains and desert ; the desert itself, 
which is mostly an uninhabitable waste, sloping from 4000 
feet altitude on the west to 2000 feet on the east; and 
lastly, the swamps of the Lakes Lob and Bagrash. Along 
the banks of the rivers which feed the Tarim the land is 
fertile, and both banks of the Yarkand are fringed by a 



340 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

belt of well-watered and well-wooded land, varying from 
seventeen to twenty miles in width. 

Modern research has proved that, for long, desiccation 
— by which term a gradual climatic change within the 
period of human history is meant — has been proceeding in 
this region. On the desiccation of Chinese Turkestan a 
most interesting article appeared in the Geographical 
Journal for October 1906, in which article Mr. Ellsworth 
Huntingdon says : 

"As a whole, the withering rivers show signs of having 
decreased in size during the last two or three thousand 
years, the evidence lying partly in diminished length, as 
shown by dead vegetation, and partly in diminished volume 
and increased salinity, as shown by ruins. . . . Thirteen 
of the seventeen larger rivers have on their lower courses 
the ruins of towns dating usually from the Buddhist era, a 
thousand or more years ago. The older ruins are situated 
so far out in the desert, or upon rivers so small or so saline, 
that it would be impossible again to locate towns of equal 
size in the same places." 

" The phenomena of rivers, large and small, of springs, 
lakes, ruins, and vegetation all seem to point to a gradual 
desiccation of Chinese Turkestan for nearly 1500 miles 
east and west, and 500 miles north and south. All the 
more arid part of Asia, from the Caspian Sea eastwards for 
more than 2500 miles, appears to have been subject to a 
climatic change whereby it has been growing less and less 
habitable for the last two or three thousand years." 

In 1900-1901 Dr. M. A. Stein was engaged in ex- 
ploration in Chinese Turkestan, and his researches have 
conclusively proved that in this region there were formerly 
great centres of Buddhist culture some fifteen hundred 
and more years ago. Many of the curios which he brought 
home may be seen at the British Museum, and his 
observations — with photographs taken on the spot — are 
published in a book entitled Preliminary Report of a 
Journey of Archceological and Topographical Exploration 
in Chinese Turkestan. Some of the seals on exhibition 



MONGOLIA 341 

at the British Museum are of great beauty, and are said 
to reveal Greek influence, being probably connected with 
the " Grasco-Buddhist " art of India, 

More recently, during 1906, Dr. Stein has made some 
further discoveries, and has found some excellently pre- 
served large rolls of a Buddhistic work in Chinese, having 
on the covers what evidently is its translation into the 
" unknown " language of old Khotan. It is hoped that 
this may furnish the long-desired clue for the decipherment 
of this " unknown " language. 

Zungaria, situated to the north of the Tien-shan, 
receives its name from the Zungars, who were a branch 
of the Kalmuks or Western Mongols. This tribe, early 
in the eighteenth century, rose to great power, their 
sovereign commanding as many as a million armed warriors. 
After three successive attacks, his army captured and 
sacked Lhasa in 1717, but they were finally overthrown 
and annihilated by the Chinese in 1757, a million persons, 
men, women, and children, having been put to the sword. 

As has been mentioned above, the natural lines of 
communication between China and Europe run through 
the three depressions to the west of Zungaria ; and Keclus, 
in his Standard Geography , says : " The future continental 
railway from Calais to Shanghai may be said to be already 
traced by the hand of nature through Zungaria, Kansu, 
Liangchow Fu to the Hwang -ho basin. Hence the 
importance attached by Eussia to the approaches of this 
route, which they secured before consenting to restore the 
Kuldja district occupied by them during the Dungan 
insurrection." 

Kuldja, which is wedged into the heart of the Central 
Tien-shan, is regarded by many as by far the richest land 
in the Chinese Empire, outside the limits of China proper. 
This country has also suffered from wars and massacres, 
the records of which are almost incredible. In the great 
rising of the Dungans (the native Mohammedans) and 



342 THE CHINESE EMPIRE 

the Teranchi (colonists from the Tarim basin) against 
their Chinese oppressors, the Chinese and Manchus were 
massacred wholesale in 1865. Although the arrival of 
the Eussians, who temporarily took possession of Kuldja, 
put an end to the bloodshed, it was not before the 
2,000,000 inhabitants of the country had been reduced 
to 139,000. Kuldja is nevertheless more thickly popu- 
lated than Zungaria, the latter country, which has an area 
five times greater than Kuldja, having only about double 
its population. 

In 1882 these western countries — Kashgaria, Zungaria, 
Kuldja, with part of North -Western Kansu — were 
formed into the new province of Sinkiang. At Urumtsi, 
which has been chosen as the seat of government for 
this new province, the Chinese are building a new city, 
and showing much military activity to resist any possible 
Eussian aggression, quite unaware, however, that that site 
is regarded by competent observers as indefensible. For 
further particulars concerning Sinkiang, see the article 
under that name by Mr. George Hunter. 

Kokonor. — Before treating of Mongolia proper, a few 
words should be devoted to Kokonor, a district distinct 
both from Tibet and Sinkiang. From Tibet it is separated 
by a treble mountain barrier, and from Kansu and Sinkiang 
by the formidable Nan-shan. 

Kokonor takes its name from the lake which occupies 
its centre, a lake from 220 to 240 miles in circumference, 
with an area varying from 2000 to 2500 square miles. 
From the colour of its waters this district is sometimes 
known by the Chinese as Tsing-hai or Blue Sea. The 
Tsaidam river is from 250 to 300 miles in length, and 
was 480 yards wide at the place where it was crossed by 
Prejvalsky. As with the Tien-shan and Altai mountains, 
the Nan-shan are also well wooded on their northern slopes, 
but not on the south. This is accounted for by the fact 
that the most humid atmospheric currents which reach 
them come from the Polar seas. 



MONGOLIA 343 

There are also many evidences even here that this 
drier region was formerly better inhabited than it is now, 
and the lake appears to have had more water in the past 
than at present. The population is now estimated at 
about 150,000. The peoples are Mongols and Tanguts, 
the latter, who are of Tibetan stock, but not polyandrous, 
being combative and oppressing the more peaceful Mongols. 
Their only occupation is stock-breeding. According to 
Prejvalsky the province is divided into twenty-nine banners, 
Sining in Kansu being the residence of the Chinese 
officials through whom the people communicate with the 
Imperial Government. 

At times a little missionary work has been done in 
this region, Mrs. Dr. Eijnhart having, when visiting that 
country, engaged in medical mission work. 

Mongolia proper is nearly as large as China proper, and, 
with Zungaria, Outer Kansu, and the Tarim basin, occupies 
about half the Chinese Empire. In a general way it may 
be described " as a vast plateau, slightly hollowed in the 
centre and rising gradually from the south-west to the 
north-east." The mean elevation on the west is 2600 
feet, and on the east over 4000 feet. 

It is bounded on the north by the Siberian provinces 
of Tomsk, Yeniseisk, Irkutsk, and Transbaikalia, the Altai 
and Sayan mountains ; on the east by Manchuria and the 
Khingan mountains ; on the south by China, the Great 
Wall dividing two regions already separated by nature ; 
and on the west by Sinkiang, Zungaria, and the Tien-shan. 

Broadly speaking, Mongolia divides itself into three 
parts, though some, as Wells Williams, divide it into four : 
1. North-Western Mongolia ; 2, The Gobi ; and 3. South- 
Eastern Mongolia. 

North- Western Mongolia covers an area of nearly 
370,000 square miles. According to Prince Kropotkin's 
article in the Encyclopcedia Britannica, the altitude of 
this region nowhere falls below 2370 feet, the lowest area 



344 THE CHINESE EMPIRE 

being around Ubsanor. Dr. A. H. Keane in his work on 
Asia gives the mean elevation as " probably not more than 
2000 feet," to the western portion. Apart from some 
7000 square miles around Ubsanor, the Encyclopcedia 
Britannica states that the altitude of North - Western 
Mongolia ranges from 3000 to 4500 feet even in the 
river valleys and lower plains. 

The chief mountains of this portion of Mongolia are, on 
the north-west the Eussian Altai ; on the north-east the 
Western Sayans ; on the south-west the Ektag- Altai, which 
form a true border range facing the Zungarian depression ; 
and the Kentai on the south-east, which separate the higher 
terraces of North-Western Mongolia from the Lower Gobi. 
North -Western Mongolia is described as " a massive swell- 
ing of the earth's crust, representing the northern counter- 
part of the plateau of Tibet." It is well watered, and has a 
good many lakes, " the desiccating remains of much larger 
basins." 

Its chief rivers are the Jabkan, the Yenisei, and the 
Selenga, the Orkhon, and the Tola, on which Urga stands. Its 
chief lakes are the Ubsa, one of the largest in the Empire, 
being 1200 square miles in extent, the Kobdo and Kara-ussa 
lakes. Owing to its high altitude North-Western Mongolia 
is very cold in winter. The yearly rainfall in Urga is only 
9:^ inches. The temperature varies from — 18" Fahr. in 
January to 64° in July. The chief towns are Urga, Ulias- 
sutai, and Kobdo. The chief occupation is cattle-breed- 
ing, with the export of furs and the transport of goods. 

The Gobi. — The Mongolian word "Gobi" and the Chinese 
"Shamo" mean "sandy desert." Its characteristic is an open, 
flat and undulating plain " covered with a hard coating of 
gravel from which the wind has swept the lighter particles 
of mud or sand." Eichthofen accepts the Chinese term of 
Han-hai or Dry-sea, supposing this region to be the bed of 
a former Central-Asia Mediterranean, but two professional 
geologists, Bogdanovitch and Obrucheff, after traversing 
some 20,000 miles of the plain, have discovered only one 



MONGOLIA 345 

fossil, and that points to a fresh-water origin rather than 
a sea. 

In area the Gobi Desert is about 480,000 square miles, 
extending about 1000 miles from east to west, varying 
from 450 to 600 miles from north to south. It has no 
permanent streams, the north-west winds of winter having 
discharged their moisture on the Sayan slopes, and the 
south-east winds of summer having exhausted their humidity 
on the Khingan and In-shan heights. The temperature 
varies from the cold of Siberia to the heat of India, changes 
of temperature being exceedingly sudden, one traveller 
recording 68° Fahr. in the shade in the day and —18° 
Fahr. the same night. 

On the east of the Gobi the Khingan mountains with 
their parallel ridges constitute a zone of nearly 100 miles 
wide, by which the Mongolian plateau drops south-east 
towards the lower plains of Manchuria. To the north-west 
of this zone there is another band of undulating tableland 
about 100 miles wide, well watered and well wooded. 

In consequence of the altitude of the east of Mongolia, 
the Khingan mountains appear only about 1500 feet high 
on their western side, but much higher from the Manchurian 
aspect. The In-shan, in consequence of the plentiful supply 
of rain brought from the Gulf of Pechihli, are well wooded, 
though the Chinese are denuding these forests rapidly. 

The Ordos, while physically and ethnically belonging to 
Mongolia, is separated from that country by the great 
sweep of the Yellow Kiver. It is about 40,000 square 
miles in area, and has a mean elevation of 3500 feet, and 
is more arid than Mongolia. Jenghis Khan and some 
members of his family are reported to have been buried 
here. Although now one of the most inhospitable regions 
of the Gobi, there are evidences of buried cities and an 
earlier prosperity. 

The Great Wall, which forms the southern boundary of 
Mongolia, has a total length of about 2000 miles, and is 
said to have a cubic capacity of four thousand millions of 



346 THE CHINESE EMPIRE 

cubic feet of masonry. The eastern section from the Ordos 
to the Yellow Sea was rebuilt in the fifth century, and the 
portion north of Peking has been restored twice during the 
fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Although useless now, 
it has doubtless served its purpose in the earlier ages of 
protecting the Chinese from Mongolian invasions. The 
present decadence of the warlike Mongols of mediaeval 
history is astonishing. 

South-Eastern Mongolia, or Inner Mongolia, is that part 
of Mongolia which lies on the eastern slopes of the Khingan 
mountains. Its characteristics are much the same as those 
of Mongolia elsewhere, only it is better watered and culti- 
vated and of lower elevation. Its chief rivers are the 
tributaries of the Sungari on the north, and the Siramuren 
and Liao rivers on the south. The inhabitants of Inner 
Mongolia are divided into forty-nine families or clans called 
" Banners," as each clan has its own flag. Each Banner has 
its own chief, who is a descendant of Jenghis Khan and has 
hereditary dignity. 

The Mongols of Inner Mongolia may be formed into 
two classes, the nomadic and the agricultural, the former 
being to the west and north, and the latter to the east and 
south. In addition to these, the Chinese from Shansi, 
Chihli, and Shantung have for long been emigrating into 
Mongolia, and pushing back the Mongols by their more 
vigorous policy. Although the Great Wall is the natural 
division of the two countries, the Chinese have burst through 
that division, and the whole region known to the Chinese 
by the name of Kow-wai or " Beyond the Gate " has been 
incorporated into the two provinces of Chihli and Shansi. 

Sir F. Younghusband, in his book Through the Heart of 
a Continent, says : " I was astonished to see that, although 
we were now in Mongolia, the largest and best flocks were 
tended by and belonged to Chinese, who have completely 
ousted the Mongols in the very thing which above all 
others ought to be their speciality." The Rev. Alexander 
Williamson, in his book on Journeys in North China, 



MONGOLIA 347 

Manchuria, and Eastern Mongolia, says : " In Mongolia 
cultivation makes a perceptible difference in a few years' 
time. Boreas yields to Ceres ; for it has been observed 
that the warmth increases and the seasons lengthen as 
cultivation advances. It has been found by the Chinese, 
who have entered Mongolia as agriculturists, that crops 
which at first did not thrive, owing to the cold, after a few 
years yielded an excellent return." It would be an interest- 
ing study to investigate how far the desiccation of Chinese 
Turkestan, etc., has been caused by the devastating wars 
and rebellions which have made cultivation impossible. 

Concerning the emigration of the Chinese to Inner 
Mongolia, Mr. C. W. Campbell, in a paper before the Eoyal 
Geographical Society in 1903, said: "Swarms of Chinese 
spread beyond the Great Wall, ousting the Mongols. In 
1899 the Chinese settlers had reached a mile or so beyond 
Chagan-balgas ; in 1 9 3 I found them ploughing the virgin 
soil near Dbasum-nor, a pool which is ten miles farther 
north." The settlers who have been pouring in since the 
late war between Eussia and Japan have been so many that 
the British and Foreign Bible Society has just appointed a 
foreign colporteur to work among them. 

Concerning the population of Mongolia, it is extremely 
difficult to arrive at any satisfactory conclusion. It is 
stated by some authorities to be only two and a half 
millions, by others as five millions (see Prince Kropotkin), 
and by others as much higher. Thus Dr. Williamson quotes 
Dr. Edkin as assigning the population of Inner Mongolia 
alone as ten millions, and he adds, " I should say that this is 
not far from the truth." Among such wide variations it is 
difficult to determine what to accept. 

The limits of this article will not allow much to be 
said about the important but complicated story of the past 
history of the Mongols and other races who have inhabited 
Mongolia. Suffice it to say that the discovery of Turkish- 
Chinese bilingual slabs has proved that the Hiung-nu, 
whom the Great Wall was built to resist, were of the same 



348 THE CHINESE EMPIKE 

race as the Turks of a.d. 500, and that during the migrations 
an alphabet of Syriac origin was introduced into Mongolia 
which is the basis of the present Mongolian writing. For 
the story of the rise of Jenghis Khan and his devastations 
in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, and for the wars and 
raids of the terrible Timur (Tamerlane), the reader must be 
referred elsewhere. 

The main outlines of Mongolian history will be found 
admirably summarised in a small book entitled History of 
the Mongols, by Mr. Stanley Lane-Poole, of which, however, 
only 25 copies were printed, and these by special permission 
of the British Museum. The following facts are taken from 
this work : — 

" The history of the Mongols practically begins with 
the great conqueror Jenghis Khan. His father, who 
probably first asserted his independence from Chinese rule, 
was at that time only holding sway over some 40,000 tents, 
yet within twenty years Jenghis Khan had built the 
widest empire the world has ever known. The territory 
he and his sons conquered stretched from the Yellow Sea to 
the Crimea, and included lands or tribes wrung from the 
rule of Chinese Tanguts, Afghans, Persians, and Turks. 

"Upon the death of Jenghis Khan in a.d. 1227, at the 
age of sixty-four, his empire was divided among his five sons 
as follows : — 

"(1) The line of Ogotai, ruling the tribes of Zungaria. 
It was he who invaded Europe. 

"(2) The line of Tulai, which ruled over the clans of 
Mongolia. His son was Kublai Khan, who conquered 
China and founded the Yiian dynasty. 

" (3) The line of Tulai and Persian branch ; the Ilkhans 
of Persia. 

" (4) The line of Jugi, ruling the Turkish tribes. 

" (5) The line Jagatai, ruling Trans-Oxiana. 

" After the death of Osfotai, whose death resulted in the 
Tartars retiring from Europe, a general struggle ensued, 
and Kublai Khan maintained his supremacy. His capital 
was removed from Karakorum to Pekiner. 



MONGOLIA 349 

" The second period of Mongol history is from the fall of 
the Ylian dynasty in a.d. 1370 to its temporary revival 
under Dayan Khan in 1543. This is known as the time 
of the ' diminished Empire,' when the Mongols were limited 
to Mongolia, and were gradually brought under subjection 
by the Mings. There was, however, a temporary reunion 
under Dayan Khan, who died in a.d. 1543. 

" The third period of Mongol history is known as that of 
the ' Divided tribes.' After the death of Dayan Khan 
the rule was divided among his sons, but civil war followed, 
and the Mongols became a distintegrated body of units, 
and were gradually subdued by the rising of the Manchu 
dynasty." 

It is hardly possible to recognise the timid Mongols 
of the present day as the descendants in any way of these 
warlike people. The Chinese policy of encouraging tribal 
divisions, and allowing marriage between the tribal chiefs 
with the Chinese Imperial Family, in part explains China's 
ability to keep them in subjection to-day ; and doubtless the 
strong religious instinct of the people, whereby five-eighths 
of the male population become lamas and consequently 
never marry, has done not a little to limit the population 
and sap the virility of the race. The proportion of this 
priestly class to the population is greater than in any other 
country, Tibet not excepted. 

The only real division of the Mongols is that of the 
" Banners," but the main classifications are : 

1. The Khalkhas, who are the descendants of Jenghis 
Khan and occupy the north-east. Jenghis Khan called 
the men of his tribe Kukai Mongols or " Celestial people," 
and designated the other tributary tribes Tatars or the 
modern Tartars, a name which has become associated with 
the whole Mongol race. 

2. The Kalmucks, who are subdivided into the Buriats 
or Siberian Mongolians ; the Eliuts, who are more or less 
mixed with the Turki element, and are to be found in the 
west ; and the Torgouts. Eeclus gives in all 172 " banners." 
Of these, 86 are Khalkhas, 51 belong to East Mongolia, 8 



350 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

to the Tsakhar domain, 3 to Ala-shan, 48 to Uliasutai (31 
of these are to Kobdo), and 7 to the Ordos territory. 

In an illuminating chapter in More about the Mongols, 
Gilmour, the great Mongolian missionary, corrects what he 
calls common delusions about Mongolia. He says that the 
Mongols are " frequently spoken of as ' wandering tribes.' 
Now the truth is that any one who is conversant with 
Mongolia can go straight to the tent of almost any man he 
wishes to find, and that there is no more difficulty in 
seeking out a man's place of abode in Mongolia than in 
the case of a man in England." " Tribes and men have 
their fixed localities almost as distinct and definite as in 
China, England, or any settled country." 

He also corrects the general impression that Mongolia is 
a trackless region. He says : " On the contrary, there are 
great broad roads running through it in many directions ; 
roads not made by the hand of man, but it may be by 
camels' feet, yet, however made, as well marked and a good 
deal broader often than the king's highway in England. 
These roads are so well marked that on one occasion a 
foreigner and a native, neither of whom had ever travelled 
that way before, followed one of them for nearly two weeks, 
and never lost it, even in the night time." " Roads abound 
in Mongolia." 

Further, " In Gobi the grass is mostly sparse, but there 
are regions where the grass grows as deep and thick almost 
as in an English hay-field, having in addition a profusion of 
flowers." 

The Mongolian Language. — Probably the best essay on 
this subject in the English language is to be found in the 
appendix of the life of James Gilmour of Mongolia. Mon- 
golian is not a monosyllabic language like Chinese, but has 
words of many syllables and has an alphabet. Moreover, 
the language differs so little in its dialects that all over 
Mongolia men meeting one another can communicate 
with each other with less difficulty than a Scotsman with 
an Englishman. It is really much easier of acquisition 



MONGOLIA 351 

than Chinese, but the facilities for study are very poor and 
increase the difficulty. 

The written language, having an alphabet, is naturally 
more easily learnt than the written Chinese. One of the 
predominant features is the disproportionately large part 
occupied by the verb, which by a slight change in its 
terminal has a variety of significations. The importance 
of honorific terms is one of the greatest difficulties. There 
are also so many gutturals and aspirates that the general 
effect is that of gasping and sputtering. 

The Mongolian alphabet was derived from the Syriac 
through the Uigurian forms, the Nestorian missionaries 
having brought the Syriac to the Uigurs, a Turkish people 
dwelling in Central Asia. It is written perpendicularly in 
lines from left to right. The Manchus after the rise of that 
dynasty borrowed their alphabet and slightly modified it for 
their own use, the change being so slight that with very 
little modification Manchu type can be used for Mongolian. 
There are three styles of the written language — that of the 
sacred books, that of Government documents, and that for 
general correspondence. Outside of the sacred books and 
liturgies there is very little literature, religion having taken 
so strong a hold on the Mongolian mind. 

The form of Buddhism present in Mongolia is Lamaism, 
Tibet being their Holy-land. In addition to their two 
Grand Lamas or Living Buddhas of Tibet, they have their 
own Living Buddha who resides at Urga. He formerly 
resided at Kweihwating, but having been assassinated 
because of a dispute as to his pre-eminence over the Emperor 
Kang-hsi, he was commanded by imperial decree to be born 
again at Urga ! Wu-t'ai-shan in Shansi is a most sacred 
mountain to the Mongols, and is constantly visited by crowds 
of pilgrims. Of this place Mr. Gilmour says : " As 
Jerusalem to the Jews, as Mecca to the Mohammedans, so is 
Wu-t'ai-shan to the Mongols." It would be difficult to put 
it more strongly. 

Before passing on to the study of Missions in this 
country, it should be mentioned that the Kussian Govern- 



352 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

merit, by treaties with China in 1859-60, arranged that 
they should have the right of maintaining at their own 
expense a postal service between Kiakhta and Tientsin vid 
Urga. This is the route along which a railway is now 
being built, the line from Peking to Kalgan being opened 
on September 30, 1906. This railway when completed 
will bring Peking within twelve days of London. 

The principal occupation of the Mongols is that of cattle- 
breeding and the transport of goods. It is estimated that 
each Mongol family has about 50 sheep, 25 horses, 15 
horned cattle, and 10 camels. In the transport of goods 
probably some 100,000 are employed for the export of tea 
alone from Kalgan to Siberia, and 1,200,000 camels and 
300,000 ox-carts for the interior caravan trade. 

The trade between China and Mongolia is estimated at 
£900,000 for Urga alone, while 25,000 horses, 10,000 
horned cattle, 250,000 sheep, as well as a quantity of hides, 
are annually exported from East Mongolia. From West 
Mongolia the export is about 70,000 horses, 30,000 horned 
cattle, and from one and a half to two million sheep. 

Roman Catholic Missions. — Nothing definite concern- 
ing China is known before the Nestorian missionaries 
entered that country as early as A.D. 505. From the 
spread of Christianity in China proper it is quite possible 
that some knowledge of the Truth reached Mongolia, and 
may be at the bottom of the traditions about Prester John. 

In 1291 John de Monte Corvino was sent by Pope 
Nicholas IV. to the Court of Kubla Khan, the Mongol 
founder of the Yiian dynasty in China, under whom also 
Marco Polo held oflice. The labours also of Nicholas and 
his twenty-four Franciscan assistants were wholly for the 
Mongols. John de Monte Corvino actually translated the 
Scriptures into Mongol, concerning which more will be 
found elsewhere.^ Little is known of succeeding Romish 
Missions in Mongolia, but the interesting journeys of Abbe 
Hue were undertaken at the orders of the Apostolic 

1 See p. 410, 



MONGOLIA 353 

Vicariat of Mongolia, who had been appointed by the Pope 
in 1844. This Vicariat appears to have been appointed 
to care for the Christians who had been driven into 
Mongolia from Peking by the persecutions of the Emperor 
Kia-king. 

At the present time the Eoman Catholic Church has a 
chain of stations along the border line extending from 
Manchuria to Tibet, but not any on the plains. According 
to Dr. Williamson, the Greek Church also has established 
Missions in several important localities. 

The history of Protestant Missions in Mongolia is one 
of great interest, but, unfortunately, so meagre that it is 
told without much difficulty. 

The first effort was made by the London Missionary 
Society. In 1817 two learned Buriats reached St. Petersburg 
to assist in the translation of parts of the New Testament 
into their own language.^ Through representations from 
the Eussian Bible Society, probably inspired by the 
remarkable request of the Buriat tribe, the London 
Missionary Society appointed Mr. Edward Stallybrass, in 
1817, and Mr. Cornelius Eahmn, who joined him at St. 
Petersburg somewhat later, to proceed to Irkutsk, which 
place they reached on March 26, 1818. They at once 
proceeded with the study of the Mongolian language, while 
Mr. Schmidt, with the help of the two Buriats, was at St. 
Petersburg translating the Gospels of Matthew and John 
into Buriat Mongolian. Mr. Eahmn shortly retired through 
the failure of his wife's health, and Mr. Swan, with Mr. 
Eobert Yuile, joined Mr. and Mrs. Stallybrass at Selenginsk 
— whither they had moved — on February 17, 1820. 
Through much trial and difficulty the work was carried 
forward, the first Mrs. Stallybrass dying in 1833 and the 
second in 1839 ; Mrs. Yuile dying in 1827, and Mr. Yuile 
retiring in 1838. After having translated and published 
the Old Testament, and having made considerable progress 
with the New Testament, which they subsequently finished 

^ For fuller details concerning this romantic story, see pp. 411, 412. 

2a 



354 THE CHINESE EMPIKE 

in England, the Mission was closed by the Kussian Govern- 
ment in 1841, much to the grief of the workers. One of 
the good results of their effort, however, was the starting 
of missions among them by the Greek Church. Mr. Swan 
died in Edinburgh in 1866, and Mrs. Swan in 1890. Mr. 
Stallybrass lived to the age of ninety-one, and died at 
Shooter's Hill, Kent, in 1884. Thus closed the first 
Protestant effort for Mongolia, but not before the Bible 
had been given to the Mongol in that translation which 
is still in circulation. 

The second effort of the London Missionary Society was 
made when James Gilmour entered upon his heroic work. 
James Gilmour reached Peking in May 1870, and im- 
mediately set himself to the study of Chinese and 
Mongolian. The terrible massacre at Tientsin which 
followed so soon upon his entry into work hastened his 
departure for Mongolia, and in this the fearlessness of the 
man was seen. The dangers which would have appeared 
as a sufficient reason to many a man to delay only nerved 
him to go forward before the door was closed. He 
left Peking on August 5, and travelled right across 
Mongolia, reaching Kiachta in September. For the first 
fifteen years he devoted himself to the nomadic Mongols, 
feeling that the agricultural Mongols of South -East 
Mongolia should be reached by Chinese missionaries. 

In 1886, however, hoping that the American Board,^ 
which had carried on work at Kalgan since 1865, might 
be able, from that great centre of Mongolian trade, to 
influence the nomads, he settled in Eastern Mongolia, 
establishing three centres at Tachengtse, Tasikow, and 
Chaoyang Hsien. Here he laboured till his death in 
1891, his wife having died in 1885. Toward the end of 
his time several men were appointed as colleagues ; Dr. 
Eoberts in 1888, but he had to leave within a month 
owing to the death of Dr. Mackenzie. Dr. Smith followed 
nearly a year later, and subsequently Mr. Parker, Dr. 
Cochrane, and Mr. Liddell took up work at Chaoyang. 

^ For details of this work, see Mr. Roberts' article on p. 360. 



MONGOLIA 355 

This work was carried on until 1901, when the work was 
handed over to the Irish Presbyterian Mission, one of 
whose stations had been the basis of supply. The steady 
inflow of Chinese immigrants had more and more been 
making this place a centre for Chinese work and not for 
the Mongols. 

Concerning the devoted labours of Grilmour one of his 
fellow-labourers wrote : " I doubt if even St. Paul endured 
more for Christ than did James Gilmour. I doubt, too, if 
Ohrist ever received from human hands or human heart 
more loving, more devoted service." Although the wisdom 
€f his methods and of his work were freely criticised, and 
although he died without seeing the fruits of his toils, 
there is no question that his zeal and example have served 
to stimulate many a life in Christian service in a way that 
very few have done. 

It has already been mentioned that the American Board 
commenced work at Kalgan in 1865. It may also be 
mentioned that in 1853 two Moravian missionaries had 
assayed to enter Mongolia by way of India, but were pre- 
vented, and settling at Kyelang, they commenced the 
Moravian Tibetan Mission. 

In addition to the work mentioned above, the only 
other workers have been Swedish. The first Swedes to 
enter Mongolia were connected with the Scandinavian 
Alliance Mission of North America, which has its head- 
quarters at Chicago, and is supported by the Scandinavians 
of America. In 1895 Mr. David W. Stenberg first settled 
at Kalgan, and then entered Mongolia, buying a piece of 
land among the Ordos tribe, that he might found a colony 
for missionary work. Of this worker Mr. Mott has said, 
" I have met a hero." In 1896 he was joined by Mr. Carl 
J. Suber. In 1897 three lady workers, the Misses Hannah 
Lund, Hilda Anderson, and Clara Anderson, went out with 
Mr. N. J. Friedstrom. All these workers, with the excep- 
tion of Mr. Friedstrom and Mr, Larson, who escaped 
through Siberia and Russia, were killed in the Boxer 
outbreak of 1900. 



356 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

Mr. Larson subsequently joined the British and Foreign 
Bible Society, as will be mentioned later. 

In 1902 Mr. and Mrs. Friedstrom returned to Mongolia, 
and are now stationed at the Scandinavian Alliance Colony 
at Patsibolong, not far from Kweihwating. In 1904 
Mr, and Mrs. A. B. Magnuson joined those workers, who 
are now at Wangefu, south-west of Patsibolong. In 1905 
Mr. and Mrs. A. T. Almbrad went out to join the workers 
at Patsibolong. 

At the colony at this last-mentioned place the Mongolians 
are farming the land which is irrigated. At the same time 
they are brought under Christian influence. 

Before referring to Mr. Larson's connection with the 
Bible Society, chronology necessitates that the work of the 
Swedish Mongolian Mission should be spoken of. Concern- 
ins this work Prince Bernadotte, the Chairman of that 
Mission, has kindly written in answer to inquiries : — 

" The first missionaries of the Swedish Mongolian 
Mission who were sent out were Mr. and Mrs. Eneroth, 
who left for Chuguchak in North-West Mongolia in 1898. 
After a short stay they were obliged to return in con- 
sequence of the illness of Mrs. Eneroth. The Mission then 
thought it to be God's will that the work should be 
located in the north-west of Mongolia, as that region could 
be easily reached by the Siberian railway. 

"In the autumn of 1899 Mr. and Mrs. Helleberg and 
Mr. Emil Wahlstedt were sent out, and it was decided that, 
in accordance with the wish of Mr. Helleberg, they 
should study the language on the Chinese frontier, north- 
west of Kalgan. During the Boxer riots of 1900 they 
laid down their lives for Christ's sake, but no very 
definite information concerning their martyrdom has been 
obtainable. 

"In 1905 Mr. Edwin Karlen was sent out to carry on 
this work, and he is now engaged in the study of the 
language, the lady to whom he is engaged following in 
1906." 

In 1902 Mr. F. A. Larson, one of the two surviving 



MONGOLIA 357 

missionaries of the Scandinavian Alliance Mission mentioned 
above, was appointed as a sub-agent of the British and 
Foreign Bible Society for Mongolia. Since that time he 
has travelled far and wide throughout Mongolia, his wife 
also enduring great hardship either with him or in the 
solitude of his absences. In 1902, with headquarters at 
Kalgan, he travelled 2000 miles to the east and north-east ; 
in 1904 he took three long journeys as far as Urga and 
Uliassutai. 

During 1905 Mr. Larson made three more long journeys 
and sent home some interesting information concerning 
the Dalai Lama's visit to Urga, in his flight from Lhasa. 
Although living in a temple within two miles of the 
residence of the Urga Grand Lama, he would have no 
communication with him, in fact, the feeling was one of 
estrangement. In addition to the few workers mentioned 
above, it must be remembered that through the work done 
at Kalgan by the American Board, and by the members or 
associates of the China Inland Mission located at Hsiian- 
hwa in Chihli and in the north of Shansi, quite a little 
work is done for the Mongols who come in touch with 
those centres. Eemembering that Wu-tai-shan, their sacred 
mountain, is in the north of Shansi, that district is visited 
by many thousands of Mongol pilgrims yearly. 

Mr. Larson describes the Grand Lama at Urga as a 
drunken profligate, he having himself seen him intoxicated 
in the street. He states that he has no influence with the 
southern Mongols, who have broken away from his authority 
and have established a Lama of their own. 

In closing this article, one can hardly do better than 
quote a few paragraphs from some interesting articles 
which have been recently appearing in the North China 
Herald from the pen of the Eev. John Hedley, F.E.G.S. : — 

No account of Mongolia would be complete without some 
special reference to Lamaism, that system of the Buddhist 
religion which, carried here from Tibet, so completely dominates 
the Mongol mind and character. Never have I seen a more 
" religious " people than the Mongols. Their Lama temples are 



358 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

everywhere, none neglected or dilapidated. Every Mongol 
family has one or more Lamas among its members, the unwritten 
law being that every second son, and as many more as the 
nearest Abbot may decide, shall be dedicated from birth to the 
priestly life. Many of the homes have the Lama altar tended 
by the old mother or grandmother with shaven head ; and the 
ciu'ious little brass censers, like salt-cellars, in which incense is 
offered or wine burnt, are among the commonest sights. Daily 
exercises of devotion are conducted by the Lamas in the 
temples, consisting of nothing more than the endless but 
harmonious chanting of the Buddhistic formula, "Pu Sa 
Arimata." At the temple fairs and festivals the people come 
in their thousands to worship and give, and one can never get 
away from the fact that here is a land where religion enters 
into every jot and tittle of daily life. 

But the condition of the Mongol people is a stern condemna- 
tion of Lamaism. Of the beautiful self-abnegation of the Indian 
Prince these people know nothing. Of the rules of the Order, 
or the tenets of " the Way," they are deplorably ignorant. 
The religion has degenerated into a set of " senseless and fatal 
corruptions which have overwhelmed the ancient Buddhist 
beliefs," and consists now merely in performance of external 
formalities that have no power to amend the life or cleanse the 
spirit. For the Lamas themselves one can have but little 
respect. They are the least desirable of their race. Lamaism, 
as practised in Mongolia, is an incubus on the land, economically, 
morally, and religiously. 

And yet it is just this colossal system of Lamaism, bad as it 
is, that is the most effective obstacle to the Christian missionary, 
and that almost broke the heart of so brave a man as James 
Gilmour. The difficulties of evangelising Mongolia are not 
few. Let me enumerate some : — 

1st. A land of immense distances, involving exposure and 
expense of a very serious kind. 

2nd. A population so sparse and scattered that you may 
travel for a week and not meet a hundred people. 

3rd. A people who, when you have found them, are 
ignorant, illiterate, and consequently superstitious, needing 
infinite patience and infinite tact to make any impression at all. 

But beyond and above all else, you have to face the fact of 
Lamaism, which stands like an omnipresent spectre wherever 
you go in Mongolia. 



MONGOLIA 359 

To learn at first hand some of the real conditions and 
prospects of missionary work in Eastern Mongolia was partly 
the reason for my tramp. I found that Roman Catholic Missions 
are operating at Pakou, T'atzekou, Hata, and away to the north 
at Maoshantung. How many converts they have I do not know, 
but their plan of insisting on the baptism of whole families, 
and not of individual members of families, tends to swell their 
numbers much more quickly than is the case in Protestant 
Missions. 

At Pakou, T'atzekou, and other smaller places, Protestant 
Missions are at Avork, but Hata, large and busy centre as it is, 
yet waits its first Protestant missionary and street chapel. 
K'ulukou is without a Christian representative, whether Roman 
Catholic or Protestant, but that is a defect likely to be remedied 
ere long by the Irish Presbyterian Mission from Hsinmin Fu. 
At Chaoyang and Chinchow good work is being done, and the 
converts are not few. But the great bulk of the districts lies 
untouched. And the most of the people are absolutely ignorant 
of the elementary principles of the Christian faith. 

The Christian Church in China has no greater or more 
difficult problem to face than this problem of how best to 
accomplish the evangelisation of Mongolia, and to overthrow 
Lamaism and its attendant superstitions. 



WORK FOR THE MONGOLS NEAR KALGAN^ 

By the Eev. James H. Egberts, American Board. 

The missionaries at Kalgan have always been deeply 
interested in the Mongols, and have done for them what- 
ever they could, in time not required for work for the 
Chinese. Their motto has been : " To the Chinese first, 
and also to the Mongols." 

Kalgan is a flourishing business city, 140 miles north-west 
of Peking, where the caravan route to Mongolia and Eussia 
crosses the Great Wall of China. Through this celebrated 
pass to the Mongolian plateau go the officials, traders, and 
missionaries from the China coast to the interior, and to 
Kalgan come the Mongols, to sell their flocks and herds, 
and to buy what they want of the wares manufactured by 
the Chinese. Through this place they carry their tribute 
to Peking, and go on pilgrimages to the sacred mountain 
called Wu-t'ai-shan, in Shansi. 

The word " Kalgan " is the Mongolian " halag," meaning 
a great gate, and denoting the gate in the Great Wall, 
where the city has grown up. Eussian merchants changed 
the word to its present form. The Chinese name is Chang 
Chia K'ou — the Chang Family Pass. This is the front or 
southern door of Mongolia. It stands wide open every 
day. Through it come the camels, horses, cattle, sheep, 
wool, hides, salt, soda, and lumber from Mongolia, and 

^ This interesting article was in answer to a letter asking for details of 
the Amei'ican Board work among the Mongols at Kalgan. It was received 
after the Mongolian article was completed. It is therefore given as a 
supplementary article. 

360 



WORK FOR THE MONGOLS NEAR KALGAN 361 

through it toward the north go the tea, silks, cloth, saddles, 
boots, etc., made in China, and all sorts of imported goods. 
In the summer, 300,000 sheep in a month are driven 
through Kalgan, en route to Peking ; in the winter as many 
boxes of tea are taken northward on camels ; and the 
Mongols, riding through the streets at break-neck speed, or 
waddling from shop to shop in their long gowns and heavy 
boots, fingering their beads or turning hand prayer-mills, 
are a familiar sight. The missionaries saw in these 
circumstances a fulfilment of the Lord's words, " Behold, 
I have set before thee an open door " (Rev. iii. 8). 

The first missionary at Kalgan, Rev. John T. Gulick, of 
the American Board, who opened this mission station in 
1865, spent his summers touring with Mrs. Gulick in the 
neighbouring part of Mongolia, and devoted much time, 
thought, and prayer to the evangelisation of the Mongols. 
Rev. Mark Williams and Rev. T. W. Thompson came for 
the Chinese work in this field, and in 1874 Rev. and Mrs. 
W. P. Sprague came to Kalgan, with the special design of 
aiding Mr. and Mrs. Gulick in their work for the Mongols. 
However, God's ways are not as ours. Mr. Gulick, born in 
the mild climate of Hawaii, could not endure the severely 
cold winters of Kalgan, which is as far north as New York, 
and 2700 feet above the sea. After ten years of service 
in this station he was compelled by sickness to remove 
to Japan, where he has spent many years in missionary 
work, and has achieved world-wide renown through scientific 
research. 

Mr. Sprague, after studying Mongolian about a year, 
was obliged to turn aside to the work for the Chinese, 
owing to the sickness and withdrawal of Mr. Thompson, and 
the enlarging Chinese work, which could not be carried on 
by Mr. Williams alone. From that time to the present 
(December 1906) Mr. Sprague has often itinerated in 
Mongolia, and always welcomed Mongol visitors in his 
home, where he entertains them with stereopticon pictures 
and the phonograph, and tries to impart some teachings of 
Christian faith and love. 



362 THE CHINESE EMPIRE 

In 1875 Eev. Henry D. Porter, M.D., being temporarily 
in Kalgan, translated into English Schmidt's German 
Grammar of the Mongolian language — a work which was 
most helpful to the other missionaries, but unfortunately 
was destroyed by the Boxers in 1900. 

Meantime " James Gilmour of Mongolia " was living in 
Peking, and spending his summers in Mongolia. His visits 
in Kalgan, going to and from his great field, kept alive in 
other missionaries a love for the tent-dwellers in " the 
regions beyond." 

1885 was an eventful year. In January a Mongol 
named Boyinto, of Shipartai, made a noble confession of 
faith in Christ, showing a good knowledge of the Gospel 
and love for the Saviour, and was baptized and received as 
a member of the Kalgan Church. His father, who had 
recently died, had not worshipped idols in the last ten years 
of his life. "Whether this was the fruit of Mr. Gilmour's 
work or of Mr. Gulick's was never known. 

In February or March Mr. Gilmour made his celebrated 
tour on foot to Hara Oso, and there heard a confession of 
faith from another Boyinto. It is necessary to distinguish 
carefully between these two men of the same name, living 
in two different localities, one in Shipartai, 33 miles north 
of Kalgan, and the other 50 miles north-west of Kalgan. 
Mr. Gilmour, bereaved by the death of his wife and 
youngest child, and footsore from his long journey, was 
cheered beyond measure at seeing this first-fruit of the 
labours of many years. 

A discussion having arisen in England and America as 
to the delimitation of the field, Mr. Gilmour, to our great 
regret, " changed his base of operations " to Chaoyang, in 
South-Eastern Mongolia, — and the sheep at Hara Oso were 
left without a shepherd. 

This emergency led Eev. James H. Roberts, of Kalgan, 
to visit Shipartai and Hara Oso occasionally, and to study 
the Mongolian language, in order to preach the Gospel to 
the Mongols, and at least conserve the impressions made by 
Mr. Gilmour and others, until some one else should come 



WOKK FOR THE MONGOLS NEAR KALGAN 363 

to carry on this work. His activity in this field continued, 
with some interruptions, for ten years. 

In October 1886 Boyinto of Hara Oso, making a short 
journey with Mr. Eoberts, renewed his confession of faith. 
He was heart-broken over Gilmour's removal to another 
field. As Boyinto was never taken into the employ of the 
missionaries after his conversion, and yet was steadfast in 
witnessing for Christ for fifteen years, enduring persecution, 
and befriending the missionaries amid the perils of the 
year 1900, Mr. Roberts never doubted his sincere conversion, 
notwithstanding the clouds that gathered about his last 
days. 

In the winter of 1889-90 Mr. Roberts had a Mongol 
teacher and two Mongol pupils in Kalgan. One of the 
latter, though under instruction only a few weeks, seemed 
most favourably impressed with the excellence and claims 
of the Christian religion. The other, Bayin Delehi, 
memorised Gilmour's Truth Catechism in Mongolian and 
twenty-three chapters of Dr. Edkins' translation of the 
Gospel of Matthew. He was bright intellectually, very 
polite, clean for a Mongol, and appeared to believe the 
truth ; but he left the station before the end of a year of 
study, engaged in business, and never showed any marked 
evidence of living a Christian life. 

Boyinto of Shipartai, who had been baptized, was seldom 
at home when Mr. Roberts called to see him. At last, in 
1892-93, he was seen riding away from home on our 
approach. On inquiry we learned that he had been called 
before an official, as a traitor to his country and its religion, 
and had been put to a test that had proved too severe. If 
the missionaries had known it they would have defended 
him. He was required to recant, under repeated and 
increasing threats of losing his official position, his property, 
his family, and his life. Under this pressure he yielded, 
discontinued his relations with the Church, subscribed to 
heathen temples, and, as a solace in his troubles, took to 
smoking opium. Whether in his heart he retained some 
real faith in his God and Saviour, no one can tell. 



364 . THE CHINESE EMPIRE 

In 1892 Messrs. Sprague and Eoberts, in view of the 
death of Mr. Gilmour, and of the fact that there was 
scarcely any Christian work being done in Mongolia, 
prepared an appeal to the Moravian Missionary Society, 
urging them to send missionaries to this vast field. 
Prayer was answered in an unexpected way, for the next 
year there came not Moravians, but Swedes. 

In June 1895 Mr. Frans August Larson, who had 
spent a year or more in Urga, came to Kalgan, made a tour 
of a month in the neighbouring portion of Mongolia, and 
decided to open a mission station at Hara Oso, so as to 
follow up Mr. Gilmour's work. On renting and repairing 
a small adobe house of Boyinto's, so much ill feeling was 
aroused by the sight of a door and window made in foreign 
style, that Mr. Larson was driven out of the place, and 
Boyinto was dragged to the yamen, detained several weeks, 
and severely menaced by the ofi&cial, who apparently did 
not dare to beat him. Sickness resulted from exposure to 
the weather on the way, as he had to sleep on the ground 
without cover wherever the night overtook him, and, in his 
absence from home, the family was robbed of all its cows 
and other animals, which were their only means of support. 
The missionaries at Kalgan gave him money to buy two 
cows, and thus saved the family from starving. 

In August 1895 Mr. David Stenberg came from 
America to Kalgan, to engage in work for the Mongols. 
The following winter, he and Messrs. Larson, Swordson, and 
Roberts were all studying Mongolian together, with two 
teachers and two pupils. 

After this Mr. Larson bought a Mongol tent, and 
pitched it each summer in Hara Oso, near to Boyinto's 
home. To this the Mongols had no objection. Miss Mary 
Rodgers, a missionary in Peking, became his most valuable 
helpmeet, and their home in the Upper City of Kalgan in 
the winter and in Hara Oso in the summer was the resort 
of their many friends — Swedes, Americans, Mongols, and 
Chinese. Hither came Mr. Suber, Mr. and Mrs. Helleberg, 
the Misses Clara and Hilda Anderson, Miss Hannah Lund 



WOEK FOR THE MONGOLS NEAR KALGAN 365 

and others, to study the Mongolian language, and it seemed 
as if Mr. Gilmour's prayers were being answered, and the 
day of Mongolia's redemption was drawing nigh. 

The only dictionary of Mongolian words that could be 
obtained was Schmidt's, which gave the meanings in 
German and Russian. With a great amount of labour, 
Mr. and Mrs. Larson translated the whole book into 
English and Swedish, so as to make it more helpful to the 
missionaries. 

Then came the terrible Boxer Uprising. Mr. Stenberg 
had obtained a good mission station in Southern Mongolia 
at Patzupulung, fourteen days' journey west of Kalgan. A 
Mongol woman named Halahan, who was brought there in 
a wretched filthy condition, so sick that her life was 
despaired of, had been nursed and loved back to life and 
health by the missionary sisters, and had been taught the 
love of God. There were then at that place the Misses 
Anderson, Miss Hannah Lund, Mr. Stenberg, and one or two 
other missionary gentlemen. Halahan was urged by the 
missionaries to leave them and escape, but would not do so, 
and with them won a martyr's crown. Messrs. Friedstrom 
and Suber, who had spent the winter among the Northern 
Mongols at Uliassutai, went southward across the desert 
of Gobi to the place where their friends had suffered ; there 
Mr. Suber was put to death, and Mr. Friedstrom barely 
escaped, and, after extreme peril and suffering, reached Urga 
and Siberia. Mr. and Mrs. Larson and their two children, 
with a large company of Swedish and American missionaries, 
also fled to the north, and, in the kind providence of God, 
reached Urga and Kiachta. Mr. Larson was the captain 
of the caravan, and his ability to speak the Mongolian 
language, and to arrange all matters of business, together 
with his courage and his known skill with his rifle, were a 
means of salvation to all his comrades. The story of this, 
journey is given in detail in A Flight for Life and An 
Inside View of Mongolia, published by the Pilgrim Press, 
Boston, Mass., U.S.A. 

In the Uprising, the Mongolian Dictionary in English 



366 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

and Swedish, and a Vocabulary of 3000 Mongolian words 
with English and Chinese equivalents, prepared by Mr. 
Koberts, were destroyed. 

In 1901 Mr. Larson and Mr. Eoberts were again in 
Kalgan, rebuilding their homes, and preparing for work 
for the natives on both sides of the Great Wall. Mr. 
and Mrs. Friedstrom came from America, and spent a happy 
year in the same city, the latter studying the Mongolian 
language, and her husband arranging for the reopening of 
Mr. Stenberg's station at Patzupulung. Thither they both 
went in the autumn of 1903. Mr. Larson pitched his 
tents at Tabol, 85 miles from Kalgan, on the Urga road, 
and made many long journeys in Mongolia in the service 
of the British and Foreign Bible Society. 

Boy into of Hara Oso, when invited to escape from the 
Boxers with the missionaries, refused to do so, saying, 
" Then what would become of my family ? " Let us honour 
him for this brave word and act. He survived that crisis, 
but was thought to have begun smoking opium, and has 
passed away to his award before the righteous Judge. It 
is not necessary to conceal the fact that some of the 
missionaries do not take as favourable a view of his life as 
that given here. 

Mr. and Mrs. Sprague and Mr. and Mrs. Larson are still 
in Kalgan, labouring for both Mongols and Chinese. Mr. 
and Mrs. Magnusson and other missionaries have gone to 
help Mr. Friedstrom, so that now their number is eight, the 
same as before the massacres of 1900, They all deserve 
our utmost sympathy and prayers. 

From the above is seen the importance of Kalgan as a 
place from which to enter and evangelise Mongolia. The 
missionaries, seeking to save China's multitudes, never have 
forgotten the less civilised tribes of the north. The city is 
hallowed by the footsteps of Gilmour and Stenberg. The 
Pass, opened through the mountains by the Lord himself, 
enables the heralds of salvation to cross a very rough 
border and ascend the great plateau. The Mongols are 
hospitable to new-comers, if not to new ideas. Their men 



WORK FOR THE MONGOLS NEAR KALGAN 367 

of letters can be hired to teach in Kalgan. This is the 
natural gate to Mongolia, the place to study the language, 
and to purchase the requisite outfit for travelling in the 
interior. The missionaries living there are always glad to 
help those who may come, in preparing to serve Christ in 
the great North-West. If Mongolia had as many missionaries 
as China in proportion to its population, there should be 
twenty instead of ten. The field is difficult, the task is 
arduous. Workers of heroic courage are needed. Let us 
hope that many may enter through this " Open Door." 



" A SURVEY of the world and its various races in successive ages 
leads one to infer that God has some plan of national character, 
and that one nation exhibits the development of one trait, while 
another race gives prominence to another, and subordinates the 
first. Thus the Egyptian people were eminently a priestly race, 
devoted to science and occult lore ; the Greeks developed the 
imaginative poAvers, excelling in the fine arts ; the Romans were 
warlike, and the embodiment of force and law ; the Babylonians 
and Persians magnificent, like the head of gold in Daniel's vision ; 
the Arabs predacious, volatile, and imaginative ; the Turks stolid, 
bigoted, and impassible ; the Hindus are contemplative, religious, 
and metaphysical ; the Chinese industrious, peaceful, literary, 
atheistic, and self-contained. The same religion and constant 
intercommunication among European nations has assimilated 
them more than these other races could ever have become ; but 
everyone knows the national peculiarities of the Spaniards, 
Italians, French, English, etc., and how they are maintained,, 
notwithstanding the motives to imitation and coalescence. 
The comparison of national character and civilisation, with 
the view of ascertaining such a plan, is a subject worthy 
the profound study of any scholar, and one which would 
offer new views of the human race. The Chinese would be 
found to have attained, it is believed, a higher position in 
general security of life and property, and in the arts of domestic 
life and comfort among the mass, and a greater degree of general 
literary intelligence, than any other heathen or Mohammedan 
nation that ever existed, or indeed than some now calling them- 
selves Christian, as Abyssinia. They have, however, probably 
done all they can do, reached as high a point as they can without 
the Gospel ; and its introduction, with its attendant influences, 
will ere long change their political and social system. The rise 
and progress of this revolution among so mighty a mass of 
human beings will form one of the most interesting parts of the 
history of the world during the nineteenth century, and solve 
the problem whether it be possible to elevate a race without the 
intermediate steps of disorganisation and reconstruction." 

Wells- Williams, The Middle Kingdom. 



THE BIBLE IN THE CHINESE EMPIRE 



2 B 



THE MISSIONAKY AS STUDENT AND TRANSLATOR 

" To a student fresh knowledge is always sweet : to a linguist 
a new word is always musical ; . . . but to a missionary, as lie 
consciously surmounts the difficulties of a heathen tongue, all 
the pleasures of gain, of improvement, and of learning, are fused 
into one feeling of ardent happiness. His acquirements are not 
hailed by the noisy admiration of the crowd, nor by the stately 
approval of academic tribunals ; but they are hailed by the 
warm voice of the angel who hath the everlasting Gospel to 
preach. In gaining every additional word, or phrase, or idiom, 
he grows richer ; and seems to draw nigher to the ascending 
Redeemer, that he may hear again His last command, that 
command which is at once the missionary's warrant and the 
world's hope. In conquering every difficulty, he uncoils golden 
wires; and, in securing each new word, sets another string 
necessary to complete the tones of the harp on which, before 
the heathen, he will celebrate Him who loved him and washed 
him from his sins in His own blood." 

"I cannot utter, nor yet repress, the veneration with which 
such a boon to mankind inspires me. He that benefits his 
species is greater than he that pleases or astounds them. But 
to be the benefactor of millions, and that to the end of time, is 
a dignity conferred on few. Let others pay their honours where 
they will. The profoundest reverence, the liveliest thanks I 
may offer to creature, shall be reserved from genius, grandeur, 
heroism, but cheerfully rendered to him by whose godly toil a 
wide-spoken tongue is first made to utter the words whereby 
my Redeemer may be known, my fellow-sinners may be saved. 
The deed is too vast for the chronicles of earth, too pure for the 
praise of men. Every letter of its record will be a regenerated 
soul, every stone of its testimonial a redeemed family, every 
note of its psean an angel's joy. He who can pursue the sun- 
beams, and trace, without one omission, every lineament of 
beauty they pencil on tree, and flower, and living thing, may 
tell the blessings that accrue when the light of life is flung on 
the pathway of millions, whom the darkness bewildered and 
destroyed." 

William Arthur, A Mission to the Mysore. 



THE BIBLE IN THE CHINESE EMPIRE 

By the Editor. 

In nothing are Protestant Missions more distinguished 
from Poman Catholic Missions than in the endeavour to 
give the Word of God to the peoples of the earth in their 
own languages. The desire of every Protestant missionary 
is that the miracle of Pentecost may be repeated, not only 
in the Word of Life being preached, but also printed, so 
that every man may both hear and read it in his mother 
tongue. 

In the giving of the Bible to the Chinese in their own 
languages there have been special difficulties to face, but 
special advantages and reasons for so doing. As to the 
difficulties, while the spoken language is, for all general 
purposes, not beyond the power of a man with average 
ability to acquire, there is probably no written language in 
the world which has been more elaborated and which 
presents greater linguistic problems. For many centuries 
essay-writing has been the basis of the Chinese educational 
system and the goal of every literary aspirant, with the 
result that a fastidiousness and punctiliousness of style has 
been cultivated to an extent almost inconceivable by the 
Western mind. 

" To acquire Chinese," wrote the Eev. Wm. Milne, the 
devoted colleague of Dr. Morrison, " is a work for men with 
bodies of brass, lungs of steel, heads of oak, hands of spring 
steel, eyes of eagles, hearts of apostles, memories of angels, 
and lives of Methuselah." Seeing that not many such 
prodigies are given to the Mission field, it is no wonder 

S71 



372 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

that, at one time, the translation of the Bible into Chinese 
was seriously regarded as impossible. 

Another great difficulty which the translators have had 
to face has long been known as the " Term " question — a 
controversy which has called forth not only contradictory 
Papal decrees, but has seriously divided Protestant 
missionaries so far as translation work is concerned. The 
question has been as to what Chinese " Terms " should be 
employed for the translation of the words " God " and 
" Holy Spirit." One modern illustration may be given to 
show the complexity of this subject. In February 1901 a 
series of articles intended to advocate one " Term " — a term 
not generally adopted — began to appear in The Chinese 
Recorder from the pen of a well-known missionary. This 
series continued month by month until August 1902, and 
even then the writer called it an unfinished study, although 
during a period of twenty years he had collated and 
indexed more than thirteen thousand illustrations from 
Chinese literature to prove his point.^ 

But even with the Bible translated, another problem, 
peculiar to the Chinese language, has had to be faced 
before the Bible could be satisfactorily printed. The old- 
fashioned method employed by the Chinese, of cutting 
wooden blocks from which to print, was altogether in- 
adequate for the printing of the large editions of the 
Scriptures necessary for circulation among the milKons of 
China. It soon became evident that the only really satis- 
factory method was to employ movable type ; but how that 
was to be done with a language which had thousands 
of different characters, for long baffled the most skilful 
typographers. 

For each of the thousands of different characters 
employed, a separate matrix had to be cut ; and even when 
that was done, it was necessary to carefully examine the 
frequency with which each character recurred, before the 
type could be cast, some characters being used thousands of 

^ It is hoped that an important step towards the settlement of this 
question will be taken at the Shanghai Missionary Conference, 1907. 



THE BIBLE IN CHINA 373 

times in the Bible and others only once or twice. This 
problem was most carefully studied both in China and in 
Paris, and at last successfully solved. To illustrate this 
point, it may be mentioned that a Paris firm cut three 
separate series of matrices : one for printing the works of 
Confucius, which had three thousand different characters ; 
one for printing the Bible, which had four thousand 
different characters ; and a third for printing a small 
Chinese dictionary ; for which purposes nine thousand 
matrices were cut, by the combination of which it was 
possible to form other characters. 

But although these difficulties were very real and 
probably unparalleled in the history of Bible translation 
and publishing work, there have not been wanting more 
comforting and encouraging aspects to this great under- 
taking. It is a cause for profound thankfulness that the 
four hundred millions of China can be reached by a com- 
paratively small number of languages. In the British and 
Foreign Bible Society's table of the versions, in which that 
Society has published or assisted in publishing the Scriptures, 
there are more versions under the heading of" New Hebrides" 
than there are under the heading of " China." Instead of 
Chinese being broken up into an innumerable number of 
languages and dialects, Mandarin is the spoken language 
of a greater number of people than is the case with any 
other language in the world. While English is spoken by 
about one hundred and fifteen millions of people, Mandarin 
is certainly spoken by about twice as many. 

With the classical language understood by all the 
scholars of the Empire, and the Mandarin colloquial spoken 
by about two -thirds of the entire population, it will be 
readily seen that although the task of translating and 
publishing the Word of God was far from easy, there were 
tremendous advantages to stimulate and encourage those 
who toiled at it. It may also be mentioned that there was 
a special encouragement in seeking to give the printed 
page to a people who have for centuries placed so high an 
estimate upon literature. 



374 THE CHINESE EMPIRE 

The life-story of the great translators of the Bible into 
Chinese would be a grand theme and one of surpassing 
interest, but unfortunately that cannot be attempted here. 
Eeference may, however, be made to two : to Dr. Morrison, 
the founder of Protestant Missions in China and pioneer 
translator ; and to Bishop Schereschewsky, the most recent 
of that great army to pass to his reward. Who can 
exaggerate the stupendous task undertaken by Dr. Morrison ? 
who can estimate the almost overwhelming discouragements 
among which he laboured ? facing alone one of the most 
Herculean of undertakings ever dared by man, and that 
under conditions the most depressing and heart-breaking. 
Or who can contemplate the indomitable courage and 
pertinacity of purpose of Bishop Schereschewsky, paralysed 
in every limb, and with his powers of speech partly gone, 
sitting for nearly twenty-five years in the same chair, 
slowly and painfully typing out with two fingers his 
Mandarin translation of the Old Testament and Easy 
Wen-li translation of the whole Bible, without being stirred 
to the very depths by the sight of such a heroic struggle V 

Behind all this patient and exacting toil, the generous 
and loving assistance of the three great Bible Societies of 
the world, with their unifying and helpful support, must 
not be forgotten. While the missionary societies have 
found and often trained the men, the British and Foreign 
Bible Society, the American Bible Society, and the National 
Bible Society of Scotland have in most cases exercised a 
wise control and supplied the f^^nds necessary for these 
great undertakings. 

To-day one of the most hopeful signs of missionary 
activity in China is the rapid and increasing circulation of 
the Bible. Up to 1853, the Jubilee of the British and 
Foreign Bible Society, the total circulation of the Scriptures 
in that land had probably not exceeded one hundred and 
fifty thousand copies, while twenty -five years later the 
circulation had only risen to somewhere about one hundred 
thousand per annum. In contrast to this the circulation 
of the last few years has run up to millions, the total 



THE BIBLE IN CHINA 375 

circulation of the Scriptures in China during 1905 
amounting to more than two and a half millions. The 
actual figures are as follows : — 

The British and Foreign Bible Society . . 1,219,048 copies. 

The National Bible Society of Scotland . 907,274 „ 

The American Bible Society . . . 537,304 „ 



Giving a grand total for the year of . . 2,663,626 



Although no grand totals of the circulation of the Scriptures 
from the commencement are given by the American and 
Scottish Bible Societies, yet, judging by the grand totals 
given by the British and Foreign Bible Society up to the 
end of 1905, it is probable that fully twenty million 
Scriptures will have been put into circulation in China 
before the centenary of Dr. Morrison's arrival in that land 
has been reached. Could he, in the midst of his lonely and 
exacting toil, have foreseen such a consummation within 
one hundred years, how greatly would his heart have been 
cheered ! 

The brief story of the various versions of the Bible in 
the languages of the Chinese Empire are given in the 
following pages. These have been arranged in the same 
order as the list given below, which is neither chronological 
nor alphabetical, but only a somewhat rough grouping 
according to the importance of each version. 

The history of each has been prepared from documents — 
upon which the British and Foreign Bible Society has 
evidently spent great labour — most generously placed at 
the disposal of the present writer. 



[Table 



376 THE CHINESE EMPIRE 

Table of Versions in which the Scriptures have been 
printed in the languages of the chinese empire 



The literary, High Wen-li. 
The literary, Easy Wen-li. 
Northern Mandarin, Peking. 
Southern Mandarin, Nanking. 
The Cantonese Version. 
The Shanghai Version. 
The Hakka Version. 
The Foochow Version. 
The Ningpo Version. 
The Swatow Version. 
The Araoy Version. 
The Soochow Version. 
The Wenchow Version. 
The Taichow Version. 



The Hangchow Version. 
The Hinghwa Version. 
The Kienning Version. 
The Kienyang Version. 
The Shantung Mandarin. 
The Kinhwa Version. 
The Sankiang Version. 
The Shaowu Version. 
The Chungchia Version. 
The Hainan Version. 

The Mongolian Versions. 
The Tibetan Versions. 
The Manchu Version. 



The High Wen-li Version^ 

Wen-li, or " Literary-style," as the term signifies, is the 
Chinese classical language, which, though it has a basal 
similarity to the Mandarin or spoken language, is yet very 
distinct. The High Wen-li is that style which strictly 
adheres to the standard of the " Eour Books " and " Five 
Classics " ; while the Easy Wen-li is a medium between 
the High Wen-li and the Mandarin or spoken language. 
Wen-li is not a spoken language, but one which appeals to 
the mind, even with the Chinese themselves, more through 
the eye than the ear. Owing, however, to the frequency 
with which the Chinese flavour their speech with quotations 
from their classics, many of the classical terms are fairly well 
understood, even in speech, by the more educated classes. 

High Wen-li may be said to occupy in China a place 
not dissimilar to that held by Latin in the middle ages. 
While differing from the colloquial, it is understood by all 
the literati and is the only style allowed in examinations. 

^ The British and Foreign Bible Society's documents, upon which this 
section is based, have been by that Society compared with the British 
Museum Catalogue, with the Bible Society's editorial correspondence, 
minutes, and Historical Catalogue, aud with the reports of the American 
and Scottish Bible Societies, with the Chinese Recorder, Wylie's Memorials, 
and have been revised by the Rev. G. H. Bondfield, their Agent in China, 
by Bishop Moule of Mid-China, while the late Dr. Edkins was also consulted. 



THE BIBLE IN CHINA 377 

Early Nestorian Translations 

The Nestorians are the first missionaries of whom actual 
records exist concerning Mission work in China. They 
probably reached China as early as a.d. 505, and the 
Nestorian Tablet, discovered in a.d. 1625, tells of the 
arrival of a party of priests at Changan, the present Sian 
Fu, in A.D. 635. Upon this famous tablet there are several 
allusions to the Scriptures. In one place it says, " The 
Sacred Books were translated in the Imperial Library," 
while in the ode at the end it adds, " The Scriptures were 
translated and Churches were built." From a general com- 
parison of the passages it is probable that this must refer 
to at least all the New Testament. 

As the art of printing was not generally known in 
China at that time, in fact, not until nearly three hundred 
years later, by which time the Nestorian Churches were in 
the decline, no portion of this translation has been preserved 
so far as is known. From an ancient Arabic account of 
the travels of two Arabs in China in a.d. 851 and 878 
respectively, and other evidences, it would appear none the 
less that there was a clear knowledge of the Scriptures at 
a date long subsequent to the Nestorian translations. 

In further confirmation of this is the testimony of John 
de Piano Carpini, who was sent by Pope Innocent IV. to 
the Mongolian Court in a.d. 1245. In his report he says: 
" The men of Ki-tai (China) spoken of above are pagans, 
having a kind of written character, and, as it is said, the 
Old and New Testament." It is generally thought that 
this must refer to the Nestorian translation made in the 
reign of Tai-tsong, a.d. 627-650. 



Early Roman Catholic Translations 

Concerning Eoman Catholic translations, Mr. Wylie, 
the well-known Sinologue, says, in an essay on the " Bible 
in China" delivered in 1868: "Up to the commencement 



378 THE CHINESE EMPIRE 

of the present century no versions of the Scriptures had 
been published, as far as our information goes ; and if 
translations existed, they were confined to private hands 
and not available to the people at large." 

Dealing in detail with the scattered references to such 
works, he states that " the most ample translation that has 
appeared in print from that source is by Emanuel Diaz, 
a Portuguese missionary, finished in a.d. 1636, being a 
version of the Gospels with the portions of other parts of 
Holy Scripture," with commentaries, etc. 

In the seventeenth century a translation of the Bible 
was proposed, but Father de la Chaize, the Confessor of 
Louis XIV. of France, said of this : " As for the complete 
version of the Bible, there are such weighty reasons why 
it should not be given to the public, that it would be rash 
imprudence to make use of it." Also Dr. J. F. Gemelli Careri, 
" who visited Peking in 1696 and was in the confidence of 
the missionaries, plainly speaks of the European missionaries 
having translated the works of St. Thomas and also the 
Holy Scriptures." 

The New Testament in Chinese was also in use in 
Father Ripa's College at Naples, founded by him in 1732 
with Papal sanction. It was from this college that Sir 
George Staunton engaged two Chinese interpreters to 
accompany Lord Macartney's embassy to China in 1792, 
Dr. Morrison also, when engaged in his translation work, 
heard, both from the Roman Catholic missionaries and 
converts, of copies of the Scriptures being in Chinese ; and 
the translation of the Gospels which he obtained from one 
of them, together with the manuscript (Sloan, 3599) in the 
British Museum, which he copied out before going to China, 
all prove that considerable translation must have been done 
although it was not published and circulated. In the 
" library of the Propaganda at Rome there is a translation 
of the New Testament into Chinese, in seven volumes." 



THE BIBLE IN CHINA 379 

Protestant Translations 

The earliest Protestant translation was that connected 
with the name of Marshman of Serampore, that great centre 
of translation work. In the providence of God, it happened 
that a young Armenian named Johannes Lassar, who had 
been born at Macao, was from childhood acquainted with 
the Chinese language. This man was privately engaged by 
the Eevs. David Brown and Claudius Buchanan at Calcutta 
to undertake a Chinese translation of the Bible. Com- 
mencing his translation from the Armenian version in 
1805, it was subsequently arranged with Joshua Marshman 
that he should live at Serampore and teach Chinese, and 
Marshman himself became one of his pupils. 

In 1807 a manuscript copy of the Gospel according to 
Matthew was sent to the Archbishop of Canterbury for the 
Lambeth Library, while by 1810 a tentative edition of 
Matthew and Mark were published. In 1816 a trans- 
lation of the New Testament — the first edition being minus 
Luke and Acts — was printed from movable metal type, a 
copy of the British Museum manuscript and Dr. Morrison's 
translation being used in the preparation of the Epistles, so 
that uniformity of nomenclature might be secured. The 
Old Testament was completed by 1822, and with a revised 
New Testament the first edition of the whole Bible in 
Chinese was issued. At the annual meeting of the British 
and Foreign Bible Society in May 1823, Mr. John 
Marshman, the eldest son of Dr. Marshman, presented a 
complete copy, all printed with movable metal type. 

Through the influence of a pamphlet published by Dr. 
William Moseley, and through the representations of Joseph 
Hardcastle, the Treasurer of the London Missionary Society, 
that Society, when sending out Dr. Morrison, laid upon him 
the burden of translating the Bible into the Chinese 
language. Dr. Morrison reached Canton in 1807, but 
before sailing he had studied Chinese for some time with 
a Chinese named Yong Sam-tak, and had also made a copy 
of the British Museum manuscript mentioned above. This 



380 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

manuscript contained a Harmony of the Gospels, all the 
Pauline Epistles, and the first chapter of the Epistle to the 
Hebrews. 

Such rapid progress did Dr. Morrison make that in 
1810 his revision of the British Museum manuscript of 
the Acts was printed and circulated, but so great was the 
risk of such an undertaking that the printer pasted a false 
label on the cover for fear of detection and punishment. 
Although the famous Imperial edict against Christianity 
was issued by the Chinese Government soon after Dr. 
Morrison had published his translation of the Gospel 
according to Luke, he none the less pressed forward, so that 
the whole of the New Testament was printed by January 
11, 1814. This was the first complete New Testament 
ever printed in Chinese. 

In the translation of the Old Testament the work was 
divided between Morrison and Milne, the latter of whom 
had reached China in 1813. On November 25, 1819, 
the first draft was finished, and after a careful revision was 
published at Malacca in 1823, Dr. Milne, however, having 
died the previous year. This work was in twenty-one 
volumes, and was placed by Dr. Morrison himself — who 
had come home on his first furlough — on the British and 
Foreign Bible Society's table at the annual meeting in 
1824. Towards the expenses of this great undertaking 
the British and Foreign Bible Society had contributed 
more than £10,000, in addition to what they had given 
towards Dr. Marshman's version. 

Upon the basis of Dr. Morrison's work fresh translations 
or revisions were undertaken by Dr. Morrison's son, Dr. 
Medhurst, Dr. Gutzlaff, and Dr. Bridgman. After Dr. 
Medhurst's final revision of the New Testament in England, 
it was printed by lithography in Batavia in 1837, while 
to Dr. Gutzlaff fell the revision of the Old Testament. Of 
this work, after Dr. Gutzlaff had again revised the New 
Testament, more than ten editions were published from time 
to time. The chief interest of this version by Gutzlaff is 



THE BIBLE IN CHINA 381 

that it was the one republished by the Taiping rebels, the 
words " A new edition issued by the Celestial dynasty of 
Taiping in the third year of his reign" (1853) appearing 
on the title-page, while each book was emblazoned with 
the Imperial Arms. 

After the conclusion of the war with China in 1841-42 
and the signing of the Treaty of Nanking, a meeting of the 
British and American missionaries took place at Hongkong 
in 1843, when it was decided to revise the New Testament. 
The work was apportioned to various missionaries, and 
delegates were appointed to finally revise the whole. These 
delegates were Dr. Medhurst, Bishop Boone, Eev. W. M. 
Lowrie, Eev. J. Stronach, and the Eev. E. C. Bridgman. 
Mr. Lowrie being shortly afterwards murdered by pirates, 
the Eev. W. C. Milne was appointed to succeed him. 
Bishop Boone did not attend any meetings of the committee 
after the first chapter of Matthew had been translated. 

Now broke afresh the great " Term " controversy — a 
controversy which had already called forth several mutually 
contradictory papal decrees in the seventeenth and eighteenth 
centuries. The issue of this controversy was that the words 
" God " and " Spirit " were left untranslated and the four 
Gospels were printed at Shanghai in 1850, and the whole 
New Testament in 1852. 

Upon the work of the Old Testament a division took 
place and two separate versions were prepared. These 
were : 

1. The version prepared by Messrs. Medhurst, Stronach, 
and Milne, all London Missionary Society men. This was 
published at the British and Foreign Bible Society's expense 
in 1854, and in the following year the whole version known 
as " The Delegates' Version " was issued. 

2. The other version was that prepared by Bridgman 
and Culbertson, assisted by Bishop Boone and others. The 
New Testament was issued in 1859, and the Old Testament 
in 1862-63. These were published by the American Bible 
Society, the word " Shen " being used for God and " Sheng- 



382 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

ling" for Spirit, these being generally preferred by the 
American missionaries. 

In 1872 a committee was appointed to conserve the 
text of the " Delegates' Version." Among this committee 
were Bishop Moule of Mid-China, Dr. Griffith John, Dr. 
Edkins, and the Kev. C. Hartwell. 

For many years the Baptists had used Marshman's 
version, and in 1839 the Eev. Josiah Goddard was sent 
out by the American Board to make a new translation. 
The New Testament was completed by 1853 and the 
whole Bible by 1868, although Dr. Goddard had died 
meanwhile. This work was subsequently revised more 
than once and references were added. 

In 1864 the Eussian Ecclesiastical Mission in Peking 
published an edition of the New Testament, the words 
" Tien-Chu " being employed for God. This was the work 
of Bishop Gowry. 

At the General Missionary Conference of 1890 a great 
step was taken which far exceeded the expectations of the 
majority if not of all. It was decided to publish a Union 
Version in High Wen-li, and the original Translation 
Committee appointed was composed of Dr. J. Chalmers, 
Dr. J. Edkins, Dr. John Wherry, Dr. D. Z. Sheffield, and 
Mr. Martin Schaub. The first two of these were English 
missionaries of the London Missionary Society, and the 
second two American missionaries of the American Presby- 
terian and American Board respectively, while the last 
named was of the Basel Mission. It was thus hoped to 
obtain a version equally acceptable to all, and the expenses 
of this work were to be equally shared by the three great 
Bible Societies — the British and Foreign Bible Society, the 
American Bible Society, and the National Bible Society of 
Scotland. 

The instructions given to the committee were to make 
a new translation of the Old Testament, "using the 
Medhurst and Stronach and tlie Bridgman and Culbertson 



THE BIBLE IN CHINA 383 

versions wherever available " ; while for the New Testament 
the " Delegates' Version " was to be the basis, Bridgman 
and Culbertson and Goddard's versions also being employed. 
The translation was to be made from the original texts 
underlying the English Revised Version, with the privilege 
of deviations therefrom in accordance with the Authorised 
Version. This work is still in progress, although three 
members of the original Translation Committee have been 
removed by death, the Rev. T. W. Pearce and Rev. LI. 
Lloyd having been elected to fill the place of two of these. 

Before closing this article, mention should be made of 
an edition of the four Gospels issued by the Roman 
Catholics from their Hongkong press in 1892-93. It 
contains the official sanction of the Roman Catholic Bishop 
of Canton and a dedication to the Virgin Mary. 

A translation of the Acts in 1887 and of the New 
Testament in 1897, made by C. P. Laurent, Ly. S.J., was 
printed near Sicawei ^ (Shanghai). The Roman Catholics 
have also published several summaries of the Old Testament 
and Liturgical Gospels. 

Easy Wen-li Version- 

Easy Wen-li is a language with the archaic words and 
allusive phrases of High Wen-li omitted. It is generally 
employed by the Chinese for the popular literature and 
newspapers. 

The need for a version in a literary style which was less 
stiff than the High Wen-li led the survivors of the Peking 
Mandarin Committee to undertake such a work on the 

1 Sicawei is literally Sii-Kia-wei, that is, the hamlet of the family SU. 
This Sii is the famous Paul Sii who so greatly assisted the early Jesuit 
missionaries at Peking. His wife, named Candida, was actually deified and 
is now worshipped at Shanghai. 

^ The British and Foreign Bible Society's documents upon which this 
section is based have been by that Society compared with the British 
Museum's Catalogue, with their own Society's Historical Catalogue. They 
have also been revised by Dr. J. C. Gibson, Dr. Griffith John, and the Rev. 
G. H. Bondlield. 



384 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

basis of their Mandarin Version. The scheme, though 
generally approved by the missionary body in 1880, was 
delayed, the Psalms only being published as part of the 
liturgy in 1882. Subsequently Bishop Burdon and Dr. 
Blodget commenced work on the New Testament, which was 
published in 1889. 

In the meantime (1882) the Eev. (Dr.) Griffith John 
began a similar work, translating from the Textus Eeceptus, 
and following largely the Pekin Mandarin and Delegates' 
High Wen-li Version. The New Testament was published 
in 1885, the expenses of this work being borne by the 
National Bible Society of Scotland. A revised edition of 
this appeared in 1889, the translation of the Old Testament 
being completed as far as the Song of Solomon. Parts of 
the Old Testament have been published, and the four Gospels, 
with explanatory notes, by the Scottish Bible Society. 

At the General Missionary Conference in 1890, a Union 
Version of the Easy Wen-li was determined upon, the 
expenses of this, as with the other union versions, to be 
equally shared by the three Bible Societies. The instruc- 
tions here were the same as with the High Wen-li and 
Mandarin Versions. 

The translators selected were Bishop J. S. Burdon, Dr. 
H. Blodget, Dr. E. H. Graves, Dr. J. C. Gibson, and Eev. 
I. Genahr. Dr. Blodget, at his retirement, was succeeded by 
Dr. J. W. Davis. 

By 1900 the committee had published tentative editions, 
in parts, of the whole New Testament, and, but for the 
crisis of that year, these would have been submitted to the 
General Conference. As that Conference was delayed till 
1907, the whole work has been meantime re-examined and 
corrected no less than three times, the results of which now 
wait the completion of the other Union Versions, that all 
may be harmonised together. 

Meantime Bishop Schereschewsky, while in the United 



THE BIBLE IN CHINA 385 

States of America, completed a translation of the Old 
Testament into Easy Wen-li, but finding that the style was 
higher than either Bishop Burdon's and Dr. Blodget's earlier 
version or that by Dr. John, he undertook the New 
Testament, which was completed in 1895. The New 
Testament was printed in Japan in 1898, with approved 
notes, and subsequently, after a complete revision, the whole 
Bible was published in one volume in 1902, at the cost of 
the American Bible Society. 

Northern or Peking Mandarin^ 

Mandarin, or " Kuan-hua," as its name signifies, is that 
language spoken by the Mandarin or official class. It is 
not, however, limited to them, but is spoken, with provincial 
variations of pronunciation, by about three-fourths of the 
total population of China proper. If the three coast 
provinces lying to the south-east be excepted, it may be 
said to be well understood all over China. 

The earliest Mandarin version known is one made by 
Father C. P. Louis de Poirot, of the Jesuit Mission (1735- 
1814), who, according to Poucher's Biblica, was an 
"interpreter to the court at Peking from 1745 onward, and 
translated the greater part of the Old Testament into 
Mandarin and Tartar." This translation is now in the 
Jesuit College at Sicawei near Shanghai. 

Soon after the opening of Peking, which event followed 
the war of 1860, the northern missionaries began to feel 
their need of a Mandarin version, and opened up correspond- 
ence upon the matter. Early in 1864, Eev. Dr. Edkins, 
who had been privately working at this task, joined with 
the Eev. (Dr.) W. A. P. Martin, the Eev. (Bishop) J. J. 

^ The British and Foreign Bible Society's documents upon which this 
section has been based have been by that Society compared with their own 
editorial correspondence and minutes, with their Historical Catalogue, with 
the British Museum Catalogue, with the American and Scottish Bible 
Societies' Reports, and have been revised in part or in the whole by the late 
Dr. Edkins, Dr. Griffith John, and the Rev. G. H. Bondfield. 

2c 



386 THE CHINESE EMPIRE 

Schereschewsky, the Rev. (Bishop) J. S. Burdon, and Rev. 
Dr. H. Blodget in the preparation of a revision of Dr. 
Medhurst's Southern Mandarin translation. 

The results of their labours give plain evidence of the 
perplexing "Term" controversy, for in 1864-65 the 
Gospels and Acts were published by the American Bible 
Society, using those terms approved of by the American 
missionaries. The Acts were also published with the 
Roman Catholic term " Tien-Chu " so strongly advocated by 
Bishop Burdon, while the British and Foreign Bible Society's 
edition did not appear until 1866 with the other terms. 

The presence of both American and European mission- 
aries on the committee of translation led to an effort to 
obtain uniformity by way of compromise. Dr. Williamson 
proposed that the Roman Catholic terms should be adopted 
as he had found them widely understood, and in 1867 this 
was approved. Subsequently permission was also given for 
an edition with " Shang-ti." The edition of the New 
Testament with the Roman Catholic term " Tien-Chu," 
Heavenly Lord, was completed by 1870 ; the one with 
" Shang-ti," Supreme Ruler, being finished somewhat later 
the same year. Another edition with the " Chen-Shen," 
True Spirit, was issued by the American Bible Society at 
the same time. 

After careful revision this work was printed in its finally 
revised form in 1872, the British and Foreign Bible Society 
issuing their edition with Shang-ti, and one for Bishop 
Burdon with Tien-Chu, while the American Bible Society 
used Chen-Shen. 

The translation of the Old Testament had been entrusted 
to Bishop Schereschewsky, who, being a Jew by birth and 
education, was specially fitted for that task. While 
portions of his work were published as he progressed, the 
whole Old Testament was printed in December 1874 and 
published early the next year, the term " Tien-Chu " being 
employed. With the permission of the American Bible 
Society, the British and Foreign Bible Society in 1878 
published an edition of the whole Bible, the Old Testament 



THE BIBLE IN CHINA 387 

being by Bishop Schereschewsky and the New Testament 
by the Peking Committee. In the following year the 
National Bible Society of Scotland published an edition of 
the New Testament with subject headings and maps, while 
in 1885 the American Bible Society issued an edition of 
the New Testament as a diglot with English. In 1897 
the British and Foreign Bible Society published an edition 
of the New Testament with references, the references being 
prepared by Messrs. Evans and Beynon, the latter of whom 
with his family was martyred in 1900 at Taiyuan Fu. 

As the Peking Mandarin Version treated of above had 
colloquialisms, Dr. Griffith John was approached with a 
view to his preparing a revised Mandarin version. Various 
difficulties arose concerning the proposals made by the two 
Bible Societies of Great Britain, and finally Dr. John pro- 
ceeded with the work along his own lines, the Scottish 
Bible Society publishing his New Testament in 1889 and 
also part of his Old Testament. It was upon the completion 
of this task that the Edinburgh University conferred upon 
Mr. John the Honorary title of D.D. In 1893 Dr. John's 
New Testament was issued with references, these being the 
work of his son-in-law, the Eev. C. G. Sparham, following 
the basis of the English Bible (Oxford). 

At the General Missionary Conference of 1890, as with 
High and Easy Wen-li, it was decided to have a Union 
Mandarin Version, and the following translators were 
appointed : Dr. C. W. Mateer as Chairman, Dr. J. L. Nevius, 
Dr. H. Blodget, the Eev. George Owen, Dr. J. E. Hykes, 
and the Eev. T. Bramfit. The changes made in these 
committees by death and other causes are quite kaleidoscopic, 
so that to-day the committee is composed as follows : Dr. 
Mateer, Dr. Goodrich, Eev. George Owen, Eev. F. W. Bailer, 
and Eev. Spencer Lewis. 

AVhile each member proceeded with his work, it was not 
until 1898 that the translators were able to meet in com- 
mittee. By 1905 the four Gospels, the Acts, Colossians to 



388 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

2 Thessalonians, and 1 Timothy to Kevelation had been 
issued tentatively. 

Meanwhile Bishop Schereschewsky having revised his 
Old Testament, the whole Bible was printed at Yokohama 
in 1899 by the British and Foreign Bible Society, the New 
Testament being, of course, the earlier Peking Committee 
Version. 

Romanised Editions 

In 1869 the China Inland Mission published at Chin- 
kiang an edition of the four Gospels and Acts in Eomanised, 
which was followed by the Epistle to the Eomans and other 
Epistles in 1870. This was the work of Mrs. Hudson 
Taylor, wife of the Eev. J. Hudson Taylor. Subsequently 
the whole of the New Testament was finished and revised 
by the Eev. William Cooper of the China Inland Mission, 
references being added. At the request of the China Inland 
Mission this was published in London by the British and 
Foreign Bible Society in 1888 under Mr. Cooper's care. 

An edition of St. John's Gospel according to Sir Thomas 
Wade's system of Eomanisation was transliterated by Mrs. 
E. Lowrie and published by the American Bible Society in 
1895. Another system known as "Murray's Numeral 
System " has also been employed. The four Gospels, the 
Acts, and some of the Epistles were published in 1896, the 
basis of the transliteration being Dr. John's version. 

In 1904 a beginning was made in what is known as 
" The Standard System " of Eomanisation. The Gospels of 
Matthew, Mark, and Luke were published in 1905 by the 
British and Foreign Bible Society, the text for these being 
that of the Peking Committee. 

Southern or Nanking Mandarin ^ 

Peking and Nanking, as at various times the capital 
of China, may be said — as Paris does to French- — to give 

1 The British and Foreign Bible Society's notes upon which this section 
is based have been by that Society compared with the British Museum 
Catalogue and with the editorial correspondence and minutes and Historical 
Catalogue of the Bible Society. 



THE BIBLE IN CHINA 389 

the standard of Northern and Southern Mandarin re- 
spectively. 

As soon as the Delegates' High Wen-li Version was 
completed, Dr. Medhurst and the Kev. J. Stronach made 
arrangements for a translation of the New Testament into 
the Mandarin colloquial as spoken at Nanking. The first 
draft of this work was entrusted to a young Chinese scholar 
who simply translated from the Delegates' Version. A 
tentative edition was printed at the expense of the British 
and Foreign Bible Society in 1856 or 1857, but though 
other editions were called for, it was not successful and was 
displaced by the Peking Mandarin translation. 

It should be mentioned that in 1870 or 1871 Miss L. 
Degraz of the China Inland Mission, who was assisting Mr. 
Hudson Taylor, prepared a Eomanised edition of the four 
Gospels based upon this Nanking version, which Eomanised 
books were published by the China Inland Mission. 

The Cantonese Version^ 

Cantonese is the chief language of the province of 
Kwangtung and Eastern Kwangsi. It is spoken by about 
fifteen to twenty millions of people. Cantonese is akin to 
the ancient language of China, spoken about three thousand 
years ago. Modern Mandarin is probably the old Chinese 
modified by the immense admixture of Tartar and Tibetan 
blood during the period A.D. 300-900. 

The story of the Cantonese Version is not a little 
complicated, and to give all the details would be to weary 
the reader with what is a perfect mosaic of translators 
and portions undertaken by each. The broad outlines are 
therefore only attempted. The story really divides itself 
into two parts — private and united efforts. The best 

^ The British and Foreign Bible Society's documents upon which this 
section is based have been by tliat Society compared with tlieir own 
editorial correspondence and minutes, with the American Bible Society's 
Reports, with the British Museum Catalogue, while they have been read 
and corrected by Dr. H. V. Noyes, Dr. R. H. Graves, Rev. G. Piercy, and 
Rev. G. H. Boudtield. 



390 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

acknowledgment of those who took a leading part in 
what was accomplished will be to give their names together 
without troubling the general reader with particulars of 
each subdivision. They were the Eevs. G. E. Preston, 
George Piercy, A. Krolczyk, J. Nacken, H. V. Noyes, 
A. Happer, B. C. Henry, E. H. Graves, A. B. Hutchinson, 
and Bishop J. S. Burdon. 

The first united effort commenced in 1868, previous 
to which time the Gospels according to Matthew, Luke, 
John, and an abbreviated Harmony of the Gospels had 
been prepared by several different missionaries, which 
books had been published by either the American or 
British Bible Societies. In 1868, however, three local 
committees were formed and the work of translation divided 
among the missionaries, the Eevs. George Piercy, C. F. 
Preston, and A. Krolczyk being appointed as delegates to 
revise the whole. The Textus Eeceptus was taken as the 
basis for this translation, and the dialect as spoken in the 
city of Canton itself as the standard for the langiiage. In 
1871, the first portions — Luke and Colossians — were 
published by the British and Foreign Bible Society, 
while Mark and the Acts followed in the next year. 

The chief private effort was the publishing by the Eev. 
George Piercy of the ten Epistles, Galatians to Philemon, 
in which edition, however, the Colossians mentioned above 
was included. 

In 1873 the Union Version of Matthew and John was 
published, so that it was now possible to have the four 
Gospels and the Acts bound together. The terms " Shang-ti " 
and " Shen " had been respectively used by the British 
and Foreign and the American Bible Societies. This 
Union version of the four Gospels and Acts was almost 
universally approved by the American and European 
missionaries, but for various reasons the British and 
Foreign Bible Society decided not to proceed with 
publishing further portions. Strange as this decision may 
at first sight appear, the subsequent reaction in regard to 
this version quite justifies their policy. 



THE BIBLE IN CHINA 391 

In spite, however, of the decision of the British and 
Foreign Bible Society, publications still proceeded, and 
by 1877 Mr. Piercy had completed and privately published 
the portions from Eomans to Kevelation, which, with the 
Union Gospels and Acts, for the first time placed a whole 
New Testament in the hands of the Cantonese people 
in their own dialect. 

The reaction against the Union Gospels broke out about 
1879-81, when considerable dissatisfaction arose and a 
revision committee was appointed to go over that work 
again. The revised editions were published in parts from 
1882 to 1884. Then, although the British and Foreign Bible 
Society offered to co-operate with the American Presbyterian 
missionaries in a Union translation of Eomans to Eevelation, 
no English missionaries felt able to spare the time to join 
in this task, the result being that that work when completed 
was published by the American Bible Society in 1886. It 
was published both separately and with the Union Version 
of the Gospels and Acts, thus making a complete Union 
New Testament. 

It may also be mentioned that during the same year 
a diglot of the Gospel according to Luke had been issued, 
the languages being English and Cantonese. 

Meanwhile both private and united work was proceeding 
in regard to a translation of the Old Testament, and the 
Pentateuch was completed by 1888. In 1890 the 
American Presbyterian Mission undertook the completion 
of the whole Bible, Mr. Noyes accepting Joshua to Esther 
and Dr. Henry taking the remainder. Proverbs to Malachi 
with Job, the Psalms having been previously translated by 
Dr. Graves. Upon the completion of their allotted tasks 
they mutually revised each other's work, and when it was 
approved by the Mission it was published by the American 
Bible Society in 1894. The whole Bible was now published 
in the Cantonese language. 

This Bible was afterwards revised, while the Gospels and 
Acts were published as a diglot with English. 

With the exception of the 1867 edition of Luke, all 



392 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

the above-mentioned Scriptures had been published in the 
character, but in 1889 a committee of English and 
American missionaries was approved to deal with the 
question of Eomanisation. For the Canton Missionary- 
Conference parts of the New Testament were printed 
in one system, an earlier system having been rejected in 
which Mark and Luke had been printed ; while for the 
Church Missionary Society's Leper work at Pakhoi the 
four Gospels and Acts, with the Old Testament as far as 
Psalms, had been completed in another system by 1904, 



The Shanghai Version^ 

The dialect of South Kiangsu, known as the Shanghai 
and Soochow dialect, is one dialect only and belongs to the 
Wu family. It bears a somewhat close relationship to 
that of Ningpo, and is spoken by about eighteen millions of 
people. 

As early as 1847, the Eev. W. H. Medhurst published 
the Gospel according to St. John, and in the following year 
his colleague, the Eev. W. C. Milne, published the Gospel 
according to St. Matthew. Book continued to follow book, 
until in 1870 the New Testament was completed, making 
the first complete Shanghai colloquial New Testament. 
Among the translators were the Eevs. (Bishop) W. J. 
Boone, E. W. Syles, F. Spaulding, T. M'Clatchie, C. Keith, 
E. Nelson, and H. Blodget. 

When in 1876 a new edition of this New Testament 
was called for, the American Bible Society asked a 
committee of missionaries to revise it before republication. 
This committee consisted of Dr. Farnham, Mr. Eoberts, 
Archdeacon Thomson, and Dr. J. W. Lambuth. The 
revision, which was practically a new translation, was 

^ The British and Foreign Bible Society's documents upon which this 
section has been based have been by that Society compared with the British 
Museum Catalogue, with the Society's editorial correspondence, minutes, 
and Historical Catalogue, with the American Bible Society's Reports, with 
Wylie's Memorials, and have been read and corrected by Archdeacon 
Thomson and Dr. J. M. W. Farnham. 



THE BIBLE IN CHINA 393 

published in 1881, and during the following year a finally 
corrected edition of this revision appeared. 

The next important version to notice is that by Dr. 
Muirhead. This was a translation of the New Testament 
with Wen-li notes, the whole New Testament being 
published by 1881. 

Although Dr. Muirhead had commenced work on the 
Old Testament, his translation of the Psalms being 
published by the British and Foreign Bible Society in 
1882, the American Bible Society's translation committee 
took up the Old Testament and made fair progress. In 
1893, however, the Shanghai Vernacular Society appointed 
a committee consisting of both American and British 
missionaries to prepare a Union Bible. The Union New 
Testament appeared in 1897, and work was commenced on 
the Old Testament. After an enlargement of the committee 
the work was divided, some proceeding with the Old 
Testament and some with the revision of the New. By 
1901 the first volume, which contained from Genesis to 
Euth, was published, and in 1904 the second volume — 
1 Samuel to Job — was issued. 

It should also be mentioned that the American Baptist 
Union had published the books from Matthew to Jude 
with Baptist terminology, and also that, in 1897, Father 
Gamier had published selections from the New Testament 
at Sicawei. 

The Hakka Version^ 

The Hakkas, or " Strangers," are the highlanders of 
South China, who probably immigrated there from Kiang- 
nan (the central provinces) during the fourteenth century. 
These people are now mostly found in the province of 
Kwangtung. " They are a manly and vigorous race, 
chiefly engaged in agriculture, but are better educated 

1 The British and Foreign Bible Society's documents upon which this 
section is based have been by that Society comimred with their editorial 
correspondence and minutes, and with the British Museum Catalogue. They 
have also been corrected by the Rev. G. Gussman. 



394 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

than those in the more crowded plains. At the same time, 
they are a turbulent and lawless people, and revolutionary 
and other secret societies flourish among them." The 
cradle of the great Taiping Eebellion was among this people. 
From a missionary point of view they are more accessible 
than the Cantonese. Their dialect is a mixture of old 
Mandarin and Cantonese, and is spoken by about fifteen 
millions of people. 

The Hakka dialect was not known by Europeans 
previous to 1845, and the Revs. T. Hamberg and E. 
Lechler of the Basel Mission were the first missionaries 
to study it thoroughly. St. Matthew's Gospel, translated 
by Lechler, was published by the Basel Mission at Berlin 
in 1860, and again in 1866 — with the addition of St. 
Luke, based on an earlier edition printed at Hongkong in 
1865 — in larger type by the British and Foreign Bible 
Society. It was printed in the Lepsius system of 
Eomanised. Other books followed from 1874 up to 
1883, by which time the whole New Testament was 
completed. 

Parts of this Eomanised New Testament were subse- 
quently revised and reprinted. Without giving the details 
of each man's work, the following were those who had the 
chief part in the translation : the Eevs. E. Lechler, Ph. 
Winnes, C. Piton, G. A. Gussman, and two Chinese helpers, 
Kong Fat-lin and Li Shin-en. 

The New Testament mentioned above was all in the 
Lepsius Eomanised system, but by 1883 the whole of the 
New Testament was also published in the character, the 
British and Foreign Bible Society bearing the expense. 
Subsequently a revision of this New Testament was under- 
taken and completed early in 1904. This revision was 
carried through by the Eev. A. Nagel, assisted by the 
Eevs. G. A. Gussman and W. Ebert, all of the Basel 
Mission. 

Meanwhile, however, in 1885, the British and Foreign 
Bible Society had promised to bear the expense of the 
production of the Old Testament in character. Of this 



THE BIBLE IN CHINA 395 

work, Genesis and Exodus were translated by the Eev. C. 
Piton, and published in 1886. 

The Foochow Veksion^ 

The Foochow colloquial is one of the dialects of the 
province of Fukien, and is spoken by about eight millions 
of people. It is also understood in some of the adjoining 
districts, where the dialects differ but little. 

In the brief story of the Foochow Version three 
missionary Societies are especially concerned — the Church 
Missionary Society, the American Board, and the Methodist 
Episcopal Mission. In the early days members of these 
three Missions were separately engaged in translation 
work. The first step toward union was made in 1864, 
when the two American Missions commenced to co-operate ; 
and the second step in union was taken in 1874, when 
the Church Missionary Society united with them ; the 
final step being in 1887, when the British and Foreign 
and the American Bible Societies agreed to share the 
expenses of the joint work. 

The first-fruits of translation work appeared as early 
as 1852, when the Eev. W. Welton's (C.M.S.) translation 
of St. Mark and the Eev. M. C. White's (M.E.M.) edition 
of St. Matthew were issued from the press. In the follow- 
ing year the Eev. C. C. Baldwin (A.B.C.F.M.), with his 
colleague, published Matthew, Mark, and Luke. Other 
portions followed, so that by 1856 two complete editions 
of the New Testament were published. One of these was 
by Mr. Welton, and was published by the assistance of the 
British and Foreign Bible Society, and the other was by 
the American Board workers. Acts to Eevelations being the 
work of the Eev. L. B. Peet. Towards this latter work 
the American Board made liberal grants. Before 1867 

^ The British and Foreign Bible Society's documents upon which this 
section is based have been by that Society compared with their editorial 
correspondence and minutes, with the American Bible Society's Reports, 
and have been read and corrected by the Revs. LI. Lloyd and Chas. 
Hartwell. 



396 THE CHINESE EMPIRE 

Peet's New Testament was four times reprinted ; meanwhile, 
other portions of the Bible were being issued. 

In 1864 came the first important step towards union, 
as mentioned above, by the American Board and the 
Methodist Episcopal Missions uniting in the revision of 
the New Testament. This was published in four volumes 
in 1866, portions of the Old Testament following. This 
New Testament was reprinted in one volume in 1869. In 
1874 the next important step in advance was made by the 
Church Missionary Society workers joining with the two 
American Societies in the completion of the Old Testament 
translation, the funds for this work being supplied by the 
American Bible Society. The whole of the Old Testament 
was ready in 1884, the 1866 New Testament having been 
revised and published in 1878. 

The final step towards union was taken in 1887, when 
the two Bible Societies already interested (A.B.S. and 
B.F.B.S.) agreed to share in the production of a revised Bible. 
A committee was appointed consisting of the Revs. C. C. 
Baldwin, Archdeacon "Wolfe, LI. Lloyd, W. Banister, all of 
the C.M.S., and the Rev. N. J. Plumb of the M.E.M., and 
under the care of the latter worker the entire Bible was 
revised and printed by 1891 at the Methodist Episcopal 
Mission press at Foochow. This Bible was again printed 
in 1895 with some slight alterations, further editions of 
this last version subsequently being issued. 

The first book to be put into the Romanised character 
was the Gospel according to John, and this work was 
undertaken by the Rev. LI. Lloyd, the system employed 
being an old one. This was in 1881. Subsequently the 
Rev. R. W. Stewart put St. John's Gospel into Romanised 
according to a system employed at Amoy. With the 
assistance of various workers Mr. Stewart was able to put 
the whole New Testament through the press in London in 
1890. 

By the end of 1897 this last edition of the Romanised 
New Testament was sold out, and it was decided to prepare 
a new edition, with references, the basis of this edition to 



THE BIBLE IN CHINA 397 

be the revised Bible of 1895. With the assistance of 
quite a large number of helpers this was accomplished by 
1900, another edition being printed in 1904 from stereo- 
type plates. Subsequently the work of romanising the Old 
Testament was commenced, and some portions have already 
been published. 

The Ningpo Version^ 

The Ningpo dialect is the speech of a large portion 
of the population of the province of Chekiang, of many 
residents on the borders of the neighbouring province 
Kiangsu, of the inhabitants of the islands of the Chusan 
archipelago, and of a considerable section of the population 
of Shanghai. In one or other of its forms it is spoken by 
six or seven millions of people. 

The difficulties experienced by many of the Chinese in 
reading from the ordinary character led Dr. W. A. P. 
Martin, Dr. F. F. Gough, and the Eev. E. H. Cobbold to 
devise a system of Komanised in which the Scriptures and 
other books were subsequently published. 

A commencement was made upon the New Testament 
in 1851, which, with the exception of the latter half of 
the book of Eevelation, was all printed by 1861. The 
translators were the Eev. W. A. (Bishop) Eussel, Dr. D. B. 
MacCartee, Eev. (Dr.) W. A. P. Martin, and the Eev. H. V. 
Eankin. 

In the same year that the New Testament was printed, 
1861, the Eev. J. Hudson Taylor, who was then in 
England, with Dr. Gough commenced a revision of the four 
Gospels and Acts, adding references. This was published 
in London in 1865. The following year, 1866, Mr. 
Hudson Taylor with the Lammermuir party sailed for 
China, and Dr. Gough with Bishop Moule continued the 

^ The British and Foreign Bible Society's documents upon which this 
section has been based have been by that Society compared with the British 
Museum Catalogue, with the Society's editorial correspondence, minutes, 
and Historical Catalogue, with Wylie's Memorials, and revised by the Rev. 
G. H. Bondfield. 



398 THE CHINESE EMPIRE 

work, the whole of the New Testament being published 
in 1868. In this edition Bishop Moule revised the whole 
from Hebrews viii. to the end of Revelation. Thus was 
issued the whole Testament with references. 

In 1870 Mr. Hudson Taylor, at Chinkiang, printed 
the four Gospels, and subsequently the Acts, in large type. 
In 1874, the 1868 New Testament mentioned above was 
published, after having been slightly revised and the terms 
for baptism having been altered by Dr. Lord. This was 
to meet the needs of the Baptist missionaries, and was 
published by the American Bible Union. 

In 1884 a representative committee of both American 
and British missionaries was formed to revise the New 
Testament, but owing to a difference of opinion as to the 
style to be employed, the English members, the Rev. J. C. 
(Bishop) Hoare, the Rev. F. Galpin, and the Rev. J. Bates 
were left to complete the work alone. This was published 
by the British and Foreign Bible Society in 1889. 

As the result of a conference held at Ningpo in 1896, 
the New Testament was revised by Dr. Goddard and the 
Rev. J. C. (Bishop) Hoare, which edition was published in 
1898. This was accepted as a Ningpo Union version, 
the Baptists also employing it with the terms for baptism 
altered. 

Previous to this, various portions of the Old Testament 
had been appearing from time to time from 1857 onward, 
the details of which need hardly be repeated here. In 
1897, however, the missionary body at Ningpo urged Dr. 
Goddard to push on with the Old Testament, and appointed 
the Rev. W. S. Moule and Dr. Smith as a committee of 
reference. By the end of 1898 the translation of the 
whole Bible had been completed and the revision of the 
already published portions of the Old Testament commenced. 
The Old Testament left the press in 1901 and was printed 
with references. This book, with the New Testament 
already mentioned, formed the first complete reference 
Bible published in China. 

All the above-mentioned editions were in the Romanised. 



THE BIBLE IN CHINA 399 

The only other editions to be mentioned are the Gospel 
according to John, Ephesians, and 1 and 2 Timothy, 
published in character by the Eev. H. Jenkins. 



The Swatow Veksion^ 

The Swatow dialect is the language of the prefecture of 
Chaochow and parts of the prefecture of Hweichow in the 
province of Kwangtung, It belongs, however, not to the 
Kwangtung family, but to the Min. It is spoken by 
about five millions of people, and is also the principal 
language among the Chinese in Siam. 

The first effort to render the Word of God into this 
dialect was made by the Eev. W. Duffus, of the English 
Presbyterian Mission, who in 1877 asked the British and 
Foreign Bible Society to undertake the cost of an edition 
of St. Luke's Gospel, which he had prepared in Eomanised. 
This being agreed to, it was printed in Glasgow during the 
same year. After this, little was done for nearly ten years, 
until, in 1887, translation work was formally organised. 

A committee was appointed consisting of the Eevs. 
George Smith, H. L. Mackenzie, W. Duffus, and J. Campbell 
Gibson, among whom the books of the New Testament 
were apportioned. Mr. Smith, however, took no active part, 
and Mr. Mackenzie only translated the epistles of St. John 
at a later stage. Thus the whole of the work fell upon 
Messrs. Duffus and Gibson, until they were joined by the 
Eev. P. J. Maclagan. 

The British and Foreign Bible Society undertook to 
print two editions, one in larger type and one in smaller 
type with references. These were printed at the local 
press given by Mr. J. E. Mathieson and other friends. 
Between the years 1888 and 1891 inclusive, the books of 
Genesis and Jonah of the Old Testament, and Matthew, 
Mark, John, Acts, and James of the New Testament, were 

^ The British and Foreign Bible Society's documents on which this 
section has been based have been rewritten by the Revs. J. Campbell 
Gibson and Wm. Ashmore jun. 



400 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

printed at Swatow, the Gospel according to Luke having 
been previously printed in 1877. 

In 1891-92 Dr. and Mrs. Gibson put an edition of the 
four Gospels and the Acts through the press at Glasgow, 
for the British and Foreign Bible Society. This edition 
consisted of the books mentioned above, except that the 
early edition of St. Luke in 1877 had been thoroughly 
revised. 

From this time onward down to 1904, book followed 
book both from the Old and New Testament, in both large 
and small type, in almost bewildering order. The result, 
however, was that, by the end of 1904, the whole of the 
New Testament had been printed with the exception of 
Hebrews, which soon followed. All the books printed from 
1895 onward were the work of Messrs. Maclagan and 
Gibson, except Euth, which was the work of the Eev. J. 
Steele, revised by the two former. 

The revision of the whole New Testament was subse- 
quently carried out by Messrs. Maclagan and Gibson, and 
was stereotyped at the English Presbyterian Mission press 
at Swatow in 1905. The basis of translation throughout 
had been the Greek text presumed to underlie the English 
revised version. 

While the English Presbyterian missionaries were 
engaged in issuing the Eomanised edition, members of the 
American Baptist Mission were busy upon a translation 
into the same dialect for printing in the character. The 
chief translators were Drs. Partridge and Ashmore with 
Miss Field in the earlier stages, but subsequently the main 
burden fell upon the Eev. Wm. Ashmore jun. 

The first book of the New Testament to be published 
was the Acts in 1877, the book of Euth having been 
published two years earlier. The four Gospels and Acts, 
however, were not completed until 1883. From that date 
on till 1886 the work steadily proceeded, but then the 
pressure of other duties stopped translation work for nearly 
nine years, the complete New Testament not being issued 
until 1896. 



THE BIBLE IN CHINA 401 

The same year Mr. Ashmore, jun., undertook a complete 
revision of the New Testament, so as to bring the earlier 
work of himself and others into line. This revision was 
entirely based on the original text. 

Of the Old Testament, the book of Kuth, as mentioned 
above, had been published in 1875 ; Genesis followed in 
1879, and was revised and published by Mr. Ashmore, jun., 
in 1902. 

The Amoy Colloquial Veksion ^ 

The Amoy dialect is spoken by about ten millions of 
people in the southern part of the province of Eukien, in 
Formosa, and by a large number of the emigrants in the 
Straits Settlements and the Dutch Colonies. Although 
this colloquial is printed in the Chinese character, the 
Eomanised system is generally employed. 

The first complete book of the Bible to be issued in this 
dialect was the Gospel according to John, which book was 
printed at Dr. Wells Williams' press at Canton in 1852. 
From that day onwards additional books continued to 
appear, translated by different men, until in 1873 the 
whole New Testament was published in translations made 
by the Eevs. W. Macgregor, W. S. Swanson, H. Cowie, and 
J. L. Maxwell. This was printed in Glasgow from stereo- 
type plates, under Dr. Maxwell's supervision, and at the 
expense of the late Mr. H. M. Matheson. These plates 
IVir. Matheson subsequently gave to the British and Foreign 
Bible Society. 

In 1873 the three Missions working in Amoy — the 
London Missionary Society, the English Presbyterian, and 
the American Eeformed Dutch Church — arranged for a 
translation of the Old Testament to be made, based upon 
the Delegates' Version. This was published by the British 
and Foreign Bible Society under Dr. J. L. Maxwell's 

^ The British and Foreign Bible Society's documents upon which this 
section is based have been by that Society compared with the British 
Museum Catalogue, with the American Bible Society's Records, and with 
Rev, A. Kenmure's notes. 

2d 



402 THE CHINESE EMPIRE 

editorial supervision, with the exception of 2 Chronicles, 
which was edited by the Eev. James Sadler, the various 
books appearing at intervals from 1880 to 1884. 

In 1897 a photographic enlargement of the New 
Testament was published at Shanghai, and in 1902 the 
Old Testament, with various misprints and faulty colloquial- 
ism corrected, was published. This improved Old Testament 
led to similar corrections being made with the New 
Testament, pending a proper revision. For this complete 
revision a committee had been appointed in 1885, twelve 
missionaries and sixteen Chinese assistants being determined 
upon, but although considerable progress was made the 
work was suspended in 1893 that the benefit of the Union 
Wen-li Version might be obtained when ready. 

Small editions of the Gospel according to Matthew 
and the Epistle to the Ephesians have been issued for the 
blind, and a revision of the Psalms by Dr. Macgregor was 
published in 1901. 



The Soochow Veksion^ 

The dialect of Soochow, an important city situated 
about eighty miles to the west of Shanghai, is closely 
related to that of Shanghai, and much of the work of the 
translators was done in conjunction with the translators in 
the latter city. 

In 1880 the American Bible Society published the four 
Gospels and Acts, and the entire New Testament the 
following year. For this translation the Eev. G. F. Fitch, 
of the American Presbyterian Mission, and the Eev. A. P. 
Parker, of the Methodist Episcopal Mission South, were 
jointly responsible. In 1892 the New Testament, in a 
revised form, was issued by a committee of American 

^ The British and Foreign Bible Society's documents upon which this 
section has been based have been by that Society compared with the 
British Museum Catalogue, with the Reports and Records of the American 
Bible Society, with the Society's own Historical Catalogue, and corrected 
by the Rev. J. W. Davis, D.D., and the Rev. G. F. Fitch. 



THE BIBLE IN CHINA 403 

Presbyterian missionaries — the Eevs. Dr. J. W. Davis, 
D. N. Lyon, and A. P. Parker. 

For the Old Testament a committee of three Missions 
was appointed — the American Presbyterian, the Southern 
Baptist, and the Methodist Episcopal Missions. This 
committee was to work in conjunction with the Shanghai 
committee, the work of each being mutually adapted. The 
Methodist Episcopal Mission, however, did not take any 
part. The translators were the Revs. Dr. J. W. Davis, 
J. H. Hayes, and D. N. Lyon, of the American Presbyterian 
Mission, and the Eev. J. C. Britton of the American 
Baptist Mission South. An edition of Genesis to Euth 
was published at Shanghai in 1901. 

The Wenchow Version^ 

The Wenchow dialect is one of the Wu family, and is 
spoken by more than one million people dwelling in and 
around the prefectural city of Wenchow, in the province 
of Chekiang. It is quite incomprehensible to Chinese 
from other parts of the Empire. 

In 1888 the Eev. W. E. Soothill, of the United 
Methodists Free Church Mission, approached the British 
and Foreign Bible Society for assistance in publishing the 
four Gospels and the Acts, upon which he was then 
working. This version was in Eomanised, and on lines 
similar to that of the Ningpo Version. After the revision 
of Mr. Soothill's first draft by his colleagues, the Bible 
Society agreed to publish it, and a beginning was made in 
Shanghai in 1892. In consequence, however, of various 
delays and of Mr. Soothill's furlough, the four Gospels and 
the Acts were not published till 1894, being printed in 
London after a final revision. 

In 1899 Mr. Soothill commenced the translation of the 

^ The British and Foreign Bible Society's documents upon which this 
section has been based have been by that Society compared with its own 
Historical Catalogue, with its editorial correspondence and minutes, and 
with the British Museum Catalogue, and read and corrected by the Rev. 
W. E. Soothill. 



404 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

remainder of the New Testament, and this work, with a 
revision of the Gospels and the Acts, was completed by 1901. 
During 1903 the complete New Testament was issued, it 
having been printed at the China Inland Mission press at 
Wenchow. 

The Taichow Veksion^ 

The Taichow dialect is a variety of the Ningpo, but 
is not easily understood by people of the latter city, many 
of the words having an entirely different meaning. 

Mr. W. D. Rudland, one of the senior missionaries of 
the China Inland Mission, undertook to translate the New 
Testament into this dialect, and in 1880 the Gospel accord- 
ing to Matthew was printed in large Romanised type. 
Before the close of 1881 the entire New Testament was 
published by the China Inland Mission at its own press in 
Taichow, 

In 1894 Mr. Eudland, with the help of his colleagues, 
Messrs. T, Urry and C. Thomson, both of the China Inland 
Mission, commenced a revision of the New Testament. 
This work, after the approval of the committee on vernacular 
versions, was published at the British and Foreign Bible 
Society's expense, it being printed at the China Inland 
Mission press at Taichow. 

Meanwhile, however, Mr. Eudland had commenced the 
translation of the Old Testament, Jonah and Daniel being 
published by the China Inland Mission in 1891 and 1893 
respectively, and the Psalms by the British and Foreign 
Bible Society in 1893. In 1902 arrangements were made 
for further Old Testament translation, and by the end of 
1905 Genesis to Numbers were ready. While Mr. Eudland 
was still the chief translator, he was assisted by the Eevs. 
E. H. Thompson and W. J. Wallace of the Church Missionary 
Society, and by Mr. Kauderer and Miss Eudland of the 

^ The British and Foreign Bible Society's documents upon which this 
section is based have been by that Society compared with the British 
iluseum Catalogue, with the Society's editorial correspondence, minutes 
and Historical Catalogue, and approved by the Rev. W. D. Rudland. 



THE BIBLE IN CHINA 405 

China Inland Mission. Genesis and Psalms were published 
by the British and Foreign Bible Society in 1905. 

The Hangchow Version^ 

The Hangchow vernacular is a variety of Mandarin 
planted in Hangchow by the Imperial court, probably 
during its occupation of that city for some eighty years in 
the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. It differs from the 
Peking Mandarin in pronunciation and in many idioms. 

In 1877 the present Archdeacon A. E. Moule translated 
selected portions of the New Testament into this local 
dialect, his book being published with private funds. The 
present Bishop G. E. Moule had previously translated a 
primer, the Prayer Book, and a hymn-book into the same 
dialect, and when at home on furlough he Eomanised 
the Gospels of St. Matthew and St. John into the same 
vernacular. This latter work was based upon a Hangchow 
version of those Gospels prepared by a Chinese scholar from 
the Peking Mandarin. 

These works were published by the Society for the 
Propagation of Christian Knowledge in 1879 and 1880 
respectively. Bishop Moule's daughter has also put St. 
Luke into the Hangchow version in manuscript, but the 
Peking Mandarin edition of the Bible in character is 
generally used by the Christians. The Psalms, translated 
by the Eev. G. Morgenroth and Li, were published in 1890 ; 
while Isaiah, by Mr. Morgenroth, was published in 1897. 

The Hinghwa Version ^ 

The Hinghwa dialect is that spoken in the prefecture 
of Hinghwa, in the province of Fukien, bordering on the 

^ The British and Foreign Bible Society's documents upon which this 
section has been based have been compared with that Society's Historical 
Catalogue, with the S.P.C.K. Reports, and checked by correspondence with 
Bishop G. E. and Archdeacon A. E. Moule. 

^ The British and Foreign Bible Society's documents upon which this 
section is based have been by that Society compared with the British 
Museum Catalogue, with the American Bible Society's Reports and Records, 
and approved of by Mrs. "W. N. Brewster. 



406 THE CHINESE EMPIRE 

Straits of Formosa. It belongs to the Min family, but is 
none the less quite distinct from Amoy on the south and 
Foochow on the north. It is spoken by about three 
millions of people. 

The translations into this dialect have all been made 
by the Eev. W. N. Brewster and his colleagues of the 
American Methodist Episcopal Mission. The basis of their 
work, which is printed in the Romanised, is the Foochow 
colloquial. 

The American Bible Society have published all the 
books issued, the New Testament appearing at different 
periods from 1892 to 1900, and nearly all the Old Testa- 
ment between 1896 and 1904. 



The Kienning Version^ 

The Kienning dialect is spoken in the prefecture of 
Kienning, in the province of Fukien. 

The success of the Foochow Romanised version led the 
ladies of the Church of England Zenana Missionary Society 
in the Kienning district to begin a similar work in their 
dialect. The manuscript of the New Testament was com- 
pleted during 1895, the chief burden of the work being 
undertaken by Miss L. J. Bryer. During 1895 this was 
published by the British and Foreign Bible Society, Miss 
B. Newcombe seeing the work through the press. Toward 
the expenses of this version the friends of the Rev. R, W. 
Stewart in Dublin contributed £100, while the ladies of 
the Zenana Mission gave 300 dollars toward the cost of 
a tentative edition of St. Matthew's Gospel, which was 
published in 1896. 

The books of Genesis and Exodus were printed by the 
British and Foreign Bible Society in London in 1900, they 
having been translated from the English Revised Version 
by the Misses Bryer and Rodd. In 1905 the Psalter and 

^ The British and Foreign Bible Society's documents upon which this 
section is based have been by that Society compared with their own editorial 
corresjjondence and minutes, and approved by the Rev. H. T. Phillips. 



THE BIBLE IN CHINA 407 

the book of Daniel, both translated by Miss Bryer and 
revised by the Eev. H. T. Phillips, were published at the 
Bible House in London, 

The Kienyang Version^ 

The Kienyang dialect is one of the dialects of North 
Eukien. The Church Missionary Society opened work in 
the city of Kienyang in 1891, and in 1898 the Kev. and 
Mrs. H. T. Phillips published at Foochow a version of the 
Gospel according to St. Mark, with private funds ; the basis 
of their translation being the Peking Mandarin and Kien- 
ning versions. 

The Gospel according to St. Matthew being approved 
of by the Conference Committee, a vernacular version was 
published at the British and Foreign Bible Society's 
expense in 1900, only three hundred copies, however, 
being printed. 

The Shantung Mandarin Version^ 

The translation into the Shantung dialect was made 
by Messrs. C. H. Judd and Ed. Tomalin of the China 
Inland Mission. In 1892 the American Bible Society 
published the Gospels of Luke and John, the term " Shen " 
being employed. In 1894 the Gospel of Matthew was 
published in the Eomanised, this latter work having been 
revised by other of the Shantung missionaries. 

The Kinhwa Version^ 
The Kinhwa dialect is that spoken in the prefecture of 

^ The British and Foreign Bible Society's documents upon which this 
section is based have been by that Society compared with their own editorial 
correspondence and minutes and with the C.M.S. Reports, and approved 
by the Rev. H. T. Phillips. 

■•^ The British and Foreign Bible Society's notes upon which this section 
is based have been by that Society compared with the Historical Catalogue of 
that Society and with the Records of the American Bible Society, while Mr. 
Judd has been referred to. 

^ The British and Foreign Bible Society's documents upon which this 
section is based have been approved by the Rev. Horace Jenkins. 



408 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

Kinhwa, in the province of Chekiang, and is a dialect 
of Central Mandarin. 

The only portion of the Scriptures translated into this 
dialect is the Gospel according to St. John, and is the work 
of the Kev. Horace Jenkins, of the American Baptist 
Missionary Union. It was printed in Eomanised at 
Shanghai in 1866, at the expense of the American 
Bible Society. Further translations into this dialect have 
not been considered necessary. 

The Sankiang Version 

The Sankiang dialect takes its name from a very 
small place in the independent prefecture of Lienchow, in 
the north-west of Kwangtung, a city now sadly famous 
through the massacre of 1905. It is spoken by about 
three hundred thousand people. 

In 1904 the American Bible Society published an 
edition of St. Matthew's Gospel, and in 1905 of the 
Gospels according to Mark, Luke, and John. These were 
all the work of Miss Eleanor Chestnut, one of those who 
lost their lives in the sad massacre mentioned above. 

The Shaowu Version 

The Shaowu dialect is that spoken in the city of the 
same name in the province of Fukien. 

The American Board commenced work in this city in 
1874, and after the preparation of a hymn-book, etc., the 
Eev. J. E. Walker of that Mission translated the Epistle 
of St. James. This book was printed in Eomanised in 
1891 at the American Board press at Foochow. 

The Chung-chia Version 

The Chung-chia are one of the aboriginal tribes of 
South -West China, estimated at about one million in 
number. It is generally agreed that they are of the same 



THE BIBLE IN CHINA 409 

stock as the Shans and Siamese. They speak a language 
of their own, but have no alphabet or literature. 

The Gospel according to Matthew has been translated 
by the Kev. Samuel Clarke of the China Inland Mission 
and published by B.F.B.S. in 1904. It is in the Komanised, 
and is based upon the Greek text underlying the Eevised 
Version. 



The Hainan Version ^ 

The Hainanese dialect, nearest in affinity to the dialects 
of Amoy and South Formosa, is that form of Chinese 
spoken over the greater part of the Island of Hainan, 
The native tribes — known as Loi — who occupy almost the 
entire central and southern portions of the island, regard 
the so-called Hainanese colloquial as an alien tongue. 
Among the aborigines themselves there are some fifteen 
or sixteen dialects which correspond to the various Loi 
tribes. 

Although the Jesuits commenced work in this island 
as early as 1632, no Protestant missionary work was 
commenced before 1881, when the Eev. C. C. Jeremiassen, 
a Dane previously engaged as a customs officer, undertook 
missionary work as a self-supporting worker. He soon 
decided to undertake a translation of the New Testament, 
which was to be published in Eomanised and in the 
Hainanese colloquial, and not one of the Loi dialects. 

Although the translation of St. Matthew was ready by 
1886, various delays through changes of type, etc., prevented 
its publication before 1891. The Gospels according to John, 
Luke, and Mark followed, in this order, in the years 1893 
to 1895. In this latter work he was assisted by his 
colleague, the Eev. F. P. Gilman. 

In 1899 the British and Foreign Bible Society 
published the Acts and all the books from Galatians to 

^ The British and Foreign Bible Society's documents upon which this 
section is based have been by that Society compared with the editorial 
correspondence and minutes of that Society, and been revised by the Rev. 
F. P. Gilman. 



410 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

Jude, with the exception of the Epistle to the Hebrews. 
In the same year a Harmony of the Gospels was privately 
published. Work had also commenced on the Old Testament, 
the books of Genesis and Haggai to Malachi being published 
in 1901, Mr. Jeremiassen dying the same year in the south 
of the island. A revised edition of St. Mark's Gospel, by 
Mr. Gilman, was published by the British and Foreign 
Bible Society in 1902. 

Mongolian Versions of the Scriptures^ 

The Mongolian language is a member of the Ural-Altaic 
family. Its alphabet was derived from the Syriac through 
the Uigurian, the Syriac alphabet having been brought to 
the Uigurs by the Nestorian missionaries. It is written 
in perpendicular columns from left to right, and differs but 
little from the Manchu script, the Manchus having adopted 
and adapted the Mongolian alphabet shortly after their rise 
into power in the seventeenth century. A special alphabet 
called Gulch is employed for the expression of sounds and 
words borrowed from the Sanscrit and Tibetan languages, 
the sounds of which are not found in Mongolian. 

The earliest Mongolian version of which anything is 
known was made by John de Monte Corvino, a Franciscan 
monk who was sent on an embassy to the famous court of 
Kublai Khan by Pope Nicholas the Fourth. His mission 
commenced in a.d. 1291, and in a letter dated January 
1306 A.D. he wrote : " It is now twelve years since I heard 
any news from the West. I am become old and grey- 
headed, but it is rather through labours and tribulations 
than through age, for I am only fifty-eight years old. I 
have learned the Tartar language and literature, into which 
I have translated the whole New Testament and the 
Psalms of David, and have caused them to be transcribed 
with the utmost care." It is not known if this translation 

^ The sources of information are the British and Foreign Bible Society's 
editorial correspondence and minutes, and other books and documents in 
the possession of that Society. 



THE BIBLE IN CHINA 411 

was ever printed or published. Its history is like one of 
the Mongolian rivers : it is lost in the sand. 

Kalmuck or Western Mongolian 

The next translation in chronological order is that into 
the Kalmuck, which is the vernacular of the Kalmucks or 
Oelots. The total number of this people is about 160,000, 
and their alphabet is a modified form of the ordinary- 
Mongolian. This translation was made by Mr. (afterwards 
Dr.) I. J. Schmidt, who had for a long time been in close 
touch with the Moravian missionaries who were labouring 
among that people. The translation of the G(5spel of 
Matthew was completed in 1809, but as the manuscript 
was burnt in the Moscow fire, its printing did not take 
place until 1815. The translation was evidently a popular 
one, for the whole edition was sold out by 1817, and its 
circulation was bitterly opposed by the Buddhist priests as 
being hurtful to them. 

The translation of the four Gospels and Acts was com- 
pleted by 1822. Subsequently a new translation of the 
New Testament was made by Professor A. Pozdnejev, 
Professor of Mongolian at St. Petersburg, with one or two 
assistants. This was carried through the press in 1895, 
and reproduced by photography in a small size at Shanghai 
in 1896. 

The Buriat Mongolian Version 

Situated round about Lake Baikal there are some 
quarter of a million Buriats whose dialect is closely allied 
to that of the Eastern Mongols. The story of the transla- 
tion of the Scriptures into this language is one of great 
interest. 

When the printing of the first edition of the Gospel of 
St. Matthew in the Kalmuck language — as mentioned 
above — was completed, copies were sent to the Civil 
Governor of Irkutsk, which he directed to be distributed 



412 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

among the Selenginskish Mongols and the Chorinian 
Buriats. As he had expressed a desire for the opinion of 
the priests of these peoples regarding the contents of this 
Scripture, they gave considerable care to its perusal. This, 
however, proved a very difficult task, as the Kalmucks had 
discarded the ancient Mongol characters for an improved 
style. 

Two learned Buriat nobles or priests (Saisangs) were 
commissioned to undertake the task, who finally succeeded 
in explaining their general contents to their superiors. 
" This excited so much curiosity," to quote a letter of Dr. 
I. J. Schmidt, " that the head Lama of the Mongols, Bandida 
Chambo Dansang Tuki Dschamzu, and the prince of the 
Chorinian Buriats, Galsang Marday, each among his own 
people, of their own accord, made a collection, amounting to 
upwards of 11,000 roubles (£550), which they placed at 
the disposal of our Bible Society {i.e. the Eussian B.S.) on 
condition that the Gospel of St. Matthew, and, if possible, 
other books of the New Testament, might be translated 
into their language and printed in their characters." 

In response to this request. Prince Galitzen sent to the 
Civil Governor of Irkutsk for the assistance of two learned 
Buriats, and the choice fell upon the two Saisangs who had 
already been employed in deciphering the Kalmuck version. 
These two men reached St. Petersburg in December 1817, 
and had the honour of being presented to the Emperor, 
who encouraged them in the task they had undertaken. 
The result was not merely a translation of the New Testa- 
ment, but the conversion of the two men themselves. 

Although the whole of the New Testament was printed 
at St. Petersburg in 1827, only the four Gospels and the 
Acts of the Apostles were published, the Eussian Holy 
Synod refusing the British and Foreign Bible Society the 
right of purchasing the New Testament as a whole, the 
reason for such action being the possibility of their requir- 
ing the books themselves. 



THE BIBLE IN CHINA 413 

The Mongol Literary Version 

Possibly in consequence of this interesting request of 
the Buriat Mongols, a mission to Irkutsk was urged upon 
the directors of the London Missionary Society by Dr. 
Paterson and Dr. Pinkerton, who were actively engaged at 
St. Petersburg and Moscow in the work of the Eussian 
Bible Society. Among the men who were sent out to this 
distant outpost were Mr. Edward Stallybrass and Mr. W. 
Swan, who started upon their long journey in 1817 and 
1818 respectively. These two noble pioneers made a care- 
ful study of the language for the purpose of translating the 
Bible into literary Mongolian, a language which can be 
understood by the Buriats and Mongols of Eussian and 
Chinese Tartary. In 1823 the British and Foreign Bible 
Society sent them out a printing press, and subsequently 
gave liberal financial help towards the expenses of prepara- 
tion and printing. All their work was carefully revised by 
Dr. I. J. Schmidt, whose name is mentioned above, the St. 
Petersburg Censor. By the end of 1840 the whole of the 
Old Testament was completed and published, the printing 
being done under the superintendence of Mr. Abercromby 
at Selenginsk and Khodon. 

It was at this time that the Eussian Holy Synod had 
this Mission suppressed by Imperial Ukase. 

With the closing of the Mission Messrs. Swan and 
Stallybrass returned to England, and it was arranged in 
1843 that they should complete the translation and publi- 
cation of the New Testament, the British and Foreign 
Bible Society again giving liberal assistance by paying Mr. 
Stallybrass's expenses. The New Testament had been 
already translated by the Eussian Bible Society, and this 
translation was made the basis of their work ; but it was, 
however, so carefully revised as to be quite a new 
translation. 

As the type and press which had been used in Siberia 
had been sold, and there was no Mongolian type available 
in England, the book was printed with Manchu type 



414 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

which the British and Foreign Bible Society had. As 
mentioned above, it will be remembered that the differ- 
ence between the two types is not serious. Later, however, 
in May 1877, after some correspondence between the Eev. 
W. Nicholson, the British and Foreign Bible Society's 
Agent in St. Petersburg, and the Archimandrite Melety of 
Irkutsk, it was decided to print another edition of the New 
Testament, and for this the Mongolian type was specially 
cast. The earlier part of this undertaking was entrusted 
to Antonie Schiefner, but upon his death M. Alexis 
Pozduejev, Professor of Mongolian at St. Petersburg, super- 
vised the remainder of the task, which was completed in 
1880. 

In 1885 this New Testament was reproduced by 
photography in Shanghai and issued in separate portions, 
another edition being issued in Shanghai also in 1900. 



Eastern Mongolian or Khalka 

The only other Mongolian version which has been 
undertaken is that in the Khalka Mongolian, which is the 
principal vernacular of Mongolia, and is used by about 
four million people. The Gospel of Matthew only has 
been published in this. 

The work was undertaken by Dr. Edkins and Bishop 
Schereschewsky, who employed a Lama to make this version 
from Messrs. Swan and Stallybrass's literary Mongolian, 
consulting the Peking Mandarin translation and the Buriat 
Mongol version made by Dr. Schmidt, as well as the 
Manchu. The Lama's work was revised by Dr. Edkins and 
Bishop Schereschewsky, and published in 1873. This also 
was reprinted by the photograph process in 1894. 

Mr. Stenberg, of the Scandinavian Mongolian Alliance 
Mission, and his colleague were encouraged to translate the 
four Gospels and the Acts of the Apostles, but this work 
was cut short in 1900, when Mr. Stenberg was killed by 
the Boxers. 



THE BIBLE IN CHINA 415 



The Tibetan Versions 



Classical 

Tibetan has two distinct forms : the classical, which is 
composed of the old religious language mixed with Sanscrit ; 
and the popular dialect, which differs all over Tibet. Many- 
forms of character are used, and each syllable is separated 
by a wedge-like sign. 

The Nestorian missionaries were the first to enter Tibet, 
and the Eoman Catholics followed in 1824. The pioneer 
Protestant missionaries, the Eev. W. Pagell, A. W. Heyde, 
of the Moravian Missionary Society, settled on the western 
border at Kyelang in 1856, and in the following year were 
joined by the Eev. H. A. Jaeschke. During the next three 
years, with the assistance of a Lama, a Gospel Harmony, 
St. Matthew's Gospel, and the Acts were published by Mr. 
Heyde. Mr. Jaeschke also translated and published the 
remaining books of the New Testament, with the exception 
of Hebrews and Eevelation. 

In 1881 the New Testament was completed and revised 
by Messrs. Heyde and F. A. Eedslob, aided by a baptized 
Lama named Nathaniel. The printing of this New 
Testament was completed by 1885. 

In 1894 the Scandinavian Alliance Missionaries at 
Ghoom prepared a corrected copy of the Gospels which was 
published, and a committee was formed in 1898 to revise 
the New Testament. This revised New Testament was 
published in 1903, it being interesting to note that Mr. 
A. W. Heyde, one of this revision committee, was one of 
the early translators. 

The translation of the Old Testament was meanwhile 
going forward by the Moravians. Before Mr. Eedslob 
passed away in 1891 he had translated the Pentateuch, 
the book of Joshua, and the Psalms. Subsequently a com- 

^ The sources of information are the British and Foreign Bible Society's 
editorial correspondence, and minutes and other books and documents in 
the possession of that Society. 



416 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

mittee was formed, superintended by the Eev. F. Peter, who, 
after having revised the Pentateuch, divided the remainder 
of the work, on which they are still engaged. The Penta- 
teuch is now being printed under Mr. Heyde's care, and 
the Psalms prepared by Eev. A. H. Erancke are in the press 
at Calcutta. 

Leh Dialect 

Leh is a dialect of Western Tibetan, and is understood 
by from thirty to forty thousand people. A commencement 
of translation work in this dialect was made by the Eev. 
A. H. Erancke of the Moravian Missionary Society, who 
published a tentative edition of the first five chapters of 
the Gospel according to St. Mark in 1904. 

Bunan 

This language belongs to the Tibeto-Himalayan branch 
of the Tibeto-Burman sub-family of the Indo-Chinese family 
of languages. Though only about one thousand people 
speak this language, it is understood by the Tinan and 
Tibarskat people, so that some five or six thousand persons 
can use the Scriptures in this tongue. 

The Eev. A. W. Heyde has translated a number of 
Scripture passages into this language, though they have not 
yet been published. 

Ladakhi 

The Eev. A. H. Erancke has completed his version of 
St. Mark in Western Tibetan or Ladakhi. It will be 
published by the Calcutta Auxiliary Bible Society. 

Manchu ^ 

Manchu belongs to the eastern branch of the Ural-Altaic 
family of languages, and is the natural speech of the 

^ The sources of information are the British and Foreign Bible Society's 
editorial correspondence, and minutes and other books and documents in 
the possession of that Society. 



THE BIBLE IN CHINA 417 

Manchu people. The number of those who use it is small, 
amounting only to a few thousands, Manchu being super- 
seded by Mandarin Chinese. 

Although the Kussian Bible Society discussed the 
question of a Manchu translation as early as 1816, that 
Society had so much work on hand that nothing was done 
at the time. In 1821, however. Dr. Pinkerton was 
authorised by the British and Foreign Bible Society to 
proceed with such a work, and after the Gospel according to 
John was ready and approved by experts, Stepan LipofzofP, 
who had spent fourteen years studying Manchu for the 
Eussian Government, took up the work. 

In 1822 his translation of the Gospel according to 
Matthew was published and sent for criticism to Europe, 
China, and the Anglo-Chinese College at Singapore. The 
translation of the New Testament was finished before the 
end of 1825, but the Russian Government refused permis- 
sion to print. 

In 1832 the Rev. W. Swan, of the London Missionary 
Society, who was then at St. Petersburg, was commissioned 
to make a copy of a manuscript in the possession of the 
Russian Holy Synod. This manuscript contained parts of 
the Old Testament from Genesis to Job, with Daniel and 
Jonah, also part of the Apocrypha, the Gospel according to 
Matthew, and the Acts. This version had been made by 
Father C. P. Louis de Poirot at the end of the eighteenth 
century, and had an interlinear Chinese translation. Early 
in 1833 George Borrow commenced to study Manchu, and 
in July of the same year was sent to St. Petersburg, where 
he and Swan completed the transcript of part of the Old 
Testament by December 1833. With a view to its being 
used in China, the Rev. E. Stallybrass made a second 
transcript of this, which he finished in 1850. 

In 1834, shortly after Borrow and Swan had finished 
their first transcript mentioned above, through the good 
offices of the Hon. J. G. Bligh, the British Minister 
at St. Petersburg, George Borrow obtained leave of the 
Russian Government to print the whole of the New Testa- 

2 E 



418 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

ment under the censorship of Mr. Lipofzoff. This work he 
pushed forward and in ten months the whole work was 
accomplished, the edition being forwarded to London. In 
1859 editions of the Gospels according to Matthew and 
Mark (Lipofzoff's version interlined with Chinese, the 
Delegates' Version) were published at Shanghai under the 
care of Mr. A. Wylie. 

There has not appeared to be any reason for publishing 
further portions of the Scriptures in Manchu. 



APPENDICES 

I. ABOEIGINAL VOCABULARIES 
11. THE JEWS IN CHINA 

III. INTRODUCTION OF CHRISTIANITY INTO 

CHINA 

IV. BIOGRAPHICAL OUTLINES 



419 



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Specimen of the New Script prepared by Mr. Pollard of the Bible Christians' 
Mission, in which he has translated the Gospel of Mark, a Hymn 
Book, and other literature into the language of the Hwa Miao^ 
Though not beautiful it is having a useful mission. 



420 



APPENDIX I 
KWEICHOW 

By the Rev. Samuel R. Clarke 

System of orthography used in writing down the following 
vocabularies : — 



a, like a in father. 
e, like e in led. 

eh, like u in inurder. 

0, like eh, or like the same letter in 

German. 
i, like ea in tea ; when followed by a 

final consonant, like i in sit. 

0, like in so ; when followed by a 

final consonant, like o in hot. 
u. like 00 in too ; when followed by a 
final consonant, like u in sung. 

1, hardly a vowel sound. Pronounce 

the English word its without the 

i and that is what tsi is like ; 

without the it, and that is what 

si is like. 
ai, like i in light. 
ao, like ou in loud, 
li, like ai in laid, 
eo, a blend of e and o. 
aeo, a blend of a and eo. 
ua, like wci in M;a/f. 
uei, like the English iway. 
uo, like i<?a in war. 

b, like 6 or jo in English unaspirated. 
d, like rf or ^ in English unaspirated. 
/, h, k, I, m, n, r, s, sh, v, y, w, these 

are pronounced like the same 
letters in English. 
Note. — ' is the sign of an aspirate ; 
thus/" is/ aspirated. 



c, like a very hard sharp k ; there is 
something like a click in it in 
Miao. 

ch, like ch in chin, aspirated. 

g, soft, like g in gin, unaspirated. 

g, hard, like g in gate. 

nd, nasal sound before d. 

nt, nasal sound before t, aspirated. 

mh, sound of m before 6. 

mp, sound of m before p, aspirated. 

ng, like ng in sing ; also used as an 
initial sound. 

ny, n before the y sound. 

}) like p in English, aspirated. 

t, like t in English, aspirated. 

hk, a strongly aspirated guttural. 

II, like the Welsh II. 

hi, hr, dr, gl, kl, pi, pr, these are 
pronounced the same as in 
English. 

2, a rough initial sound, not an 
aspirate ; not like the English 
z ; it is undescribable, and must 
be heard to be appreciated. 

The final consonants m, p, t, k are 
pronounced the same as in Eng- 
lish but much more lightly. 

Note the r in Chung chia has a 
suggestion of th in it ; in the 
other languages it is never 
trilled. 



Note. — The Chinese given is the Chinese of Kweiyang Fu, Kweichow 
province. 

The Keh lao are from Anshuen Fu. 
The Lo lo are from Anshuen Fu. 
Chung chia from Kweiyang Fu. 
Heh Miao from Panghai, Chinpen Hsien, 
Ya chio Miao from Tatang in Tinfan chow. 
Hua Miao from Anshuen Fu. 

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APPENDICES 



425 






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APPENDIX II 

THE JEWS IN CHINA 

See p. 159. 

The following extracts are gleaned from the pages of Mr. 
Marcus Adler's lecture in regard to the existence of a Jewish 
colony in China. " We owe to the Jesuits the first authenti- 
cated accounts we possess. It was in the time of Queen 
Elizabeth that the Church of Rome sent out to China a 
band of missionaries. Father Ricci was one of the first of these 
missionaries, and in the report of the Propaganda Fide, at Rome, 
we are told how he came to know about the existence of Chinese 
Jews. 

" One summer day, in the early part of the seventeenth 
century, Ricci received a visit from a scholar who had come to 
Pekin to pass his examination for a Government appointment. 
The candidate was anxious to make the acquaintance of one who, 
he surmised, must be a co-religionist, for it was said that he 
worshipped one God, the Lord of Heaven and Earth, and was 
not a Mohammedan. Father Ricci was struck with his visitor's 
features, so different from those of an ordinary Chinaman, and 
took him to his oratory, where he knelt before the picture of 
the Holy Family and St. John the Baptist, and another, that of 
the Evangelists. The visitor did so likewise, saying, "We in 
China do reverence to our ancestors. This is Rebecca with her 
sons Jacob and Esau, but as to the other picture, why make 
obeisance to only four sons of Jacob 1 Were there not twelve 1 " 
Then mutual explanations were given. The visitor was an 
Israelite, Ngai by name, who had come to Peking from Kaifeng 
Fu, the ancient capital of Honan. In this city, the visitor 
explained, his community had a synagogue, which they had 
recently repaired, and in which there was a roll of the Law 
which was over four hundred years old. " At Hangchow Fu," 

428 



APPENDICES 429 

he said, " there was a larger congregation of Jews, who also had 
a synagogue ; Jews dwelt in other provinces also." 

At the beginning of the eighteenth century we have further 
accounts from the Jesuits. Gozani, one of them, wrote a letter 
from Kaifeng Fu, dated November 5, 1704, giving full details 
of the Jewish customs and describing their synagogue. 

Later on Domengo sketched a plan of the Communal 
buildings, and Fathers Gaubil and Cibot obtained copies and 
translations of the inscriptions on the walls and on certain 
monumental stones. 

Quite recently Pere Tobar has published a most valuable 
work on these inscriptions.^ Facsimiles and translations into 
French of the inscriptions on the stone tablets or steles, severally 
dated 1489, 1512, and 1663, are given along with twenty -three 
horizontal and seventeen vertical inscriptions which were found 
in the synagogue. 

The following are abstracts of the dated inscriptions : — 

" Abraham was the nineteenth in descent from Adam. The 
Patriarchs handed down the tradition forbidding the making 
and worshipping of images and spirits, and the holding of 
superstitions. 

"Abraham pondered over problems of nature, and arrived at 
the belief in the one true God, and became the founder of the 
religion we believe in to this day. This happened in the 146th 
year of the Tcheou (Chau) dynasty. His belief was handed 
down from father to son till Moses, who, it is found, was alive 
in the 613th year of the Tcheou (Chau) dynasty. 

" He was endowed with wisdom and virtue. He spent above 
forty days on the summit of Mount Sinai, refraining from meat 
and drink (while) communing with God. The fifty-three portions 
of the Law had their origin with him. From him the Law and 
tradition was handed down unto Ezra, who was likewise a 
patriarch. Man in his daily pursuits must ever have God 
before him. We pray three times a day, morning, noon, and 
evening. 

"It is encumbent upon the Jew to venerate his ancestors. 
Twice in the year, in the spring and in the autumn, he offers 
them oxen and sheep together with the fruits of the season. 

" Each seventh day is devoted to rest, and a fresh period of 
good deeds thus commences anew. 

" Our religion came originally from Tien Tcheou (India 1 ) in 
the first year of Long Hing of the Song dynasty. 

^ Inscriptions Juives de Kaifeng Fu, par le P. Jerome Tobar, S. J., Varieties 
Sinologiques, No. 17, Shanghai, 1900. 



430 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

" 1163. Yentula erected the synagogue. 

"1279. The temple structures were rebuilt. 

"1461. The overflow of the Yellow River, in 1461, destroyed 
the temple, only leaving the foundations. Li Yong, having 
obtained permission from the provincial treasurer, rebuilt the 
temple and had it decorated. 

" Later, the cells at the rear of the synagogue were put up and 
three copies of the Holy Law were placed there. 

" This has been recorded ... on this stele in the second 
year of Hong-Tche, 1489." 

An inscription on a stone stele of 1512 gives details of the 
Jewish religion, its moral and other ordinances, and its canonical 
books. The following passage is of interest : " After the 
Creation, the doctrine was transmitted by Adam to Noah ; 
thence unto Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and afterwards through 
the twelve patriarchs to Moses, Aaron, and Joshua. Ezra 
promulgated the Law, and through him the letters of the Yew 
thae (Jewish) religion were made plain." 

Another inscription on a stone stele, dated 1663, gives a 
graphic account of the events following the fall of the Ming 
dynasty, 1642. " Kaif eng Fu (Peen-liang) stood six months' 
siege by the rebel chief Li Tsi Cheng, who eventually caused the 
fall of the city by diverting the Yellow River. The loss of life 
was great and the synagogue was destroyed. Two hundred or 
more Jewish families were saved and took refuge on the north 
side of the river. 

" In 1653 a Jewish mandarin rebuilt the temple. It was not 
possible to make more than one complete scroll of the Law out 
of the parchments recovered from the waters. The scroll, much 
venerated by the faithful, was placed in the middle of the ark. 
Twelve other scrolls were gradually collated, and the other holy 
writings and prayer books were repaired and revised with 
care." 

Summarising the historical references in these inscriptions, 
and in the accounts of the Jesuit Fathers and other reliable 
writers, we arrive at the following results : — 

"Jews had certainly settled in China some time during the 
Han dynasty (200 B.C. to A.D. 220). It is supposed that the 
settlement took place soon after A.D. 34, at which time terrible 
persecutions of the Jews took place in Babylon. No less 
than 50,000 were then massacred. Others hold that the settle- 
ment took place thirty -five years later, after the fall of 
Jerusalem. It is quite possible that the Jewish colony in 



APPENDICES 431 

China may be of even older date — Is. 49. 12, 'And these 
from the land of Sinim.' " 

Marco Polo speaks of the Jews as sufficiently numerous in 
China to exercise political influence, A.d. 1286. Kaifeng Fu 
(fourteenth century), called by the Tartars Pien-liang, was a city 
six leagues in circumference. Many Jews came thither by way 
of Persia and Khorassan. They won the Emperor's favour by 
presents of cotton or cloth. In course of time the city suffered 
from inundations of the Yellow River, and frequent conflagra- 
tions sadly reduced its importance. The Jewish quarter, 500 
feet from the river embankment, was specially prone to damage 
by flood. 

In 1642 the city was besieged; the embankments were 
demolished, 100,000 people perished, and many Hebrew 
manuscripts were destroyed. The synagogue was successively 
rebuilt in 1279 and in 1489, and at the commencement of the 
seventeenth century and in 1653. 

The site covered a space 300 to 400 feet by 150 feet. 
There were four courts proceeding from east to west. The 
synagogue proper faced west, the direction in which Jerusalem 
lay. The synagogue proper was a building 60 feet by 
40 feet. In the centre of the building was the so-called 
chair of Moses. From the dome above were suspended the 
words in Hebrew: "Hear, Israel, the Lord our God! The 
Lord is one ! " 

The Sabbath was observed with great strictness ; the food 
was prepared on the day preceding. Their customs were similar 
to those of the Rabbinitic Jews of the present, with the one 
exception that they regarded the New Moon as a festival. 

In 1723 the Chinese Government put a stop to the efforts 
of the missionaries on behalf of the Jews. It was only gradually 
that the existence of a Jewish colony in China came to the know- 
ledge of the Jews in Europe. In 1842 Mr. James Finn, who 
subsequently became British Consul at Jerusalem, began to 
interest himself in Chinese Jews. A letter composed both in 
Chinese and Hebrew was sent to the Jewish community. Mr. 
Finn received a pathetic reply in 1870. The colony seems to 
have been rapidly declining, their teachers had all died, and 
there was no one left who could read Hebrew. 

" Daily with tears in our eyes we call on the Holy name ; if 
we could but again procure ministers, and put our house of 
prayer in order, our religion would have a firm support." 

Out of 70 clans only 7 remained, numbering about 200 



432 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

persons. A solitary stone bears silent witness to the past, 
synagogue and temple are gone. The ordinances of their 
religion are unobserved, and the few families left are fast being 
lost amid the Gentile population around, one man even holding 
the oflSce of a Buddhist priest. 

On March 13, 1900, a letter was despatched from the 
Jewish community in Shanghai offering to rebuild the synagogue, 
and it is possible that the " Orphan Colony " may even yet at 
the eleventh hour be saved from extinction and assimilation. 



APPENDIX III 

THE INTRODUCTION OF CHRISTIANITY INTO CHINA 

In connection with the province of Shensi, in addition to the 
Nestorian tablet, there is another testimony as to the early 
introduction of Christianity into China which is perhaps not 
widely known. In an ancient Arabic manuscript written in the 
year of the Heira 569, or 1173 A.D., and translated by Eusebius 
Renaudot ^ are given some most interesting accounts of some 
early Arab travellers to China, dated a.d. 851 and 870 respec- 
tively. The second account, or " The discourse of Abu Zeid al 
Hasan of Siraf," tells of another still earlier Arab traveller who 
calls himself a cousin - of Mohammed. The testimony of this 
man is of such interest that we quote a considerable portion. 

"There was formerly a man of the tribe of Koreish whose 
name was Ebn Wahab, descended of Hebar, the son of Al Asud, 
and he dwelt at Basra. This man left Basra when that city was 
sacked and came to Siraf, where he saw a ship ready to make 
sail for China. The mind took him to go on board this ship, 
and in her he went to China, where in the sequel he had the 
curiosity to travel to the Emperor's Court ; and leaving Canfu^ 
he reached Cumdan ^ after a journey of two months. He staid 
(sic) a long time at the Emperor's Coui-t. . . . This man, when 
we saw liim, was well advanced in years, but had his senses 
perfectly about him, and told us that when he had his audience 
the Emperor asked him many questions about the Arabs, and 
particularly how they had destroyed the kingdom of the 

1 Wells Williams quotes a translation into French dated a.d. 1845. The 
title-page of our copy is dated London, 1733, and from a note in the preface was 
probably translated about a.d. 1673. 

" This is probably used in a loose sense, for he speaks of Mohammed as being 
long dead. Mohammed died A.D. 632. 

^ Cautu is the same as Kanfu in the Hangchow Bay, and Cumdan is probably 
Siau Fu, for the Svriac inscription on the Nestorian tablet speaks of "Cumdan 
the royal city." — Ed. 

433 2 F 



434 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

Persians. 'Then,' said Ebn Wahab, 'he ordered the Interpreter 
to ask me if I knew my Master and my Lord, meaning the 
Prophet, and if I had seen him 1 I made answer. How should I 
have seen him who is with God 1 He replied, That is not what 
I mean, I ask you what sort of a man He was in His person ? I 
replied that He was very handsome. Then he called for a box, 
and opening it he took out another contained therein which he 
set before him, and said to the Interpreter, Shew him his Master 
and his Lord ; and I saw in the boxes the images of the 
Prophets, whereat I moved my lips, praying to myself in honour 
of their memory. The Emperor did not imagine I should know 
them again, and said to the Interpreter, Ask him why he moves 
his lips 1 I answered, I was praying in memory of the prophets. 
How do you know them, said the Emperor. I replied that 
I knew them by the representation of their histories : There, 
said I, is Noah in the ark, who was saved with those that were 
with him when God sent doAvn the waters of the flood ; and he 
afterwards peopled the whole earth with those that were with 
him at the same time ; and I made the usual salutation to Noah 
and his company. Then the Emperor laughed and said, Thou 
art not mistaken in the name of Noah, and thou hast named him 
right ; but as for the universal deluge it is what we know not. 
It is true indeed that a flood covered a part of the earth ; but it 
reached not to our country, nor even the Indies. I made my 
answer to this and endeavoured to remove his objections the 
best I could and then said again to him. There is Moses with 
his rod and the children of Israel. He agreed with me as to the 
small extent of their country and the manner how the ancient 
inhabitants there were destroyed by Moses. ... I then said to 
him, He there, is Jesus upon an ass, and here are His Apostles 
with Him. He said the Emperor was not long upon earth, 
seeing that all he did was transacted within the space of some- 
what better than thirty months. . . . Then, said the same 
Ebn Wahab, I saw the image of Mohammed riding upon a 
camel, and his companions about him on their camels with shoes 
of the Arabesque mode on their feet, and leather girdles about 
their loins. At this I wept, and the Emperor commanded the 
Interpreter to ask me why I wept, I answered. There is our 
prophet and our lord, who is also my cousin.' " 

It is interesting to compare Ebn Wahab's description of Sian 
Fu with the modern city. (See p. 201.) 

Abu Zeid proceeds : " We asked Ebn Wahab many questions 
concerning the city of Cumdan (Sian), where the Emperor keeps 
his court. He told us that the city was very large, and ex- 



APPENDICES 435 

tremely populous ; that it was divided into two great parts by a 
very long and very broad street ; that the Emperor, his chief 
minister, the soldiery, the supreme judge, the eunuchs, and all 
belonging to the Imperial household lived in that part of the 
city which is on the right hand eastward ; that the people hold 
no manner of communication with them. The part on the left 
hand westward is inhabited by the people and the merchants." 
This account, though a thousand years old, agrees in the main 
with the present divisions of the city to-day. 



APPENDIX IV 

BIOGRAPHICAL OUTLINES TO ACCOMPANY PORTRAITS 

See also Biographical Index 
Group I. — Portraits facing Page 12. 

1. John Shaw Burdon. Arrived in China under C.M.S, in 1853. 

The first C.M.S. man to enter Hangchow, Shaohing, and Peking. 
Great itinerant, having at times Hudson Taylor, Dr. Nevius, and 
Griffith John as companions. Translator of Mandarin New 
Testament, Prayer Book. Consecrated Bishop of Victoria, 
Hongkong 1874 ; resigned 1897, and resumed station work. 
Died 1907. 

2. Walter Henry Medhurst, D.D. Reached Malacca under 

L.M.S. 1817. Originally sent out as a printer ; ordained 1819. 
Opened L.M.S. Shanghai Mission in 1843. Died 1857. His 
great work was revision of the Chinese Bible, translation of 
Delegates' Version, and dictionary. Made an early tour of 
Chinese coast, reaching Shantung 1835. 

3. William Lockhart, F.R.C.S. Appointed by L.M.S. to Canton 

1839. Settled at Macao 1839. Moved temporarily to Shanghai 
1840 ; settled there in 1842. Opened medical work in Peking 
in 1861. Having only gone to China for temporary service, he 
retired from China in 1864, and from L.M.S. in 1867. Died 
1896, aged eighty -five. 

4. Peter Parker, M.D. Born in U.S.A. 1804. Graduate of Yale. 

Went under American Board to Canton as Medical Missionary 
1834. The first Medical Missionary to China — not Dr. Lockhart, 
as frequently stated. In 1844 joined American Legation, but 
laboured at hospital till 1855. Helped to negotiate American 
China Treaty. Died 1888. 

5. George Smith, M.A. Association Secretary of C.M.S. 1841. Sailed 

as Missionary to China 1844 ; compelled to return home 1846. 
Consecrated Bishop of Victoria 1849-1864. 
436 



APPENDICES 437 

6. Ferdinand Gicnahr. The pioneer of the Rhenish Mission in 

China 1847 ; placed at first under direction of Gutzlaft. Married 
Mr. Lechler's sister. Died with his two sons of cholera in 1864, 
contracted from a destitute Chinese woman they had befriended. 
The author of several Christian works. 

7. James Legge, M.A., D.D., LL.D. Born 1815. Arrived Malacca 

under L.M.S. January 1840. Settled at Hongkong 1843 as head 
of Anglo-Chinese Theological Seminary. Retired from L.M.S. 
1873, and 1876 appointed as Professor of Chinese at Oxford. 
Died 1897, aged eighty-two. A man of prodigious industry, 
famous for his translation of the Chinese Classics, etc. 

8. William Jones Boone, M.D., D.D. Pioneer of American 

Episcopal Church Mission to China. Reached Batavia in 1837 ; 
removed to Macao 1840. With Abeel was the first to open work 
at Amoy. Consecrated first Missionary Bishop to China 1844. 
Elected to committee for translating Delegates' Version, but 
withdrew on Term question, etc. Died at Shanghai 1864. He 
had a son, William Jones Boone, jun., born in Shanghai 1846, 
was 1870-1884 the fourth American Bishop to China. He 
died at Hankow 1891. 

9. Samuel Wells-Williams, LL.D. Born U.S.A. 1812. Reached 

Canton 1833 to superintend American Board Press. Became 
Editor Chinese Repository, commenced by Dr. E. C. Bridgman. 
Escorted shipwrecked sailors to Japan 1837. For twenty-three 
years with American Board ; for twenty years Secretary and 
Interpreter U.S.A. Legation in China ; for eight years Pro- 
fessor Chinese at Yale University. Compiled Chinese English 
Dictionary, 12,527 characters, the Middle Kingdom, etc. Died 
1884. 



Group IL — Portraits facing Page 16. 

1. Matthew T. Yates, D.D. Born 1819. Founder of American 

Southern Baptist Mission in China 1847. Died 1888. Part of 
the time he supported himself and others by his labours as 
American Vice-Consul, and in this way the crisis of the Home 
Church, owing to the Civil War, was tided over. Translated 
New Testament into Shanghai dialect. 

2. Alexander Williamson, LL.D. Born 1829. Sailed for China 

under L.M.S. 1855, but his health failing, he returned home in 
1857, reaching England 1858. Returned to China as Agent of 
National Bible Society of Scotland, and established himself in 
Chefoo 1863, and travelled extensively in North China, 
Manchuria, and Mongolia. Founded the Christian Literature 
Society in 1887, and died in 1890. 



438 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

3. Charles Ph. Piton. Born 1835. Arrived in China under the 

Basel Mission 1864, having previously been on the Gold Coast, 
West Africa, 1862-63. In 1884, after twenty years in China, 
he returned home owing to his wife's health, and until 1905 
engaged in Deputation work. Known for his translation work 
into the Hakka dialect in character, and for publishing a paper 
in the same. 

4. Hendrick Z. Kloekers. Arrived in China under Netherlands 

Chinese Evangelisation Society in 1855, returning to Europe in 
1858. Became the pioneer Missionary of English Baptist 
Missionary Society, reaching Shanghai in 1860, and settling at 
Chefoo in 1862, where he resided till 1865, when he returned 
to England. Messrs. Hall and Laughton were at times his 
colleagues in the B.M.S. 

5. Ernst Faber, Dr.Th. Born in Germany 1839. Sailed for China 

1864 under Rhenish Mission, from which Society he resigned 
in 1881, joining the AUgemeiner Evangelical Protestant 
Mission in 1885, and died of dysentery at Tsingtao in 1899. 
A man of profound scholarship and indefatigable industry, 
leaving many invaluable literary works, commentaries, etc. 

6. Rudolf Lechler. With Theodore Hamberg, who died in 

Hongkong 1854, the pioneer and founder of the Basel Mission 
to China. Born 1824, Arrived in China with Hamberg in 
1847. They went out in response to Gutzlaff's advocacy, but 
found his plans impracticable. Worked at Swatow among the 
Hakkas, and at Hongkong. Returned home 1899, after fifty- 
two years of work. Still living 1907. 

7. Edward Pagell. In 1853 sailed under Moravian Mission to 

open Mongolian Mission ; prevented from so doing and settled 
at Kyelang, Lahoul, in 1856, and founded Moravian Tibetan 
Mission. Died at Poo 1883. 

8. Martin ScHAUB. Born 1850. Arrived in Hongkong 1874, under 

the Basel Mission. Died in Hongkong 1900. Noted as the 
Principal of the Seminary at Lilong, as a philologist, a trans- 
lator, and author. 

9. Augustus William Hetde. Sailed in 1853 to found Moravian 

Mission in Mongolia, but being prevented, settled at Kyelang in 
Lahoul, there founding Moravian Tibetan Mission 1856. Spent 
nearly fifty years on Tibetan border without a furlough. After 
recently completing revision of Tibetan New Testament, returned 
with his wife to Europe. 



APPENDICES 439 



Group III. — Portraits facing Page 21, 

1. JosiAH Cox. Sailed for China under English Wesleyan Mission in 

1852 ; joined G. Piercy at Canton ; during Opium War laboured 
in Straits Settlements ; upon peace being declared founded at 
Hankow, 1862, Wesleyan Central China Mission. (G. John 
reached Hankow 1861.) Failure of health compelled return to 
England 1875. During first furlough secured David Hill's 
appointment to Hankow. Died 1906. 

2. William Muirhead, D.D. Arrived in China under L.M.S. in 

1847. Spared to enjoy the unique honour of labouring for fifty- 
three years at the one centre of Shanghai, where he died in 1900. 
Eminent as a translator ; pre-eminent as a great preacher to the 
Chinese. 

3. Alexander Wtlie. Born in London 1815. Sailed for China 

1847. Died 1887. Appointed by L.M.S. indirectly for 
B. and F. Bible Society, for printing Delegates' Version of 
Bible ; appointed B. and F. Bible Society's Agent 1863. 
Originally a cabinetmaker by trade, he learned printing under 
Mr., afterwards Sir Charles, Reed, and became one of China's 
greatest Sinologues, obtaining an extraordinary knowledge of 
Chinese literature, ^ etc. 

4. William Chalmers Burns. Born 1815. Leader in revivals in 

Scotland, Ireland, and Canada. Founder of English Presby- 
terian China Missions 1847. Laboured at Hongkong, Canton, 
Amoy, Shanghai, Swatow, Peking, and Newchwang, where he 
died in 1868. Translated Amoy Hymn-Book and Pilgrim's 
Progress into inimitable Chinese, Mandarin, and Amoy. His 
dying charge led Irish and Scotch Churches to found their 
Manchurian Missions. 

5. James GiLMOUR, M.A. Born near Glasgow 1843. Reached China, 

L.M.S., 1870, and immediately entered upon his work in 
Mongolia. For fifteen years itinerated, finally settled at 
Chaoyang. Died in Mongolia 1891. 

6. David Hill. Born 1840. Sailed, under English Wesleyan 

Mission, for China with William Scarborough in 1864 to join 
Josiah Cox at Hankow. Laboured chiefly with Hankow as 
centre. Led Pastor Hsi to Christ during Shansi famine 1877-78, 
and died of typhus contracted when administering famine 
relief in 1896. 

^ Some facts here mentioned differ from published accounts, but they have 
been obtained from Mr. Wylie's daughter. 



440 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

7. George Piercy. Born 1829. Landed in Hongkong January 

1851, the pioneer and founder of Wesley an Missions in China. 
Left China after thirty-two years' service, and commenced Mission 
to Chinese in London. Mr. Piercy is still living (1907) and 
continues this Mission (Address : Cathay, Cambridge Road, 
Leytonstone, London, N.E.). For his translation work see 
under Cantonese Version section. 

8. Roderick Macdonald, M.D., CM. Arrived in China under 

English Wesleyan Mission in 1884, and was successively stationed 
at Fatshan and Shiukwan in Kwangtung. In 1897 opened up 
medical work in Wuchow, Kwangsi, Here for nine years he 
laboured incessantly, laying foundations for a large mission 
station, including hospital, schools, industrial, and leper work. 
In 1906 was shot by pirates when attending wounded captain 
on s.s. Sainam. 

9. Joseph Edkins, D.D. Born in Gloucestershire 1823. Reached 

Shanghai 1848 under L.M.S. Died 1905 at Shanghai, having 
spent fifty-seven years in China. He laboured for nearly thirty 
years in Peking, and became attached to Chinese Imperial 
Customs. Eminent as a translator and philologist, having an 
extensive knowledge of nearly twenty languages. 



Group IV. — Portraits pacing Page 23. 

1. John Macinttre. Ordained 1865. Joined United Presbyterian 

Church of Scotland Mission at Chefoo in 1871, as colleague to 
Dr. A. Williamson. Opened Weihien. Crossed to Manchuria 1874, 
to join Dr. John Ross, whose sister he subsequently married. 
He laboured at Haicheng, becoming intimately acquainted with 
the district. Died at Peitaiho in 1905 of heart trouble. 

2. Joseph M. Hunter, M.D. In response to William Burns's dying 

appeal, Irish Presbyterian Mission in Manchuria was commenced, 
Dr. J. M. Hunter and Rev. Hugh Waddell being the pioneers. 
They reached Manchuria in 1869. Dr. Hunter died in the 
Red Sea 1884, when returning home for his first furlough. 

3. Carstairs Douglas, LL.D. Born 1830. In 1855 accompanied 

Wm. C. Burns on his return to China, Took charge of English 
Presbyterian Mission at Amoy. Advocated opening of Formosa, 
and accompanied Dr. Maxwell for four months on that mission. 
Prepared Dictionary of Amoy dialect, and elected Chairman of 
1877 Shanghai Missionary Conference. Died July of same 
year, deeply lamented. 

4. Wm. Nelthorpe Hall. The founder, with Mr. J. Innocent, of 

the Methodist New Connexion Mission in China, Reached 



APPENDICES 441 

Shanghai 1860 ; settled Tientsin 1861. Died 1878. See 
Biography entitled " Consecrated Enthusiasm." 

6. John Innocent. The founder, with Mr. W. N. Hall, of 
Methodist New Connexion Mission in China. Eeached 
Shanghai 1860 ; settled Tientsin 1861 ; visited Mongolia 1864. 
Died 1904 in England, aged seventy-five. Essentially an 
Evangelist. 

6. John Livingstone Nevius, D.D. Born 1829. Sailed for China 

under American Presbyterian, North, in 1853. After spending 
some years at Ningpo, settled with his wife at Hangchow in 
1859; removed to Shantung in 1871, where he became a 
well-known evangelist and pastor. Elected Moderator of 1890 
Shanghai Missionary Conference, and died 1893. 

7. John Eoss, D.D. The pioneer and founder of United Presbyterian 

(United Free) Church of Scotland Missions in Manchuria. 
Entered Manchuria 1872 ; subsequently, with Rev. J. Macintyre 
and devoted helper Wang, opened Moukden. Still living 1907. 

8. Henry Blodget, D.D. Born 1825. Tutor at Yale, 1850-53. Sailed 

for China 1854, in connection with the American Board. Resided 
at Shanghai six years, then at Tientsin for four years, being the 
first Missionary to reside there, and permanently settled at 
Peking in 1864 for thirty years. Retired in 1894, and died 
1903, aged seventy-eight. One of Mandarin New Testament 
Translation Committee ; translated 194 hymns and other work. 
A man of strong logical mind. 

9. Hugh Waddell. With Dr. Hunter (whom see) one of the 

pioneers of Irish Presbyterian Mission in Manchuria 1869. 
After two years, through failure of health compelled to leave 
Manchuria, but became a well-known Missionary in Japan. 



Group V. — Portraits pacing Page 25. 

Griffith John, D.D. Born 1831. Reached China 1855, L.M.S. 
Resided at Shanghai ; settled at Hankow 1861, as pioneer 
missionary to Hupeh. Pre-eminent as tract-writer, translator, 
and preacher. Still living 1907. 

Rose WELL Hobart Graves, D.D. Arrived in China in 1856, 
and has been the central figure of American Southern Baptist 
Mission in Canton ever since. Has recently celebrated his 
jubilee of mission work in China. Still living 1907. 

William Armstrong Russell, B.A. Sailed for China 1847, 
one of the Founders of C.M.S. Ningpo Mission. First Bishop 
for North China, 1872-79. Died 1879. 



442 THE CHINESE EMPIRE 

4. George Evans MouLE, D.D. Born 1828. Arrived in China under 

C.M.S. in 1857. Settled with wife and family in Hangchow 
1865. Consecrated Bishop of Mid-China in 1880, which office 
he still holds though nearly eighty years of age, and after fifty 
years' work in China. 

5. Samuel Isaac Joseph Schereschewsky, D.D. Born 1831 in 

Russia of Jewish parents ; trained as a Rabbi. Converted ; 
entered Theological College, New York. Reached China in 
connection with American Episcopalian Church Mission 1859. 
Appointed Bishop 1877. Paralysed through sunstroke 1881 ; 
continued translation work for twenty-five years. Died in Tokio 
1906. Probably the greatest Bible translator China has had. 

6. W. A. P. Martin, D.D., LL.D. Arrived in China in 1850. 

Spent six years in Ningpo. Founded American Presbyterian 
Mission at Peking in 1862. Elected, through Sir Robert 
Hart's nomination, as President of the Tungwen Imperial 
College 1869. Pre-eminently an educationalist. The Nestor 
of Missions, still living 1907, after fifty-seven years in China. 

7. James L. Maxwell, M.A., M.D. Born 1836. Arrived in China 

under English Presbyterian Mission in 1863. Pioneer to 
Formosa in 1865. Expelled from Taiwan, settled at Takao till 
near close of 1868 ; returned to Taiwan till close of 1871. 
Returned home ; put Romanised Colloquial New Testament 
through the press ; for eight years invalided on his back. 
Returned to Formosa 1883 ; invalided home 1885. Since then 
Secretary London Medical Missionary Association. Still living 
1907. 

8. John G. Kerr, M.D. Arrived in China under American 

Presbyterian, North, in 1854. Pre-eminent as Medical 
Missionary ; trained 200 Chinese medical students ; wrote and 
translated many medical works. During his control hospital 
had 740,324 out-patients, 39,441 in-patients, 480,098 surgical 
operations. John Kerr Asylum for Insane one of his memorials. 
Died at Canton 1901. 

9. Joseph Charles Hoare, D.D. Born 1851. Sailed for China 

under C.M.S. 1875. Established Christian College, Ningpo, of 
which he was Principal for more than twenty years. Conse- 
crated Bishop of Victoria, Hongkong, 1898. Drowned in 
Hongkong typhoon 1906. Photo hy La7iJcester, Tunbridge Wells. 



APPENDICES 443 



Group VI. — Portraits facing Page 27. 

1. HuR LiBKRTAS MACKENZIE, D.D. Arrived in Swatow under 

English Presbyterian Mission in 1860 ; laboured there with 
distinguished success until his death in 1899. He was called 
to the Chair of the Synod in 1897. A man of a singularly 
gracious and winsome spirit. 

2. James Cameron, M.D. Sailed for China in 1875 as one of 

eighteen C.I.M. pioneers for unoccupied provinces. The 
Livingstone of China, travelled, almost always on foot, through 
seventeen of the eighteen provinces, and in Manchuria, Mon- 
golia, Sinkiang, Eastern Tibet, Burma, and Hainan. Died of 
cholera at Chungking 1892. 

3. Harold Schofield, B.A., B.Sc, Lond. ; M.A., M.D., Ox on. ; 

F.R.C.S. Lond. Born 1851. A brilliant medical man ; arrived 
in China under C.I.M. in 1880 ; founded first Medical Mission 
in Shansi at Taiyuan. Died 1883 from diphtheria contracted 
from a patient. 

4. Richard Frederick Laughton. Born 1838. Sailed for China 

under English Baptist Mission 1862; was stationed at 
Yentai, now called Chefoo, the first and at that time only 
B.M.S. station in China. After labouring there as a pioneer 
for seven years, he died in 1870, and was buried at Chefoo. 

5. John Whiteford Stevenson. Sailed for China 1865, before 

C.I.M. Lammermuir party. Engaged in pioneer work in 
Chekiang in early years. With Dr. Henry Soltan opened Bhamo 
in Burma in 1875. He was, with Dr. Soltan, the first Euro- 
pean to cross from Burma through China from west to east 
1879-1880, and has for many years been C.I.M. Deputy- 
Director in China. 

6. William M'Gregor, D.D. Has laboured in Amoy since 1864 

under English Presbyterian Mission. His ripe scholarship and 
great abilities have left his mark on the preachers and pastors 
of Amoy region. The Principal of the Joint Theological 
College of English Presbyterian and American Reformed 
Missions. Called to the Chair of the Synod in 1905. 

7. John M'Carthy. Arrived in China 1867, and laboured at first 

in Chekiang, Kiangsi, and Anhwei. Was the first non-ofi&cial 
traveller to cross China 1877, passing through the province 
where Margary was murdered 1875. Now C.I.M. Super- 
intendent of Yunnan. 

8. James Meadows. Sailed for China in 1862 as first member of 

C.I.M., definitely founded in 1865. Since 1874 he has 
remained in charge of the Shaohing station, Chekiang, and has 



444 THE CHINESE EMPIRE 

for many years been C.I.M. Superintendent of that province. 
Still living 1907. 

9. Adam Dorwood. Arriveil in China under C.I.M. 1878 ; laboured 
for two years in Anhwei, then from 1880 to 1888, when he died, 
devoted himself to pioneer work in Hunan, visiting most of 
its cities and residing for eight months in one of them, and that 
in Hunan's most anti-foreign period. 



INDICES 

I. CHRONOLOGICAL 

IL GENERAL 

III MISSIONARY SOCIETIES 
IV. BIOGRAPHICAL OR PERSONAL 

V. TOPOGRAPHICAL 



445 



INDEX I 



CHEONOLOGICAL 



DATE B.C. 

2953 . , 
2357-2255 
2357-2208 
2205 . , 
2180 . , 
1766 . . 
1122-255 . 
1122 . . 
781 . , 
551-479 . 
500 . . 
372-289 . 
340 . . 
216 . . 
206 . . 
206 B.C. 
130 . 
112 . 

DATE A.D. 

25 
34 

221-263 
230-240 
280 . 
300 . 



Fu Hsi the first of the ' Five Rulers ' . 

The reign of Yao, at Pingyang . 

City of Shaohing founded . 

Founding of city of Ningpo 

Hsia dynasty ; capital at Taikang Honan 

Shaug dynasty ; capital at Kweiteh Honan 

First mention of Yunnan as Shan-tsan during Chou dynasty 

Chou dynasty. Hunan part of state of Ch'u 

Chou dynasty ; capital Honan Fu . . . . 

The era of Confucius ...... 

City of Soochow founded ...... 

The era of Mencius ....... 

Suicide of Ch'u Yuan ; origin of Dragon Festival 
Kwaugsi annexed and designated Kweilin by Shih Hwangti 
Emperors of tirst Han dynasty reigned at Sian . 
to 230 A.D. Szechwan divided into five principalities 

Name Changsha applied to large part of Hunan province 
South Manchuria becomes vassal to China . 



140 



the Seres 



Eastern Han dynasty ; capital Honan Fu . 

Jews settled in China ..... 

Szechwan ruled by Minor Han djmasty 

Campaigns of Manj-cu-ko in Yunnan 

Tsin dynasty ; capital Honan .... 

Arnobius writes of Christian deeds done among 
(Chinese) ....... 

317-582 . Nanking, the official capital of China, first period 
505 . . Entry of Nestorians into China .... 

551 . . Eggs of silk-worm brought from China to Constantinople 
592 . . City of Wuchow, Kwangsi, founded .... 

606 . . Founding of city of Hangchow ..... 

618-905 . Sian; capital of T'ang dynasty . .... 

627-650 . Nestoriau translation of Scriptures made 

635 . . Nestorians settle at Sian . . . . . .5 

668 . . Coreans at Liaoyang overthrown by T'ang dynasty 
700 . . Hunan teas sent to Court as tribute .... 

713 . . Site of Ningpo changed ...... 

781 . . Erection of Nestorian tablet ..... 

845 . . Destruction of 4600 Buddhist monasteries by Emperor Wu 
Tsung ....... 

851 and 878 Arab travellers report existence of knowledge of truth in 
China ....... 



PAGE 

159 

210 

75 

75 

158 

158 

238 

164 

158 

98 

81 

98 

164-65 

274 

201 

226 

165 

301 

158 
430 
226 
239 
158 



5 

81 

5, 352, 377 

5 

279 

75 

201 

377 

201, 377 

302 

172 

75 

5, 202 



6, 202 



447 



448 



THE CHINESE EMPIRE 



DATE A.D. 

904 , 

926 . 

960 . 

1015 . 

1114 . 

1122 . 

1163 . 

1180 . 

1227 . 

1246 . 

1252 . 

1260 . 

1279 . 

1280 . 
1288 . 
1307 . 
1368-1403 
1368 . 
1368-1643 
1370 . 
1489 . 

1512 . 

1543 . 

1552 . 

1560 . 
1579-1722 

1579 . 

1582 . 

1601 . 

1610 . 

1617 . 

1621 . 
1624-1662 

1625 . 

1631 . 

1636 . 

1642 . 

1644 . 

1653 . 

1663 . 

1671 . 

1683 . 

1685 . 

1690 . 

1696 . 

1717 . 

1720 . 
1722-1809 

1722 . 

1723 . 

1723 . 

1724 . 



PAGE 

T'ang dynasty ; capital Houau Fu . . . . , 158 

Power of Bohai destroyed by Kitan ..... 302 

Sung dynasty ; Kaifeng Fu the capital . . . 126, 158 
Taoist Pope endowed with freehold lands at Longhu in 

Kwangsi prefecture ....... 133 

Rise of Kill dynasty (Nlichen) ...... 302 

Civilisation introduced into Manchuria by brother of Wu 

Wang 301 

Jewish synagogue erected in Kaifeng Fu . . . 430 
Chu-hsi appointed Governor of Nankang . . . .133 

Death of Jenghis Khan ....... 348 

Carpini starts for Far East . . . . . .6, 377 

Kublai Khan subdues Yunnan ...... 238 

Completion of Grand Canal, by Kublai Khan . . . 81 

Jewish temple in Kaifeng Fu rebuilt ..... 430 

Marco Polo governor of Yaugchow ..... 82 

Corviuo despatched to China by Pope Nicholas IV. . . 6, 352 

Corvino appointed Archbishop of China .... 7 

Nanking, the official capital of China, second period . . 81 

Establishment of Ming dynasty ...... 126 

During Ming dynasty Szechwan depopulated . . . 226 

Fall of Yuan Mongol dynasty 349 

Date on Jewish tablet in Kaifeng Fu . . . . . 429 

Jevnsh temple rebuilt in Kaifeng Fu . . . . . 431 

Date on Jewish tablet in Kaifeng Fu . . . . . 429 

Temporary revival of Mongol power under Dayan Khan . 349 

Death of Francois Xavier ....... 46 

Portuguese capture Macao ...... 9 

Period of growth of lloman Catholic efi'ort .... 8 

Jesuit Michel Eogger sent to Macao ..... 46 

Ricci obtains a foothold at Shaoking 

Ricci reaches Peking ....... 9 

Death of Ricci ......... 9 

Nurhachu, founder of Manchu dynasty, declared war on 

China 303 

Nurhachu captures Moukden and Liaoyang . . . 303 

Formosa, a Dutch possession ...... 64 



Discovery of Nestorian tablet at Sian Fu . . . 5, 202, 377 

Dominicans and Franciscans arrive in China 
Early Roman Catholic translation of Gospels into Chinese . 378 
Kaifeng Fu besieged, Jewish synagogue destroyed . . 430 

Manchus capture Peking ....... 303 

Jewish mandarin rebuilds temple in Kaifeng Fu . . 430 

Date on Jewish tablet in Kaifeng Fu . . . . . 429 

Heilungkiang organised under new dynasty . . . 304 

Formosa became a part of China ..... 64 

Colony of Christian Tartars carried captive . . .105 

Roman Catholics in Hunan and Hupeh . . . .179 

Roman Catholic translations of Scriptures seen in Peking . 378 
Lhasa sacked by Zungars ....... 341 

From this time Tibet pays taxes to China .... 320 

Period of decline of Roman Catholic effort . 

Death of Emperor Kang-hsi ...... 10 

Suspension of Roman Catholic Missions in Kiangsi, by 

Emperor Yung Cheng ....... 133 

Missionaries' efforts to help Jews stopped bylChinese Govern- 
ment . .431 

Edict closing provincial churches and limiting residence of 

missionaries to Pekin and Canton . . . . . 10 



INDICES 



449 



DATE A.D. 

1725 . 



1732 . . 

1735-1814 

1744 . . 

1757 
1773 
1792 
1793 
1805 
1807 

1807-1842 
1809 
1811 
1813 

1814 
1816 

1817 

1818 
1820 

1822 



1823 . 

1824 . 

1825 . 

1830 . 
1831-35 

1831 . 

1832 . 

1834 . 

1835 . 



1840 



1841 . . 

1842-1860 

1842 . . 



1843 



Discovery of a S>Tian mauuscript containing portion of Old 
Testament and a collection of hynaus, in jDossession of 

Chinese ......... 6 

Father Ripa's Chinese College at Naples founded . . 378 
Lighthoiase erected on islet in Tungting lake . . .167 
Earliest known Mandarin version of Scriptures by Roman 

Catholics ......... 385 

Greneral persecution of Chinese Christians, under Emperor 

Kien-lung 10 

Zungars annihilated ........ 341 

Suppression of the Jesuits by Clement XIV. ... 10 

Lord Macartney's embassy to China ..... 378 

Lord Macartney's embassy received by Emperor Kien-lung . 103 

Marshman's translation of Scriptures into Chinese commenced 379 

Morrison reaches Canton . . . . . . 11, 379 

Gospel of Matthew iu Chinese sent to Lambeth Library . 379 

Protestant Missions ; j)eriod of preparation . . . 11 

Overthrow of Papacy by Napoleon Bonaparte . . . 11 

Manning's visit to Lhasa ....... 327 

Originator of Taipiug rebellion, Hong Siu-ts'iien, born . 18 

Arrival of Dr. Milne in China ...... 12 

Morrison's Chinese New Testament printed .... 380 

Marshman's Chinese New Testament printed . . . 379 

Lord Amherst's embassy ....... 128 

Mr. Stallybrass designated by L.M.S. for Irkutsk . . 353 

Two Buriats reach St, Petersburg ..... 353 

L.M.S. first Mission to Mongolia commenced at Irkutsk 13, 353 
Commencement of Chinese immigration into Northern 

Manchuria 304 

Marshman's Chinese Bible completed ..... 379 

Death of Dr. Milne 12 

Re-establishmeut of the order of the Jesuits . . . 11 

Morrison and Milne's Chinese Bible completed . . . 380 

Roman Catholic missionaries enter Tibet . . . . 415 

Dr. Morrison's furlough ....... 12 

Manchurian translation of New Testament completed . . 417 

Arrival in China of Bridgman and Abeel .... 12 

Journeys of Carl Gutzlaff ....... 13 

Arrival at Tien-tsin of Carl Gutzlaff ..... 13 

First Protestant missionary visited Shanghai . . . 86 

Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge inaugurated . 15 

Cessation of the East India Company's charter ... 12 
Manchurian translation of New Testament printed . . 417-18 

Morrison's Educational Society founded . . . . 15 

First Missionary Hospital opened 15 

Arrival in Shantung of Dr. Medhurst . . . . 13 

Mongolian (literary) version of Old Testament published . 413 

First modern Roman Catholic bishop to Manchuria . . 311 
Holy Synod of Russia stop work of L.M.S. on borders of 

Lake Baikal 13, 354 

Hospital opened at Tinghai in Chusan .... 15 

Cession of Hongkong to the British . . . . . 14 

Period of the Ports 16 

Shanghai captured by the British 82 

Treaty of Nanking signed . ...... 15 

Founding of Mission at Amoy ...... 17 

Chinkiang captured by the British 82 

Decision at Hongkong to revise New Testament, Wenli . 381 

First Mission Hospital in Mid China opened . . . 86 

2g 



450 



THE CHINESE EMPIEE 



DATE A.D. 
1843 . 



1844 



1845 



1846 
1847 

1848 



1849 
1850 



1853 



1854 . 

1855 . 
1855-73 

1856 . 

1856 . 

1856-60 
1858 . 
1858 . 
1858-60 

1858 . 
1859-60 
1860 . 
1860-77 
1860 . 



Transference of L.M.S. printing-press, and Anglo-Chinese 

college to Hongkong . . . . . . . 16 

Drs. Medhurst and Lockhart take up residence in Shanghai . 86 

Apostolic vicariat of Mongolia appointed .... 353 

American Baptist Missionary Union commenced work in 

Chekiang ......... 79 

American Presbyterian Mission, North, commenced work in 

Chekiang 79 

Bishop Smith sailed for China . . . . . . 16 

Treaty mth U.S.A., Christianity tolerated . ... 15 

Miss Aldersey began work among the women and girls of 

Ningpo 30 

C. M. S. rent a house in native city, Shanghai ... 86 

Hue and Gabet in Lhasa 327-28 

Rev. G. Smith (afterwards Bishop of Victoria) visited 

Ningpo ......... 77 

Bishop Boone arrived in Shanghai ..... 86 

Treaty with France. Persecuting edicts of 1724 and later, 

rescinded ......... 15 

Reopening of R. C. Missions in Kiangsi .... 133 

Hospital opened at Canton . . . . . . 15 

Basel Missionary Society commenced work at Hongkong . 16 
American Southern Baptist and Seventh Day Baptist 

Missions arrive in Shanghai ...... 86 

Church Missionary Society commenced work in Chekiang . 79 
Pope entrusted provinces of Kwangtung and Kwangsi to 

" Missions ^trangeres de Paris " ..... 47 
American Methodist Episcopal Mission (South) began 

work in Shanghai ........ 86 

Taiping rebellion broke out in Kwangsi .... 275 

First lady worker sent out to China by a missionary society. 30 

Rise of Taiping rebellion . . . . . . . 19 

C.M.S. commenced work in Fukien ..... 56 

Modern Roman Catholic Missions commence work in 

Kwangsi ......... 287 

American Presbyterian Mission (North) liegan work in 

Shanghai ......... 86 

Moravian Mission to Tibet commenced ... 14, 328 

British and F. Bible Society's Jubilee ... 19, 374 

Yellow River changed its course ..... 80 

Nanking captured by Taipings ...... 85 

Rev. J. Hudson Taylor began work in Chekiang. . . 78 

Delegates' version of Bible published ..... 381 

Mohammedan rebellion in Yunnan ..... 275 

Kyelang in Lahoul opened by Moravians .... 329 

Two complete editions of Foochow New Testament ready . 395 
Seizure by Chinese Government, in October, of the Lorcha 

Arrotv ...... .... 19 

Second Opium war . . . . . . . . 19 

Treaty of Tientsin 19 

By Treaty of Aigun Russia gained left bank of Amur . . 304 
iVi'we treaties signed between China and Britain, U.S.A., 

France, and Russia . . . . . . . 19 

Hunan created separate Roman Catholic See . . .180 

Russia by treaty obtain postal route through Mongolia . 352 

Russia gained province of Primorsk ..... 304 

Period of penetration ....... 20 

American Southern Baptist Mission settled in Chefoo . . 98 

Methodist New Connexion began work in China . . . 21 



INDICES 



451 



DATE A.D. 

1860 . 

1861 . 



1862 



1863 



1864-67 
1864 . 



1865 



1866 



1867-70 
1867 . 



medical 



and 



PAGE 
105 

132 

24, 305 



Dr. Blodget, of A.B.C.F. M., began preaching in Tientsin 
Kiukiang opened to foreign trade .... 
Newchwang opened as a port 
Dr. Lockhart permitted to reside at Pekin^_ 

adviser to tlie Legation ...... 

Holmes and Parker murdered ..... 

Taipings invaded Chekiang ..... 

Hankow first opened to foreign trade .... 

Tengchow opened by American Presbyterians, North . 

Mission work begun at Tientsin by L.M.S. 

L.M.S. begin work in Hankow ..... 

Establishment of the famous Tungweu College 

Methodist New Connexion began work in Tientsin 

C. M.S. commenced direct mission work in Hongkon: 

Peking 

Wesleyau Missionary Society begin work in Hankow . 
First converts baptized at Peking .... 
American Presbyterian Mission (North) establish themselves 

at Chefoo ...... 

First missionaries to China of S.P.G. sent out 

Restrictions against residence of missionaries in Peking removed 

American Presbyterians, North, begin work in Peking 

Dr. Edkins of L.M.S. settled at Peking 

American Presbyterian Mission begin work in Peking 

Rev. W. Burns resided in Peking and published his transla 

tions of Tlie Peep of Day and The Pilgrims Progress 
First medical missionary reached Hankow . 
Baptism of first converts at Hankow .... 

Taiping rebellion quelled ...... 

Dr. Williamson visits Eastern Mongolia 

United Methodist Free Church began work in Ningpo 

Ordination of first Chinese clergyman in connection with C.M.S, 

Hangchow occupied by C.I.M. . 

American Board began work in Peking 

American Board commence work on Mongolian border at 

Kalgan 22, 355, 361 

Rising of Dungans in Kuldja ..... 341-42 

Russian occupation of Kuldja ...... 344 

Mr. Bayley goes to " remote provinces " .... 28 

Bishop G. E. Moule moved to Hangchow, Chekiang . . 21 
Rev. David Hill reached Hankow ..... 21 

Beginning of English Presbyterian Church missionary work 

in Formosa ......... 65 

Union Foochow New Testament published .... 396 

First Protestant converts baptized in connection with the 

English Presbyterian Mission in Formosa . . . 65 

American Presbyterians and American Baptists send out 

women workers to China ...... 30 

Sailing of the Lamviermuir party ..... 30 

Dr. Williamson and Mr. J. Lees visit Sheusi, Shansi, and 

Honan ......... 28 

Dr. Alexander Williamson of National Bible Society of Scot- 
land commenced work in Manchuria . . . 24, 311 
First headquarters of C.I.M. established in China, in Hangchow 22 
Mr. Wellman of B. and F.B.S. visits Shansi ... 28 
Wm. Burns settled at Newchwang . . . . .311 

Beginning of Protestant missionary work in Kiangsi . . 133 
Mr. Duncan, of C.I.M., the first Protestant missionary to 

work in Nanking, reached that city . . . . 89 



21 

98 

74 

118 

21 

21 

21 

104 

105 

21 
21 

21 

99 
23 

21 

21 

21 

108 

111 
21 
21 
19 
28 
22 
21 
78 

106 



452 THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

DATE A.D. PAGE 

1867 . . Mission work begun in Soochow ..... 88 

American Presbyterian Mission, South, began work in Chekiang 79 
Mr. Johnson of B. and F.B.S. visits Houan ... 28 

American Board begin work in Tengcliow . . . .106 

1868 . Mr. Oxenham goes from Peking to Hankow through Honan 28 

Mr. Wylie and Dr. John of L.M.S. visit Szechvvan and Shensi 28, 228 
American Southern Baptist Convention enter Kwangsi . 291 

Chas. Schmidt took up residence in Soochow ; the first 

foreigner to do so . . . . . . . 88 

L.M.S. began work in Chiukiang ..... 90 

Riot at Yangchow ........ 23 

American Episcopal Church Mission began work in Hupeh . 125 

1869 . . Irish Presbyterian Church begin work in Manchuria . 24, 311 

C.I.M. begin work in Kiangsi Province .... 23 
Anhwei Province occupied by C.I.M. ..... 23 

1870 . . L.M.S. second mission to Mongolia ; Gilmour . . 24, 354 

Shanghai New Testament completed ..... 392 
1870-1875 Establishment of a China Missionary Bishopric in connection 

with the C.M.S 25 

1870-72 . Mr. MoUman of B. and F.B.S. visits Shansi ... 28 

1870 . . Tientsin massacre ........ 24 

Methodist Episcopal Mission of U.S.A. began work in Peking 108 

1871 . . Canadian Presbyterians begin work in Formosa ... 25 

1872 . . Finally revised Northern Mandarin New Testament published 386 

Dr. Muirhead rented a chapel in Soochow, .... 88 

United Presbyterian Church of Scotland begin work in 

Manchuria 24, 312 

Canadian Presbyterian Church begin work in China . . 66 

1873 . . Amoy translation of New Testament published . . . 401 

American Presbyterian Mission (North) began work in capital 

of Shantung ......... 99 

C.I.M. rented its first house in Shanghai .... 86 

American Board begin work in Paoting Fu . . .106 

1874 . . Northern Mandarin Old Testament published . . . 386 

C.I.M. open a station at Wuchang ..... 25 

Mohammedan rebellion in North-West China . . . 200 

S.P.G. definitely begin work in China .... 25 

American Methodist Episcopal Mission began work in Taian 

Fu, Shantung 99 

1875 : . Bhamo in Burmah opened as a mission station by C.I.M. 25, 246 

Itinerating in Honan and Hunan begun by C.I.M. 25, 159, 181 
Ambassadors allowed audience with Chinese Emperor without 

performing usual Chinese prostrations .... 25 

Missions in China enter upon a wider sphere ... 25 

1876 . . Signing of Chefoo Convention ..... 25, 181 

Hukow, in Kiangsi, opened as a port of call . . .133 

C.I.M. pioneers enter Shansi, Shensi, and Kansu 26, 202, 212, 216 
American Bible Society begin work in China ... 28 

First Railway laid down in China ..... 82 

1877 . . Dr. Cameron of C.I.M. on Tibetan border . . . .334 

First complete Cantonese New Testament ready ; G. Piercy 391 

1877-79 . Famine in Sliansi 30, 211 

1877 . . Provinces of Szechwan, Yunnan, Kweichow, and Kwangsi 

visited by C.I.M. missionaries .... 26, 264 

Dr. Timothy Richard reaches Taiyuan ; commences B.M.S. 
work in Shansi . . . . . . . .212 

Rev. J. M'Carthy travels on foot across China . . 26, 247 

American Board commenced work in Shansi . . . 217 

Rev. J. M'Carthy commences settled work in West China . 229 



INDICES 



453 



DATE A.D. PAGE 

1877 . . First General Missionary Conference held at Shanghai > . 28 
1878-1907 Period of progress, persecution, and prosperity ... 28 

1878 . . Women- workers of C.I.M. reach Taiyuan Fu in October . 30 

Church of Scotland begun work in China, in Hupeh . 28, 125 

David Hill visits Shansi 212-13 

Work commenced C.I.M. in Pingyang Plain, Shansi . . 219 

1879 . . Hunan divided into two Roman Catholic Sees . . . 180 

First Station in Han Valley, Sheusi, opened . . . 203 

Opening of C.I.M. Chefoo sanatorium .... 100 

1880 . . Dorward commences his work in Hunan .... 181 

American Board began work in Shantung .... 99 

Formation of North China Diocese ..... 108 

1880-1896 Mr. Archibald makes itinerations in Hunan . . .183 

1881 . . C.I.M. pioneers to west of Fen river, Shansi . . . 214 

Taichow New Testament published ..... 404 

Tibetan translation of New Testament completed . . 415 

Soochow translation of New Testament published . . 402 

First Station C.I.M. opened in Yunnan .... 248 

American Methodist Episcopal Mission join C.I.M. in Szechwan 229 

C.I.M. open Chengtu, capital of Szechwan .... 229 

Peking Blind Mission began work ..... 29 

1882 . . Sinkiang made a sejjarate province of China . . .190 
1882-1884 Seventy-six additional workers sent out, C.I.M. ... 29 

1882 . . Moukden opened by Rev. John Ross ..... 312 

Berlin Missionary Society began work .... 29 

1883 . . New Testament in Hakka, both in Romanised and Chai'acter, 

published 394 

1884 . . Amoy version of Old Testament completed . . . 402 

Church of England Zenana ilission begin work ... 29 
Canadian Presbyterians commence work in Honan . 160, 163 

First mission premises secured in Honan C.I.M. . . . 160 

Methodist New Connexion began work in Tangshau . . 107 

1885 . . Moravians open Leh, capital of Ladak .... 329 

German General Protestant Mission began work in China . 29 

Dr. John's translation of New Testament in Wen-li published 384 

C.I.M. commence work between arms of Great Wall, Shansi 216 
American Methodist Episcopal Mission began work in Anhwei 

Province ......... 145 

Sailing of the Cambridge Seven ...... 29 

Franco-Chinese War ....... 286 

Plymouth Brethren began work in Kiangsi . . .134 

Bible Christian Mission started work in China ... 29 

The Christians' Mission began work in China ... 29 

1886 . . Gilmour settles at Chaoyang ...... 354 

Union Cantonese New Testament published . . . 391 

Riot at Chungking 230 

Foreign Christians' Mission began woi-k in China . . 29 

C.I.M. commence work north of Great Wall, Shansi . . 251 

English Friends' Mission began work in China ... 29 

1887 . . Lungchow, Kwangsi, opened as Treaty port . . . 278 

Bible Christians opened their first Station in Yunnan . . 246 
Christian Literature Society formed . . . . .177 

Sailingof the "Hundred" C.I.M 29 

Swedish Mission in China began work .... 29 

1888 . . Cecil PolhiU, of C.I.M., commenced work on Tibetan border 335 

L.M.S. commence settled work in Szechwan . . . 231 

Swedish Mission commenced work in South Shansi . , 221 
Scandina\'ian-American Christian Free Church Mission began 

work .......... 29 



454 



THE CHINESE EMPIEE 



DATE A.D. 

1888 . 



1889 



1890 



1891 



1892 



1893 



1894 



1895 



PAGE 

Seventh Day Adventists began work in China ... 29 
Foreign Christian Missionary Society began work in Anhwei 

Province ......... 146 

Easy Wea-li translation of New Testament published . . 384 

United Brethren in Christ began work in China ... 29 

Dr. John's Mandarin New Testament published . . . 387 

German China Alliance began work ..... 29 

M. Bouvalot and Prince Henry journey into Tibet . . 327 

Missionary Conference at Shanghai ..... 31 

Missionary Conference at Shanghai decides on preparation of 

Union version of Bible in Wen-li, Easy Wenli, and 

Mandarin 31, 382, 384, 387 

L.M.S. commenced work among Joharis .... 331 

Yangtse Valley riots ....... 232 

Murder of a Wesleyan Missionary at Wusiieh ... 31 

American Baptists enter Szechwan ..... 231 

English Friends' Mission enters Szechwan .... 231 

Christian Missionary Alliance began work in Anhwei Province 146 

Swedish- American Mission Covenant began Avork in Hupeh . 125 
Swedish (Congregational) Missionary Society began work in 

Hupeh 125 

Joint protocol of various Powers presented to Chinese 

Government ......... 32 

Beginning of the C.M.S. West China Mission . . 32, 231 
As.sam Frontier Pioneer Mission commenced work on 

Tibetan border ........ 333 

English Wesleyans appoint two native evangelists to Hunan 185 

English Baptists enter Shensi 205, 207 

Outbreak of Yangtse riots . . . . . .182 

Two Presbyterian Missions in Manchuria form one Presbytery 313 

Hunan placards crusade ....... 175 

Norwegian Lutheran Mission began work in Hupeh . . 125 

Hauge's Synodes Mission began work in Hiipeh . . . 125 
American - Norwegian Lutheran Missionary Society began 

work in Hupeh ........ 125 

Rockhill attempts to reach Lhasa ..... 327 

Scandinavian Alliance established at Ghoom . . . 331 
International Missionary Alliance commenced work on 

Tibetan border ........ 334 

Canadian Methodists enter Szechwan ..... 231 

Some twelve Hunanese baptized at Hankow . . . 183 

Gospel Baptist Mission (U.S.A. ) began work in Shantung . 99 

Permanent premises secured in Sian ..... 204 

Christian Missionary Alliance commence work north of Great 

Wall, Shansi 215 

Miss Annie Taylor tries to reach Lhasa .... 327 

American Baptist Union began work in Hupeh . . . 125 

Alliance Mission commenced regular work in Kwangsi . 288 

Whole Bible completed in Cantonese dialect . . . 391 

Chino-Japanese War ...... 32, 177 

Rev. James A. Wylie murdered in Manchuria . . . 315 

Riot in Szechwan in May ...... 32, 233 

Kucheng massacre in August ...... 32 

Mohammedan rebellion North-West China . . . 193 

Cession of Formosa to Japan ...... 68 

Christians' Mission began work in Chekiang ... 79 

Scandinavian Alliance commences its Mongolian Mission . 355 

Y.M.C.A. began work in North China . . . . 110 

Danish Lutheran Mission entered Manchuria . . . 317 



mDICES 



455 



DATE A.D. 
1895 . 



1895-1896 
1896 . . 



1897 



1898 



1899 



1900 



1901 



1902 



American Church Mission began work in Anhwei Province 
Christian and Missionary Alliance began work in Hupeh 
Rev. Samuel Clarke appointed by C.I.M. for work among 

aborigines ....... 

Swedish Mission commences work in Honan 
Mass movement in Szechwan .... 

American Presbyterian Mission began work in Anhwei 

Province ....... 

Swatow version of New Testament in character issued 
Russian colonel with sixteen men reached Moukden vid 

Corea ........ 

Alliance Mission settled in Wuchow, Kwangsi . 

Work among Heh-Miao commenced by Mr. and Mrs. Webb 

C.I.M yielded Taiyuan to Sheoyang (B.M.S.) Mission 

New system of postal communication established at Hankow 

Shanghai Union New Testament published 

New College of Reform established Changsha 

The Gospel Mission commences work in Honan . 

Hunan entered from the east ..... 

Wesleyan Missionary Society enters Kwangsi 
Wuchow, Kwangsi, opened as Treaty port . 
American Presbyterians enter Hunan from Kwangtuug 
Coitp d'etat ........ 

Russians took Port Arthur ..... 

Mr. Fleming, C.I.M., killed in Kweichow . 

Mr. Alexander commences work at Changsha 

Railway from Lungchow to Kweilin surveyed 

American Norwegian Lutheran Mission commence work 

South Honan ....... 

Shanghai to Woosung line relaid .... 

Miss Annie Taylor settled at Yatung .... 

Swedish Mongolian Mission commenced 

Ningpo Union version of New Testament published 

Church of Scotland Mission commenced special eii'orts 

reach Tibetans ....... 

Yii-man-tse rebellion in Szechwan .... 

Missionary conference at Chungking .... 

Moravians open Kalatse in Ladak .... 

Methodist Episcopal Mission commenced Tibetan Mission 
Government College opened in Kweilin 
Arrangements for opening Yochow, Hunan, to trade . 
Seizure of Kiaochow by Germany .... 

Assumption of official rank by the Roman Catholic missionaries 
C.M.S. enters Kwangsi ...... 

Union and Federation movement inaugurated in Peking 
American Advent Christian Mission began work in Anhwei 

Province ....... 

" Boxer " outbreak ...... 

Siege of Peking ...... 

Dr. M. A. Stein exploring Chinese Turkestan 

Wenchow translation of New Testament completed 

First complete reference Bible in Chinese (Shanghai) published 

Irish Presbyterians take over L.M.S. work at Chaoyang 

Dr. Keller, C.I.M., opens Changsha .... 

American United Evangelical Mission begins work Hunan 
Norwegian State Mission commences work in Changsha 
Reformed Church U.S.A. begins work in Hunan 
Empress -Dowager takes refuge in Sian 
British Commercial Treaty with China 



to 



147 
125 

265 
163 
234 

146 
400 

305 
288 
266 
217 
118 
393 
178 
163 
182 
291 
279 
186 
178 
305 
267 
185 
286 

161 

83 

333 

356 

398 

332 
233 
233 

330 
331 
278 
176 
33 
33 
289 
111 

147 
33 
102 
340-41 
404 
398 
355 
182 
186 
185 
186 
201 
176 



456 

DATE A.D. 
1902 . 



1903 . 



1903-4 . 
1904-1905 
1904 . . 



1905 . 



1906 



1907 



THE CHINESE EMPIEE 

PAGE 

Recrudescence of Boxerism in Szechwan .... 235 
Chowpatti Mission in Mid Himalaya established . . . 331 
Bishop Schereschewsky's Easy Wen-li translation of Bible 

published ......... 385 

Independent Lutheran Mission commences work in Honan . 163 
Seventh Day Adventists commence work in Honan . . 163 

Mr. Powell of C.I.M. opened Kaifeug Fu, capital of Honan, 

last provincial capital to be opened . . . .161 

Martyrdom of Bruce and Lowis in Hunan . . . .182 
Stanley Smith opened work at Tsehchow, Shensi . . 222 

Hauge's Synod commences work in Honan . . . .163 

Sphere in Kiangsi appointed for German-Swiss workers of St. 

Chrischona associates of C.I.M. . . . . .138 

Surveys for Canton-Hankow railway commenced . . 174 

Bridge across Yellow River built . . . . 157-58 

First baptisms at Tachienlu ...... 337 

British entry into Lhasa ....... 320 

American Bajjtists, South, commence work in Honan . . 163 

Opening of Changsha as Treaty port . . . . .176 

Swatow version (in Romanised) of New Testament completed 400 
Opening of Canadian Methodist press in Chengtu . . 236 

Free Methodists commence in Honan . . . . .163 

Mr. Hudson Taylor dies at Changsha . . . . .183 

Openingof the Union Medical College in Peking on Februaryl3 106 
South Chihli Mission commence in Honan . . . .163 

Martyrdom of Mr. and Mrs. Kingham and child, Kiangsi . 135 
Railway, Peking to Kalgan, opened ..... 352 

Kwangsi Medical Mission commences ..... 291 

Dr. R. Macdonald of Wuchow murdered .... 289 

Nanning, Kwangsi, opened as Treaty port .... 278 



INDEX II 



GENEEAL 



Aborigiual story of the Deluge, 256 
Aborigines, 55, 64, 66, 71, 165, 226, 

243, 244, 251, 273, 301, 421 
A Flight for Life, 365 
Allgemeine Missions Zeitschrift, 61 
A Japanese History of Ancient Europe, 

including Arabia and Turkestccn, 

294 
American Boycott, 284 
An Account of Missionary Success in 

Formosa. By Rev. W. Campbell, 

F.R.G.S., 72 
Ancestral Worship, 10 
Ancient seat of Chinese people, 210 
Anhwei Province opened, 23 
An Inside View of Mongolia, 365 
"Ararat" of China, 210 
Area of Chinese Empire, 2 
Army of China, 103, 157 

Baptist, first China Mission, English, 
17 

Beautiful Soo. By Dr. H. C. Du Bose, 
87 ' 

Bible Translation Committee, 110 

Bible, Translations of, 376 

The literary. High Wen-li, 376 
The literary. Easy Wen-li, 383 
Northern Mandarin, Peking, 385 
Southern Mandarin, Nanking, 388 
The Cantonese Version, 389 
The Shanghai Version, 392 
The Hakka Version, 393 
The Foochow Version, 395 
The Ningpo Version, 397 
The Swatow Version, 399 
The Amoy Version, 401 
The Soochow Version, 402 
The Wenchow Version, 403 
The Taichow Version, 404 
The Hangchow Version, 405 



Bible— 

The Hinghwa Version, 405 
The Kienning Version, 406 
The Kienyang Version, 407 
The Shantung Mandarin, 407 
The Kinhwa Version, 407 
The Sankiang Version, 408 
The Shaowu Version, 408 
The Chungchia Version, 408 
The Hainan Version, 409 
The Mongolian Versions, 410 
The Tibetan Versions, 415 
The Manchu Version, 416 
Bohea hills, the famous, 54 
Boxer Outbreak, 99, 234, 276, 305, 

316, 365 
Bridge of Boats, ancient, 274 
Bridge over Yellow River, 157 
Buddhism, 74, 116, 326, 351, 357 
Buddhist monasteries destroyed, 6 

"Cambridge Seven," 29, 32, 219 
Canal, the Grand, 74, 80, 81, 83, 94, 

103, 107, 140, 152 
Canton Christian College, 50 
Capture of Anping, in Formosa, 66 
Chamber of Commerce, Shanghai, 133 
Chengtu plain, population of, 4 
China. By Du Halde, 6 
Chimi, No. 1, 1903, 4 
China Branch, Royal Asiatic Society 

Journal, 1900, 227 
China's Millions, 112 
China's Sinritual Needs and Claims. 

By Rev. J. Hudson Taylor, 22 
Chinese Missionary Society, a, 146 
Chinese Repository, 12 
Chinese Turkestan, 339 
Chinese who are not Chinese, 259 
Chino - Japanese War, 137-177, 233- 

305 



457 



458 



THE CHINESE EMPIRE 



Chou Han Writings, the, 175 
Civil War in America, 22 
Classic Literature of China, 98 
Coalfields of China, 104, 130, 141, 155, 

209 
Coast-line of China, 2 
Comparative Table of China Missions, 

40 
Comparisons of population, 4 
Conferences on Federation, 111 
Conferences, some, 112, 222, 233, 382, 

384, 387 
Confucius and Confucianism, 74, 98, 

116, 124 
Convert, a notable, 84 
Convert, a notable Mongol, 362 
Converts, 59 

Coup d'Hat, 178, 267 

Cradle of the Chinese race, 201 

Dangers and Difiiculties confronting 

Protestant Missions in China, 51, 61, 

71, 289 
Death-rate of China, 4 
Deluge, Chinese story of, 74 
Derelict Temples, 156 
Destroyer of Confucian books, 74 
Devastated villages, 195 
Dialects of China, 44, 55, 61, 71, 243, 

253 
Dominicans, 9 
Do Not Say. By Rev. J. H. Horsburgh, 

32 
Dragon Festival, the, 164 

Early Missions, 5 

Educational Institutions in Hupeh, 123 

Educational work, 49, 50, 67, 72, 77, 

83, 87, 91, 103, 104, 106, 108, 110, 

117, 120, 124, 134, 136, 138, 146, 
147, 156, 177, 187, 220, 236, 278, 
284, 314 

Electric tramway in China, 104 
Emigration of Chinese to Inner Mon- 
golia, 347 
Encouragements, 62 
Encyclopcedia Britannica, 343 
EncyclojKcdia of Missions, 193 

Famine in Shensi, 206 

First Chinese Protestant Convert 

Baptized, 48 
First entrance of Gospel into China, 5 
First locomotive built in China, 104 
First mining enterprise, 104 
First Missionary to reside in Peking, 

105 
First printing-press erected in China, 



First strife over "the Term question," 

what word to use for "God," 10 
Flood, Chinese story of, 210 
Foreign concessions in China, 103 
Foreign publications translated into 

Chinese, 35, 111 
Formosa wider the Dutch. By Rev. 

W. Campbell, F.R.G.S., 72 
Four classes of Chinese, 97 
Franciscans, 9 
Franco-German War, 24 
Fro7n Far Formosa. By Rev. G. L. 

Mackay, 67 
Fu Cities of Chekiang, 75 

Geographic de V Empire de Chine, 190 

Geology of Szechwan, 224 

Girls, Miss Aldersey's work amongst 

Chinese, 18 
Gobi Desert, 344 
"Goddess of Mercy," 74 
Grain Transport Service, 167 
Greek Chiirch, the, 105 
Guilds of China, 45 

Hakkas, the, 43, 44, 64 

Hemp-growing centre, a, 129 

History of the Church Missionary 

Society. By Mr. Eugene Stock, 27 
History of the Mongols. By Stanley 

Lane-Poole, 348 
"Holy Mother, Queen of Heaven," 

96 
Hupeh, Province of, 114 

Idolatrous Province, a specially, 96 
Immigration, a field for, 273 
Immigration into Shensi, 207 
Independent Church, a Chinese, 92 
Inscriptions Juives de Kaifeng Fu. 

Par le P. Jerome Tobar, 429 
Introduction of Christianity into China, 

433 
Irrigation of the Chengtu Plain and 

Beyond, 227 
Island of Formosa, the, 63 

James Gilmour of Mongolia, 350 
Jesuits, 8, 9, 10, 46, 47, 77, 105 
Jesuit Survey of Empire and Reforma- 
tion of Calendar, 10 
Jewish Community in Honan, 159 
Jews in China, 428 

Journeys in North China, Manchuria, 
and Eastern Mongolia. By Rev. 
Alex. Williamson, 346 

Kiangsi Province opened, 23 



INDICES 



459 



" Land of Demons," 251 

Largest Lake in China, the, 114 

Les Lolas. By Paul Vial, 274 

Les Missions Catholiqii^s Francises 

au XIX^ Siecle, 47 
Liberality of Chinese Christians, 50, 72, 

145, 146 

Manchus, 85, 301, 308 

Martyred Missionaries, 31, 32, 33, 58, 

98, 100, 135, 267, 315, 365 
Mass Movement, the, 234 
Medical Work, 15, 17, 31, 49, 50, 58, 

65, 67, 70, 77, 89, 100, 104, 106, 

107, 111, 116, 121, 134, 145, 146, 

147, 161, 182, 203, 208, 217, 249, 

268, 314, 343 
Metropolis of Buddhism, 326 
Minerals of Hunan, 173 
Ming Dynasty, 7, 64, 99, 126, 277, 

303 
Mint, A Chinese, 157 
Missionary Societies in the Province of 

Kwangtung, 53 
Mission Problems and Missionary 

Methods in South China. By Rev. 

J. Campbell Gibson, M.A., D.D., 67 
Modern movements, 105, 175 
Mohammedanism, 5, 192, 193, 201, 

239, 275, 295, 341 
Mongol Dynasty, 7, 101, 107, 126, 

348 
More about the Mongols. By Rev. Jas. 

Gilmour, 350 
Most progressive province of China, 

the, 83 
Mountainous regions of China, 44, 54, 

63, 76, 93, 127, 132, 141, 151, 153, 

158, 167, 169, 191, 198, 210, 240, 

249, 272, 292, 309, 319, 338, 345 
Mount Morrison, 63 
Mount Tai, 94 

Movements of quickening, 52 
Murder of Mr. Margary, 247 
Museum at Tsingchow, 99 

Xestorians, 5, 7, 201, 377 

Nestorian Tablet, the, 202 

"New Learning," 50, 51, 187 

North China Herald, 357 

Number of chapels and schools in 

Soochow, 88 
Number of Missionary Societies in 

Shanghai, 86 
Numeral type for China, Murray's, 

110 

Occupations of the Chinese, 44, 45. 
46 



Opium Questions, the, 14, 19, 20, 26, 
34, 58. 60, 62, 69, 154, 200, 213, 
221, 242, 258, 263, 283, 286 

Papers and Magazines published in 
China, 72, 83, 91, 104, 110, 285 

Peking Convention, 18 

Peking opened to residence of Foreign 
Ministers, 19 

Penelope's web, 85 

Period of the Ports, 16 

Period of Penetration, 20 

Placards issued from Hunan, blasphe- 
mous, 32 

Plain of Chengtu, 225 

Plain of North China, 4 

Population of China, 3 

Porcelain industry, centre of, 132 

Positive Truth, importance of preach- 
ing, 119 

Post in China, Imperial, 69, 119, 134, 
157 

Prayer wheels, 326 

Preliminary Report of a Journey of 
Archaeological and Topographical Ex- 
ploration in Chinese Turkestan, 340 

Presbyteries of Formosa formed, 68 

Products and Industries of China, 44, 
54, 55, 75, 76, 81, 95, 118, 127, 129, 
141, 154, 167, 172, 192, 201, 211, 
241, 263, 281, 283, 307, 310, 322 

Protestant Missionary Atlas. By 
Rev. Harlan P. Beech, 296 

Prussian Treaty, 20 

Public preaching of Gospel, 121 

Railways in China, 69, 82, 83, 95, 103, 
104, 109, 118, 130, 150, 151, 157, 
158, 174, 241, 278, 281, 286, 305, 
309, 352 

Roman Catholic, first effort, 6 

Roman Catholic, second effort, 8 

Romanisation of Chinese : an interest- 
ing fact about it, 65 

Romanised versions of Scriptures, 
Chinese, 388 

Romanists, 6, 8, 9, 33, 43, 47, 48, 51, 
64, 65, 77, 84, 85, 103, 105, 133, 
145, 179, 234, 273, 287, 290, 297, 
311, 328, 352, 371, 377 

Russia, encroachment of, 2 

Sanatoria of China, 100, 138 

Schools at Chefoo, 100 

Scriptures, translation and circulation, 

5, 7, 13, 19, 31, 48-65, 110, 

376 
Secret Societies, .some, 44, 276 
Self-support, 49, 57, 68, 223 



460 



THE CHINESE EMPIRE 



Seventy additional workers, 29 

Shanghai, population of, 4 

Siangtan Exchange, the, 171 

Sian Plain, the, 199 

Smallest province of China, 73 

Song dynasty, 133 

Standard Geography. By Rechis, 341 

Statesman's Year- Book, 73 

Statistics, 2, 15, 18, 22, 28, 30, 31, 36- 
40, 47, 48-51, 60, 72, 77, 78, 79, 
87, 88, 106, 107, 108, 109, 113, 124, 
136, 138, 143, 146, 147, 148, 162, 
180, 182, 185, 288, 291, 312, 317 

Statistics of the Church in Formosa, 
72 

Statistics of Protestant Missions in 
Chekiang, 79 

Statistics of Protestant Missions in 
China, 36-40 

Strange superstitions, 257 

Sung dynasty, 126 

Suppression of Jesuits, 10, 47 

Sweden, first missionary effort of the 
Church in, 17 

Smtzerland of China, the, 240 

Table of Chinese versions of Scriptures, 

376 
Taiping Rebellion, 17-18, 43, 74, 78, 

85, 87, 118, 132, 141, 165, 170, 177, 

200, 275, 281 
Taoism, 74, 133 
Tariff revision, 20 
Tartars, the, 7, 64, 82, 105, 303 
Tea in the world, finest, 132 
Telegraph lines in Sinkiang, 296 
Temples converted into schools, 104- 

115 
"Term" question, the, 10, 111, 372 
The Cliinese Recorder, 372 
The Cities and Toivns of China. By 

Consul Playfair, 102 
The Far East. By Arch. Little, 132, 

227 
" The Gospel Village," 207 
The Island of Formosa, Past and 

Present. By J, W. Davidson, 72 



The Middla Kingdom. By Dr. Wells - 

Williams, 12 
The Peep of Bay, 111 
The Pilgrim's Progress, 111 
Tlie Wars of Europe. By Wang Shu- 

cha, 294 
Through the Heart of a Continent, By 

Sir F. Younghusband, 346 
Tibet, 318 

Tientsin massacre, 24 
Tobacco-growing centre, a, 128 
Topography of Juen-Luang Hsien, 293 
Tract, a notable, 18 
Trade centre, a great, 117 
Trade Returns of Hankow, 118 
Training Home, Anking, 144 
Translations of Chinese literature — 

Classics, etc., 16 
Treaty of Chefoo, 93 
Treaty of Nanking, 18, 56 
Treaty of Nertchinsk, 304 
Treaty of Tientsin, 18, 26 

Union and Federation movement, 111 

Valley of the Han River, 198 
Versions of Scriptures in Chinese, 376 
Vocabularies and Dialects of Abori- 
gines, 421 

Wall, The Great, 74, 81, 101, 108, 215, 

307, 308, 345, 347 
War with China, England's second, 

19 
Waterways of China, 43, 55, 75, 76, 

80, 94, 101, 127, 130, 139, 151, 166, 

168, 191, 228, 241, 271, 280, 304, 

306 
West China Missionary Neios, 233 
Western China. By Dr. Virgil Hart, 

232 
Women's Work, 30, 57, 249 
Works of benevolence, 121 

Yii-man-tse Rebellion, 233 
Yunnan Topography, 243 



i 



INDEX III 

MISSIONAEY SOCIETIES^ AND INSTITUTIONS 



Berlin Foundling Home, 30 
Berlin Missionary Society, 29 
Bible Christian Mission, 29, 245 
Britisli and Foreign Bible Societj-, 19, 
110, 125, 135, 208, 228, 329, 337, 
366, 374, 379, 382, 386, 390, 410, 
413 

Calcutta Auxiliary Bible Society, 416 
Canadian Methodist Mission, 231, 236 
Canadian Presbyterian Church Mission- 
ary Society, 66, 160, 163 
Central China Religious Tract Society, 

121, 125 
China Inland Mission, 22, 23, 27, 30, 
32, 77, 78, 79, 89, 90, 99, 100, 109, 
125, 126, 135, 143, 148, 160, 161, 
162, 163, 181, 195, 202, 211, 216, 
218, 221, 222, 229, 232, 237, 245, 
250, 264, 288, 333, 334, 357, 388, 
404, 407, 409 
Chinese Evangelisation Society, 14, 18, 

78 
Chowpatti Mission, 331 
Christian and Missionary Alliance, 
125, 146, 148, 185, 197, 215, 288, 
289 
Christian Literature Society, 87, 177 
Christians Mission, the, 29, 77, 79 
Church Missionary Society, the, 8, 16, 
17, 21,23, 24, 27, 32, 54, 56, 73, 
77, 78, 79, 86, 107, 186, 231, 237, 
288, 289, 392, 395, 404, 407 
Church of England Zenana Mission, 29, 

30 
Church of Scotland Mission, 125, 332 
Cumberland Presbyterian Mission, 187 

1 In the cases of the American Baptist Missionary Union and the American Southern 
Baptist Mission ; the American Presbyterian Mission, North, and the American Presbyterian 
Mission, South ; the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and the American Episcopal 
Mission, the names are so similar and occasionally somewhat loosely used by various 
■writers that it has been thought well to group them on the. Index to avoid any reference 
being wrongly designated. — Ed. 

461 



American Advent Christian Mission, 

147, 148 
American Baptist Missionary Society 

(North and South), 16, 17, 22, 30, 

77, 79, 86, 98, 125, 162, 163, 231, 

288, 393, 408 
American Bible Society, 110, 135, 183, 

381, 382, 385, 386, 392, 402, 406 
American Bible Union, 398 
American Board of Foreign Missions, 

15, 16, 17, 18, 22, 99, 103, 106, 108, 
111, 217, 354, 357, 360, 382, 395, 
408 

American Episcopalian Missionary 
Society (General and South), 16, 18, 
23, 30, 86, 87, 89, 90, 98, 108, 125, 
147, 148, 186, 232, 331, 395, 396, 
402 

American Methodist Episcopalian 
Mission, 17, 23, 30, 86, 87, 99, 133, 
145, 148, 237, 406 

American Norwegian Lutheran Mission- 
ary Society, 125, 161 

American Presbyterian Missionary 
Society (North and South), 16, 17, 
21, 22, 30, 77, 78, 79, 87, 88, 99, 
108, 111, 146, 148, 186, 229, 288, 

382, 391. 402 

American United Evangelical Mission, 

186 
Anglo-Chinese College, 107 
Assam Frontier Pioneer Mission, 333 
Asylum for the Insane, 122 
Augustana Synod Mission, 162, 163 

Basel Missionary Society, 16, 49, 135, 
394 



462 



THE CHINESE EMPIRE 



Danish (Lutheran) Missionary Society, 

317 
"David Hill Blind Asylum," 122 
Denver Baptist Church Mission, 187 

Educational Union, the. 111 

English Baptist Mission, 17, 99, 205, 

212, 217 
English Friends' Mission, 29, 231 
English Presbyterian Mission, 17, 49, 

50, 63, 135, 399, 401 
Evangelical Association of North 

America, 187 

Finland Missionary Society, 138, 187 
Foreign Christians Mission, 29, 89, 145, 

148 
Free Methodist Mission, 162, 163 

German China Alliance Mission, 29, 

138 
German General Protestant Mission, 29 
Gospel Baptist Mission (U.S.A.). 99 

Hauge's Synod Mission, 162, 163 

Independent Lutheran Mission, 162, 

163 
Independent Workers, 148, 222 
Indian Christian Realm, 331 
International Missionary Alliance, 334 
Irish Presbyterian Church Mission, 24, 

107, 109, 311, 355 

Jesuit Mission, 385 

" Les Missions !^trangeres," 287 
London Missionary Society, 12-16, 18, 
21, 78, 86, 90, 101, 107, 111, 114, 
125, 183, 228, 231, 288, 330, 353, 
854, 379, 38L 382, 401, 417 
London Mission Hospital, 87 

Methodist New Connexion, 21, 99, 

106 
Missionary Society of Lund, 17 
Mission to the Blind, 110 
Mission to Lepers, 122 
"Missions 6trangeres de Paris," 47 
Moravian Mission, 14, 328, 364, 415 
Moravian Tibetan Mission, 355 
Morrison Educational Society, 15, 16, 

17 
M'Tyiere Girls Boarding-School, 87 

National Bible Society of Scotland, 24, 

110, 121, 125, 18.3, 311, 382, 384 
Netherlands Missionary Society, 13-16 
North China Tract Society, 111 
North China Union College, 103 
Norwegian Lutheran Mission, 163, 185 



Peking Blind Mission, 29 
Plymouth Brethren, 110, 134 

Reformed Church (U.S.A.) Mission, 

186, 401 
Rhenish Mission, 17 
Russian Bible Society, 353 
Russian Ecclesiastical Mission, 382 
Russian Greek Church, 162, 163 

Scandinavian American Christian Free 

Church Mission, 29 
Scandinavian China Alliance, 197, 205, 

215, 330, 355, 357 
Scandinavian Mongolia Alliance Mission, 

414 
Schools for the Deaf and Dumb, 122 
Seventh Day Adventists, 29, 162, 163 
Seventh Day Baptist Mission, 86 
Shansi Imperial University, 80, 217 
Sheoyaag Mission, 217 
Society for Promoting Female Educa- 
tion in the East, 30 
Society for the DifiFusion of Useful 

Knowledge, 15 
Society for the Propagation of the 

Gospel, 23, 99, 100, 405 
South Chihli Mission, 109, 162, 163 
Southern Baptist Convention, 289 
St. John's University, 87 
St. Luke's Hospital, 87 
Swedish American Mission Covenant, 

125 
Swedish Mission in China, 29, 161, 

163, 205, 221 
Swedish (Congregational) Missionary 

Society, 125 
Swedish Mongolian Mission, 356 

The Gospel Mission, 163 

"The Lockhart Medical College," 106 

Ultra-Ganges Mission, 13 

Union Medical College in Peking, 106 

Union Theological College, 111 

United Brethren in Christ, 29 

United Methodist Free Church, 22, 77, 

78, 79, 403 
United Presbyterian Church of Scotland, 

24, 312 

Welsh Presbyterian Mission, 333 
Wesleyan Missionary Society, 17, 21, 

31, 125, 185, 212, 289 
West China Tract Society, 234 
William Nash College, 134 

Y.M.C.A., 110, 120, 125 
Yale University Mission, 188 



INDEX IV 



BIOGEAPHICAL OE PERSONAL 



Abeel, 12, 17, 30 

Abercromby, Mr., 413 

Adam, J. R., 245, 265 

Adler, Marcus N., 159, 428 

Aldersey, Miss, 18, 30 

Alexander, Mr., 185 

Alford, Bishop, 23, 25 

Almbrad, A. T., 356 

Amiot, Pere, 133 

Amundsen, Mr., 329, 332, 336, 337 

Andersen, Dr., 239 

Anderson, Miss, 332 

Anderson, Miss Clara, 355, 365 

Anderson, Miss Hilda, 355, 365 

Andrew, Geo., 265 

Archbishop of Canterbury, 379 

Archibald, Mr., 183 

Argento, Mr., 161 

Arnobius, 5 

Ashmore, Dr., 400 

Ashmore, jun., Rev. Wm., 400 

Attila, 85 

Baber, E. Colborne, 239 

Baldwin, Rev. C. C. , 395, 396 

Bailer, ReV. F. W., 202, 203, 219, 387 

Banister, Rev. W., 396 

Barclay, Rev. Thos., M.A., 63 

Bates, Rev. J., 398 

Beach, Rev. H. P., 188, 296 

Reals, Rev. Chas., 147 

Beauchamp, Rev. M., 219 

Becker-Shawe, Rev. F., 330 

Berg, August, 222 

Bernadotte, Prince, 356 

BejTion, 215, 387 

Blalock, L. L., 160 

Bland, Mr., 205 

Blandford, 134 

Bligh, Hon. J. G., 417 



Blodget, Rev. Dr. H., 105, 110, 384, 

386, 387, 392 
Boen, Mr., 162 
Bogdanovitch, 344 
Boone, Bishop, 17, 18, 381, 392 
BoiTOw, Geo,, 417 
Bostick, Mr., 161 
Botham, Mr., 205 
Boulton, 266 
Bourne, F. S. A., 243 
Bonvalot, Mons., 327 
Bower, Capt., 327 
Bramfit, Rev. T. , 387 
Brander, Dr. T. L., 312 
Brewster, Rev. W. N., 406 
Bridge, Rev. A. H., 107 
Bridgman, Dr., 12, 16, 380, 381 
Brittou, Rev. J. C, 403 
Brook, Rev. S. P., 100 
Broumton, J. F., 264 
Brown, Col. H., 25 
Brown, Rev. David, 879 
Brown, Rev. S. R., 17 
Bruske, Rev. Julius, 330 
Bryer, Miss L. J., 406 
Bryson, Rev. Thos., 101 
Buchanan, Rev. Claudius, 379 
Budd, 202 

Bullock, Rev. G. M., 331 
Burdon, Bishop, 21, 25, 78, 105, 107, 

110, 288, 384, 386, 390 
Burns, Rev. Wm., 17, 24, 111, 311 
Burrows, Lieut., 221 
Byrde, Rev. Louis, 271 

Cable, Miss, 220 
Cameron, Dr., 27, 205, 334 
Campbell, C. W., 347 
Candida, 9 
Cardwell, Mr., 133, 135, 137 



463 



464 



THE CHINESE EMPIEE 



Careri, Dr. J. F. Gemelli, 378 

Carpenter, Dr., 86 

Carpini, John de Piano, 6, 377 

Can, Dr., 161 

Carson, Rev. Jas., 311 

Cassels, Bishop, 32, 219 

Chaize, Father de la, 378 

Chalmers, Dr., 16, 49, 382 

Chang Chih-tuug, 116 

Chang, Pastor, 214 

Chang Tao-ling, Taoist Pope, 74 

Chao Erh-hsuan, Gov., 176 

Cheesmau, Mr., 208 

Chenery, C, 268 

Ch'en, Gov., 178 

Chestnut, Miss Eleanor, 408 

Christe, Mr., 334 

Chu-hsi, 133 

Ch'ii, Pastor, 214 

Ch'u Yuan (statesman and poet), 164 

Clapp, 217 

Clarke, Geo. W., 159, 215, 265 

Clarke, Rev. S. R., 251, 265, 409, 421 

Clement V., 7 

Clenuell, Consul W. J., 4, 130 

Cobbold, Rev. R. H., 17, 397 

Cochrane, Dr., 354 

Collins, Rev. W. H., 21 

Confucius, 98 

Cooper, Rev. Wm., 388 

Corviuo, John de Monte, 7, 352, 410 

Coulthard, Rev. J. J., 139 

Cowie, Rev. H., 401 

Cox, Rev. Josiah, 21 

Coxinga, 64 

Crikmay, Miss, 30 

Crofts, D. W., 266 

Culbertson, 382 

Gumming, Dr., 15 



Dalai Lama, 320 
Darroch, John, 145 
Davis, Dr. J. W., 384, 403 
Degraz, Miss L., 389 
Diaz, Emanuel, 378 
Dick, Mr., 181 
Doolittle, Rev. J., 17 
Doring, Hans, 294, 296 
Dorward, Adam, 27, 181 
Douglas, Carstairs, 17 
Douthwaite, Dr., 135 
Drake, Mr., 214 
Du Bose, Dr. H. C, 87 
Dudgeon, Dr., 21 
Duffus, Rev. W., 399 
Du Halde, 191 
Duncan, Mr. George, 23, 89 
Duncan, Rev. Moir, 207 



Easton, F., 195, 202, 204 

Ebert, Rev. W., 394 

Edgar, Mr., 336 

Edkins, Dr., 18, 21, 85, 87, 105, 110, 

382, 385, 414 
Edwards, Dr. E. H., 217 
Eitel, 49 
Elgin, Lord, 102 
Ellison, \V. L., 100 
Ekvall, Mr., 334 
Emjieror Hien-fung, 103 
Emperor Kang-hsi, 9, 10, 105 
Emperor Kia-king, 353 
Emperor Kien-lung, 10, 103 
Emperor Shih (Shih Hwang-ti), 74, 274 
Emperor Shun, 73 
Emperor Wu Tsung, 5 
Emperor Yao, 210 
Emperor Yong-ching, 10, 133 
Emperor Yii, 74, 164 
Empress, Dowager, 46, 106 
Empress, Dowager Wu, 201 
Eneroth, Mr., 356 
Evans, 387 

Faber, Dr., 49, 87 
Farnham, Dr., 392 
Fay, Miss L. M., 30 
Ferguson, Miss, 332 
Field, Miss A. i^L, 30, 400 
Fitch, Rev. G. F., 402 
Fleming, W. S., 266 
Folke, Erie, 205, 221 
Foster, Rev. Arnold, B.A., 114 
Foster, Miss, 30 
Francke, Rev. A. H., 330, 416 
Frederickson, Rev. J. F., 332 
French, Miss, 220 
Friedstrom, N. J., 355, 365 
Fu Hsi, 159, 210 
Fulton, Rev. T. C, 312 

Gabet, Mons., 322, 327 

Galitzen, Prince, 412 

Galpin, Rev. F., 398 

Gam a, Vasco da, 8 , 

Garnier, Father, 393 

Gauld, Dr., 49 

Geniihr, Rev. I., 17, 384 

Gibson, Dr. J. Campbell, 43, 384, 399 

Gibson, Miss, 136 

Gillespie, Dr. J. R., 314 

Gilman, Rev. F. P., 409 

Gilmour, Rev. Jas., 24, 107, 312, 350, 

354 
Glover, Dr. R. H., 146 
Goddard, Dr. J., 17, 382, 398 
Goodrich, Dr., Ill, 387 
Gordon, General, 19, 85 



INDICES 



465 



Gotteberg, Rev. J. A., 185 

Gough, Dr. F. F., 17, 397 

Gowry, Bishop, 382 

Graham, Rev. J., 332 

Granville, Earl, 24 

Graves, Rev. Dr. R. H., 17, 288, 384, 

890 
Gray, Miss, 136 
Green, Rev. D., 78 
Greig, Dr., 312 
Grundy, Mr., 331 
Guinness, G. Whitfield, 149, 161 
Gulick, Rev. Jno. T., 361 
Gussmau, Rev. G. A., 394 
Gustafson, Mr., 330 
Gutzlaflf, Dr. Carl, 13, 86, 380 

Hall, J. C, 193, 335 

Hall, Rev. W. N., 21, 105 

Hamberg, Rev. T., 394 

Han Yii, 46 

Happer, Rev. A., 390 

Hardcastle, Joseph, 379 

Harris, A. H., 164 

Hart, Dr. S. Lavington, 107, 145 

Hart, Dr. Virgil, 232 

Hart, Rev. V. C, 133 

Hart, Sir Robt., 106 

Hartwell, Rev. C, 382 

Hatano, M., 294 

Hayes, Rev. J. H., 403 

Hedin, Dr. Sven, 327 

Hedley, Rev. Jno., F.R.G.S., 357 

Helleberg, Mr., 356 

Henry of Orleans, Prince, 327 

Henry, Rev. B. C, 390 

Hewitt, Dr. Julius, 221 

Heyde, Augustus Wm., 328, 329, 415, 

416 
Hill, Rev. David, 21, 121, 123, 212 
Himle, Rev. Th., 162 
Hoare, Bishop, 398 
Hobson, Dr., 15, 16 
Hogg, C. F., 93 
Holman, Mr., 204, 206 
Holmes, 98 
Hong Siu-ts'iien, 18 
Hope, Admiral, 132 
Home, Miss, 30 
Horsburgh, Rev. J. H., 32, 231 
Hosie, Mr., 226, 227 
Hoskyn, Miss, 220 
Hoste, D. E., 219 
Houlding, Rev. H. W., 109 
Howe, Miss, 134 
Hsi, Pastor, 213 
Hsii Pu-yiiin, Pastor, 221 
Hue, Abbe, 327, 352 
Hudson, T, H., 17 



Hung Siu-tsuen, 85, 86 
Hunter, Dr. J. M., 24, 311 
Hunter, Geo., 292, 338 
Huntingdon, Ellsworth, 340 
Hutchinson, Rev. A. B., 390 
Hykes, Dr. J. R., 387 

I'Anson, Chas., 216 
Ignatius Loyola, 84 
Ingles, Rev. Jas. W., M.A., 301 
Innocent, Rev. J., 21, 105 

Jaeschke, Rev. H. A., 329, 415 

James, 303 

James, Thos., 211 

Jenghis Khan, 6, 85, 345, 348 

Jenkins, Rev. H., 399, 408 

Jeremiassen, Rev. C. C, 409 

John, Dr. Griffith, 18, 21, 78, 85, 87, 

105, 125, 183, 228, 382, 384, 387 
Johnson, Rev. Stephens, 17 
Johnstone, 160 
Judd, C. H., sen., 264, 407 
Judd, C. H., jun., 137 
Judd, Dr. F., 132, 136 

Kahn, Dr. Ida, 134 
K'ang Yu-wei, H.E., 46 
Karlen, Edwin, 356 
Karlson, A., 216 
Kauderer, Mr., 404 
Keane, Dr. A. H., 344 
Keith, Rev. C, 392 
Keller, Dr., 182 
Kenmore, A., 177 
Kerr, Dr. John, 49 
Key, Wm., 219 
Kiang, Chancellor, 178 
King, Geo., 202 
King, Thos., 216 
Kingham, 135 
Krolezyk, Rev. A., 390 
Kropotkin, Prince, 343 
Kublai Khan, 7, 348 

Lack, Mr., 162 

Lambuth, Rev. J. W., D.D., 88, 392 

Landale, R. J., 265 

Lane-Poole, Stanley, 348 

Lansdell, Dr. , 296 

Larson, F. A., 355, 356, 364, 365, 366 

Laurent (Ly. S.J.), 0. P., 388 

Lawson, Dugald, 221 

Lechler, Rev. R., 394 

Leeman, Mr., 229 

Lees, Rev. Jonathan, 21, 101, 112, 211 

Legge, Dr., 16, 49 

Lewis, Rev. Spencer, 387 

Liang A-fah, 18 

2h 



466 



THE CHINESE EMPIEE 



Liddell, Mr., 354 

Li Hung-chang, H.E., 26, 94, 102, 104 

Lin, Commissioner, 14 

Lipofzoff, Stepan, 417 

Little, Archibald, 227 

Lloyd, Rev. L., 54, 383, 396 

Lobscheid, 17 

Lockhart, Dr., 15, 18, 21, 86, 105, 106, 

107 
Lord, Dr. E. C, 17, 398 
Lorrain, Mr., 333 
Lowrie, Dr. J. W., 18, 108, 381 
Lowrie, Mrs. R., 388 
Lull, Raymond, 7 
Lund, Miss Hannah, 355, 365 
Lutley, Albert, 209 
Lyall, Dr., 49 
Lyon, Rev. D. N., 403 

Macartney, Consul, 297 
Macartney, Lord, 103, 378 
M'Cartee, Dr. D. B., 17 
MacCartee, Rev. Dr., 397 
M'Carthy, Jno, 26, 27, 137, 229, 238 
M'Clatcliie, Rev. T., 86, 392 
M'Coy, Rev. D. C, 108 
Macdonald, Dr., 289 
Macdonald, Mr. D., 329, 332 
Macgowan, Dr. D. J., 17 
Macgregor, Rev. W., 401, 402 
M'Intosh, Miss, 136 
Macintyre, Rev. John, 312 
Mackay, Rev. G. L., 67 
M'Kee, Stewart, 216 
Mackenzie, Mr. E., 329, 332 
Mackenzie, Rev. Dr. H. L., 107, 354, 

399 
Maclagan, Rev. P. J., 399 
Magee, Bishop, 23 
Magnuson, A. B., 356, 366 
Manifold, Col., 4, 225 
Manning, 327 
Marco Polo, 6, 75, 352 
Margary, R. A., 25 
Markwick, 203 
Marshall, Rev. C. K., 88 
Marshman, Dr. Josh., 379 
Marshman, John, 379 
Martin, Dr. W. A. P., 21, 104, 108, 

110, 385, 397 
Marx, Dr., 330 
Mason, Mr., 194 
Mateer, Dr. C. W., 387 
Matheson, H. M., 401 
Mathieson, J. E., 399 
Maxwell, Rev. Dr. Ja.?. L., 65, 66, 401 
Meadows, Rev. J. J., 143 
Medhurst, Dr. W. H., 13, 18, 86, 87, 

380, 381, 389, 392 | 



Mencius, 98 

Mills, 160 

Milne, Dr. W. C, 12, 18, 77, 87, 371, 

380, 381, 392 
Molland, 134 
Mollman, Mr., 229 
Morgan, Rev. E., 208 
Morgenroth, Rev. G., 405 
Morrison, Dr., 11, 12, 13, 18, 43, 48, 

49, 374, 378, 379 
Moseley, Dr. Wm., 379 
Moule, Archdeacon, A. E., 73, 79, 405 
Moule, Bishop G. E., 17, 21, 78, 382, 

397, 405 
Moule, Rev. W. S., 398 
Muirhead, Dr., 18, 21, 85, 87, 88, 393 
Murray, Miss, 135 
Murray, Rev. W. H., 110 

Nacken, Rev. J., 390 
Nagel, Rev. A., 394 
Napier, Lord, 14 
Na-tung, H.E., 106 
Nelson, Rev. R., 392 
Nevius, Rev. Dr. J. L., 78, 387 
Newcombe, Miss B., 406 
Nicholas IV., Pope, 6, 352, 410 
Nicholson, Rev. W., 414 
Noyes, Rev. H. V., 390 
Nystrom, 216 

Obrucheff, 344 

Olyphant, Mr., 13 

Orr-Ewing, Arch., 126 

Oviatt, Misses, 147 

Owen, Rev. Dr. Geo., Ill, 387 

Pagell, Edward, 328 

Pagell, Rev. W., 415 

Parker, Dr. Peter, 15, 16, 98 

Parker, Geo , 195, 196, 203, 296 

Parker, Mr., 354 

Parker, Rev. A. P., 402 

Parkes, Sir Harry, 132 

Partridge, Dr., 400 

Paterson, Dr., 413 

Paul Sii, 9 

Pearce, Rev. T. W., 383 

Pearse, Rev. E., 137, 203 

Peet, Rev. L. B., 395 

Peter, Rev. F., 416 

Phillips, Rev. H. T., 407 

Piercy, Rev. Geo., 17, 390 

Piukerton, Dr., 413, 417 

Piton, Rev. C, 394 

Playfair, Consul, 102 

Plumb, Rev. N. J., 396 

Poirot, Father C. P. Louis de, 385, 417 

Polhill, Cecil, 195, 318 



INDICES 



46 



Pollard, Mr., 245 

Porter, Rev. Henry D., M.D., 362 

Powell, R. A., 161 

Poynter, Mr., 331 

Pozdnejev, Prof. A., 411, 414 

Prejvalski, Gen., 327 

Prester John, 352 

Preston, Rev. G. F., 390 

Pruen, Dr., 265 

Radford, Thos., 336 

Rahmn, Cornelius, 353 

Rankin, Rev. H. V., 397 

Raqueue, G., 297 

Redslob, F. A., 329, 415 

Reid, John, 145 

Ribbach, Mr., 330 

Ricci, Father Matthew, 9, 46, 84, 428 

Richard, Dr. Timothy, 212, 217 

Richthofen, Baron, 150, 152, 209, 344 

Ridley, H. French, 193, 335 

Rignhart, Mrs. Dr. E., 336, 343 

Ripa, Father, 378 

Ritchie, Rev. H., 66 

Rizzolati, Bishop, 180 

Roberts, Dr., 107, 354 

Roberts, Rev. I. J., 16, 17, 85, 392 

Roberts, Rev. Jas. H., 360, 362, 366 

Robertson, Rev. D. T., 313 

Rockhill, 327 

Rodd, Miss, 406 

Rodgers, Miss Mary, 364 

Rogger, Jesuit Michel, 9, 46 

Ross, Rev. John, 24, 312 

Routledge, Miss, 331 

Royal, F. M., 160 

Rudland, Miss, 404 

Rudland, Rev. W. D., 89, 404 

Ruhl, Mr., 334 

Russell, Bishop, 17, 25, 397 

Russell, W. A., 23 

Ryder, Captain, 242 

Sadler, Rev. Jas., 402 

St. Thomas, 5 

Sambrook, Mr., 160 

Satow, Sir E., 106 

Savidge, Mr., 333 

Schaal, Father, 9 

Schaub, Martin, 49, 382 

Schereschewsky, Bishop, 18, 110, 374, 

384, 386, 414 
Schiefuer, Antonie, 414 
Schmidt, Dr. I. J., 353, 411 
Schofield, Dr. Harold, 212 
Scott, Bishop C. P., 25, 108 
Scudberg, Rev, G., 329 
Sheffield, Rev. Dr. D. Z., 103, 110, 382 



Sheldon, Miss Dr., 331 

Shorrock, Rev. A. G., 207 

Shuck (Am. Bap.), 16 

Si Kwaug-chi, 84 

Simpson, 217, 334 

Slimmon, 154, 160 

Smith, Bishop, 16, 21, 23 

Smith, Dr., 398 

Smith, Dr. Creasey, 208, 354 

Smith, Dr. Porter, 21 

Smith, Rev. Arthur H., 3 

Smith, Rev. Geo., 399 

Smith, Stanley P., 220, 222 

Snyder, Mr., 334 

Soltau, Dr. H., 27, 246 

Soothill, Rev. W. E., 403 

Soutter, Mr., 336 

Sparham, Rev. C. G., 387 

Spaulding, Rev. F., 392 

Sprague, Rev. W. P., 361, 364, 366 

Stallybrass, Rev. Ed., 353, 413, 417 

Staunton, Sir Geo., 378 

Steele, Rev. J,, 400 

Stein, Dr. M. A., 340 

Stellman, Miss, 220 

Stenberg, D. W., 355, 364, 365, 414 

Stevens, Rev. E., 13, 16 

Stevenson, Rev. J. W., 23, 27, 246 

Stewart, Rev. R. W., 396, 406 

Stock, Eugene, 27, 78 

Stone, Dr. Mary, 134 

Stronach, Rev. J., 381, 389 

Studd, C. T., 29, 220 

Suber, Carl J., 355, 365 

Su Tung-p'o, 46 

Swan, Rev. W., 353, 413, 417 

Swanson, Rev. W. S., 66, 401 

Swordson, Mr., 364 

Syles, Rev. E. W., 392 

T'ao, Viceroy, 194 

Taylor, Dr. Howard, 160 

Taylor, Henry, 159 

Taylor, Miss Annie, 195, 327, 333, 334, 

336 
Taylor, Rev. J. Hudson, 14, 18, 22, 78, 

87, 90, 100, 135, 143, 182, 397 
Taylor, Mrs. Hudson, 30, 388 
Tewksbury, Rev. E. G., 112 
Thompson, Rev. E. H., 404 
Thompson, Rev. T. W., 361 
Thomson, Archdeacon, 392 
Thomson, C, 404 
Todd, Rev. E. S., 133 
Tomalin, Ed., 407 
Trobe, Bishop B. La, 330 
Triidinger, Mr., 206 
Tsen, Viceroy, 277 
Tuan Fang, H.E., 194 



468 



THE CHmESE EMPIKE 



Turuer, 211 
Turner, Miss, 331 

Urry, T., 404 

Vale, Joshua, 224 
Valiguani, 9 
Venn, Henry, 8 
Verbiest, 9 

Waddell, Rev. H., 24, 311 

Wade, Sir Tiios., 24, 26, 93, 388 

Wahlstedt, Emil, 356 

Walker, Rev. J. E., 408 

Wallace, Rev. W. J., 404 

Wardner, Dr., 86 

Waters, Curtis, 265 

Webb, 266 

Webb, Miss, 136 

Webster, Rev. Jas., 312 

Wellman, Mr., 211 

Wells, Mr., 288 

Wells Williams, 12, 16, 401 

Welton, Rev. W., 395 

Wen Wang, 201 

Westcott, Bishop, 119 

West water. Dr., 313 

Wherry, Dr., 108, 111, 382 

White, Rev. M. C, 395 



Whitewright, 99 

Whiting, Rev. J. L., 108, 212 

Williams, R., 268 

Williams, Rev. Mark, 361 

Williamson, Mr., 143 

Williamson, Rev. Dr. A., 24, 87, 211, 

311, 346, 386 
Wilson, Dr. Wm., 203 
Wilson, R., 21 
Windsor, Thos., 265 
Wiunes, Rev. Ph., 394 
Wolfe, Archdeacon, 396 
Woolston, Miss B., 30 
Woolston, Miss S, H., 30 
Wright, Mr., 332 
Wu Wang, 201 

Wylie, A., 18, 87, 211, 228, 377, 418 
Wylie, Rev. Jas. A., 315 

Xavier, Fran9ois, 8, 46, 84 

Yates, Rev. M. T., 86 

Young, Dr. T. M., 313 

Youusihusband, Sir F., 346 

Yu, H.E., 140 

Yiian Shih-kai, H.E.. 103, 104 

Yii Hsien, 100 

Yuile, Robt., 353 



INDEX V 

TOPOGEAPHICAL— MISSION STATIONS AND 
OTHEE PLACES 



Almora, 331 

Amoy, 15, 17, 20, 56, 64, 66, 401 

Amur Region, the, 304 

Anhwei, Province of, 80, 139 

Anking, 139, 143 

Anping, 66 

Anshuu Fu, 245, 265, 268 

Australia, 45 

Bangkok, 17 
Bhamo, 25, 246 
Bhutan, 333 
Borneo, 45 
British Columbia, 45 
Burmah, 25, 27 

California, 45 

Canton, 4, 10, 11, 12, 15, 16, 17, 18, 

20, 43, 45, 46, 49, 50, 54, 64, 118, 

122, 130, 277, 389 
Chalingchow, 182 
Changli, 109 
Changsha, 164, 170, 176, 180, 181, 

183 
Changshu, 137 
Changte Fu, 160, 169, 171, 180, 182, 

185 
Chaocheng, 220 
Chaoking, 46 

Chaoyang, 107, 109, 354, 362 
Chefoo, 20, 21, 26, 93, 99, 100 
Chekiang, Province of, 73, 133 
Chen chow, 173 
Chengchow Fu, 160, 162 
Chengku, 203 
Chengtu, 4, 225, 229, 236 
Chengyangkwan, 144 
Chentingfu, 102, 103 
Chian, 129, 137, 138 
Chichow, 107 
Chiehchow, 221 



Chienchang Fu, 129 

Chihchow, 140, 144 

Chihli, Province of, 101, 104 

Chihshui, 201 

Chinchow, 309, 311 

Chini, 330 

Chinkiang, 20, 23, 81, 83, 388 

Chioshan, 161 

Choni, 334, 336 

Chowkiakow, 150, 160 

Chowpatti, 331 

Chowping, 99 

Chiichow, 75 

Chuchow, 146 

Chuguchak, 356 

Chuhsien Chen, 1€0 

Chungking, 229, 230, 233 

Chuwang, 160 

Darjeeling, 332 
Derge Dongkhyer, 321 
Dongshang, 77, 78 

Fancheng, 162 
Fenchow Fu, 212, 217 
Fengchen, 215 
Fenhsi, 220 

Foochow, 20, 30, 54, 55, 56, 58, 76, 395 
Formosa, 25, 63 

Fuchow (Kiangsi), 15, 17, 129, 138 
Fukien, Province of, 31, 32, 44, 52, 
54, 63, 64, 76 

Ghoom, 331 

Hainan, 409 
Hami, 339 
Hanchung, 203 

Hangchow, 22, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 405 
Hankow, 20, 21, 22, 78, 115, 116, 117, 
183 



469 



470 



THE CHINESE EMPIRE 



Hanyang, 116 

Hara Oso, 364 

Harbin, 305, 310 

Hengchow, 173, 180, 184 

Hingan Fu, 202 

Hinghwa, 405 

HocWeu Fu, 102, 103 

Honan Fu, 150, 153, 161 

Honan, Province of, 25, 30, 80, 149 

Hongkong, 15, 16, 17, 21, 23, 30, 49 

Honglok, 50 

Hotsin, 220 

Hsiangcheng Hsien, 160 

Hsiaoyl, 215, 218 

Hsi Hsien, 161 

Hsinchen, 160 

Hsinchow, 217 

Hsingyi Hsien, 265 

Hsinye Hsien, 162 

Hsiianhwa, 357 

Hsu Kochuang, 104 

Hsunchow, 279 

Huchow, 75, 77 

Huenyuen, 216 

Hukow, 133 

Hulan, 313 

Hunan, Province of, 25, 30, 31, 44, 164 

Hungchiang, 181 

Hungtung, 220 

Hupeh, Province of, 78 

Hwaiking Fu, 153, 160 

Hwailuh, 109 

Hwaiyuen, 146 

Hwasang, 58 

Hv^fayinmiao, 201 

Hweichow, 139, 141, 142, 144 

Hwochow, 210, 220 

Icheng, 220 
Hi, 297 
Irkutsk, 353 

Japan, 1, 69, 102 
Jehho, 102, 103, 110 

Kaichow, 109, 305' 

Kaifeng Fu, 150, 161, 162, 428 

Kaiguan, 303 

Kaiping, 104 

Kalatse, 330 

Kalgan, 22, 109, 354, 357, 360, 366 

Kalimpong, 332 

Kanchow Fu, 129, 137, 138 

Kansu, Province of, 26, 100, 189 

Kashgar, 297 

Kashing, 77, 78 

Kiachta, 354, 365 

Kiakiug, 75 

Kiangchow, 220 



Kiangsi, Province of, 44, 126 

Kiangsu, Province of, 80 

Kiangj'in, 78 

Kiaocheug, 217 

Kiaochovv, 33, 94, 95, 99 

Kiating Fu, 231, 232 

Kiehsiu, 218 

Kienuing, 406 

Kienping, 145 

Kienyang, 407 

Kingteh Chen, 132, 137 

Kinhwa, 75, 76, 407 

Kirin, 310, 312 

Kiukiang, 20, 23, 129, 132 

Kiungchow (Hainan), 20 

Kokonor, 342 

Kopu, 269 

Kucheng, 32, 58, 145 

Kuldja, 341 

Ruling, 132 

Kiitsing Fu, 248 

Kiiwo, 220 

Kwaiping, 288 

Kwanchengtze, 310, 312 

Kwangchow, 153, 161 

Kwangfeng Hsien, 128 

Kwangsi, Province of, 26, 47, 271 

Kvirangsin, 129 

Kwangteh Chow, 144 

Kwangtung, Province of, 43, 393 

Kwanpingfu, 109 

Kwanpinghsien, 109 

Kweichi, 135 

Kweichow, Province of, 26, 251, 421 

Kweihwa Ch'eug, 215 

Kweilin, 272, 274, 277, 284, 287, 288, 

289 
Kweite Fu, 160 
Kweiyang Fu, 264 
Kyelang, 329 

Laian, 145 

Lanchow, 100, 191, 192, 193, 195 

Laoling, 99 

Leh, 329 

Lhasa, 320, 325, 326, 328 

Liangchow Fu, 194, 195 

Liaoyang, 309, 315 

Lichow, 180 

Liling, 173, 186 

Linkiang Fu, 129 

Linmingkwan, 109 

Litang, 337 

Liuchow, 289 

Luan Chow, 141, 145, 220, 221 

Lucheng, 221 

Lungchow, 278, 286, 289 

Lutai, 104 

Luyi Hsien, 160 



INDICES 



471 



Macao, 9, 11, 12, 48 

Malacca, 8, 13, 16, 380 

Manchuria, 24, 27, 31, 52, 85, 95, 301, 

416 
Milam, 331 
Min Chow, 334 

Mongolia, 13, 24, 27, 338, 360, 410 
Moukden, 305, 306, 308, 312, 314 

Nanchang Fu, 9, 84, 130, 131, 138 
Nanking Fu, 9, 18, 19, 20, 23, 47, 56, 

80, 81, 83, 84, 85, 88, 89, 211, 388 
Nanling, 146 
Nanning, 278, 287 
Nepal, 331 
Nertchinsk, 304 
Newchwaug, 20, 24, 45, 104, 305, 309, 

311, 312 
Ninghai Chow, 100 
Ningkuo Fu, 144 
Ningpo, 15, 17, 18, 20, 73, 74, 75, 77, 

78, 397 
Ningsia, 191, 194, 195 

Ordos, the, 345 

Pachow, 229 

Pakow (or Fingchiianchow), 109 

Panghai, 266 

Paoking, 173 

Paoning, 229 

Paoteo, 215 

Paotingfu, 102, 108 

Patsibolong, 356, 365 

Peitaiho, 111, 112 

Peking, 9, 10, 18, 19, 21, 24, 26, 47, 

102, 104, 107, 108, 110, 111, 354, 

378, 385, 388, 428 
Pescadore Islands, 63 
Petuna, 310 
Pingchiang, 174 
Pinghsiang Hsien, 130, 138 
Pingliang Fu, 191, 197 
Pingloh, 289 
Pingj-ang Fu, 210, 212, 214, 219, 220, 

222 ■ 
Pingyao, 210, 218 
Pingyi Hsien, 248 
Pochow, 146, 161 
Poo, 329 
Port Arthur, 317 
Puchow, 221 
Pu-to, island, 74 

Raochow Fu, 136 
Ruchow, 153 
Rungcheng Hsien, 160 
Runing Fu, 159, 161 
Russia, 132 



Sadiya, 333 

Salahtse, 215 

Sankiaug, 408 

San-siang (island), 46 

Sanyuan, 207 

Selenginsk, 353 

Shae-ki-tien, 160 

Shanghai, 4, 15, 18, 20, 24, 45, 80, 81, 

84, 86, 92, 178, 383, 392 
Shanhaikwan, 102, 103, 104, 106 
Shansi, Province of, 26 
Shantung, Province of, 80, 93, 122, 407 
Shaochow, 46 
Shaohing, 73, 74, 77, 78 
Shaoking, 9 
Shaowu, 408 

Sheuchow, 174, 180, 182, 187 
Shensi, Province of, 26, 198 
Sheoyang, 217 
Shigar, 330 
Shihmen-hsien, 180 
Shihtau, 99 
Shihtieh, 217 

Sian Fu, 5, 199, 201, 207, 377 
Siangtan, 170, 180, 184 
Siccawei, 84 
Sichow, 214, 219 
Sinan (Honan), 161 
Singapore, 45 

Sining Fu, 191, 193, 194, 195, 335 
Sinkiang, Province of, 292 
Sinyang Chow, 161 
Skardo, 330 

Soochow (on Shantung border), 91 
Soochow, 80, 81, 83, 85, 87, 402 
Soping, 216 
Straits Settlements, 45 
Suanhwa, 216 
Suchan Fu, 9, 150 
Suifu, 231 

Swatow, 20, 30, 45, 46, 49, 50, 399 
Szechwan, Province of, 26, 32, 224 

Tachengtse, 354 

Tachienlu, 322, 328, 333, 336 

Taian Fu, 94 

Taichow, 75, 77, 78, 404 

Taiho, 145 

Taikang Hsien, 160 

Taiku, 217 

Taiwan (Tainan), 20, 65, 66, 67 

Taiyuen Fu, 30, 209, 212, 217, 387 

Takow, 65, 66 

Takutang, 135 

Tali Fu, 239, 240, 248 

Tamingfu, 109 

Tamsui, 67 

Tamsui, 20 

Tangshan, 10^, 107 



472 



THE CHINESE EMPIEE 



Taning, 214, 219 

Taochow, 195, 334 

Taokow, 150 

Tasikow, 354 

Tatung, 146, 216 

Tibet, 27, 318, 415 

Tiechiu, 49 

Tiehling, 309 

Tien-moh-san, 74 

Tientsin, 13, 19, 20, 21, 24, 45, 74, 

83, 99, 102, 104, 106, 107, 109, 

110 
Titao, 334 
Tsangchow, 107 
Tsehchow, 222 
Tsenyi Fu, 266 
Tsinan Fu, 95, 99 
Tsinchow, 191, 192, 194, 195 
Tsingchow Fu, 99 
Tsingkiangpu, 91 
Tsining Chow, 99 
Tsoyim, 216 
Tsunhua, 108 

Tungchow, 21, 99, 102, 103, 111 
Tungkwan, 201 
Tushan Chow, 265 
Tzuchow, 109 

Urga, 351, 357, 364 

Vladivostok, 305 

Wanchi, 146 
Weichen, 107 
Weihaiwei, 94, 97, 99 
Weihsien, 99, 109 



Weihwei Fu, 160 

Weinan Hsien, 201, 205 

Wenchow, 75, 77, 78, 403 

Wenteng, 99 

Woosung, 82 

Wuchang, 115, 116 

Wucheu, ly4 

Wuchow, 274, 279, 282, 285, 288, 

289 
Wuhu, 83, 144, 145, 147 
Wuslieh, 31 
Wutiugfu, 107 

Yangchow, 23, 82, 90 

Yatung, 333 

Yencheng Hsien, 162 

Yenchow, 75 

Yenshan, 107 

Yichow Fu, 99 

Yingchow, 145, 216 

Yishih, 221 

Yochow, 165, 173, 176, 180, 181 184, 

186 
Yohyaug, 220 
Yuanchow, 129, 138 
Yuhshan, 135 
Yulingchow, 289 
Yungchang Fu, 250 
Yuncheng, 221 
Yungchow, 186 
Yungping, 107 

Yunnan, Province of, 26, 238 
Yunnan Fu, 248 
Yuwu, 221 
Yliyao, 73 

Zungaria, 341 



THE END 



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THE 
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The China Inland Mission 

Founder— The Late Rev. J. HUDSON TAYLOR, M.R.C.S. 
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Object. — The China Inland Mission was formed under a 
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London . . . Newington Green. 

Philadelphia . . 235 School Lane, Germantown. 

Toronto . . .507 Church Street 

Melbourne . . 267 Collins Street. 

Donations and Correspondence should be addressed to the Secretary 
at any of the above addresses. 



DATE DUE 






































































UPl 261-2505 


PRINTED IN U.S.A. 






BflMGOR THEOLOGICAL SEIIINftRV 

The Chinese empire : a general 
nOUB 951 B791c 



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